Stylistics. Main styles and substyles.



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Stylistics. Main styles and substyles.



ТЕОРЕТИЧЕСКИЕ ВОПРОСЫ ДЛЯ САМОКОНТРОЛЯ

1 Stylistics. Main styles and substyles

2 Stylistic classification of the English vocabulary: obsolete, archaic words, historisms, neologisms

3 Stylistic classification of the English vocabulary: barbarisms, terms, slang, jargonisms, professionalisms, dialectal words

4 Stylistic classification of the English vocabulary: neutral, colloquial, literary coinages, poetic, vulgarisms

5 Phonetic Expressive means: onomatopoeia

6 Phonetic Expressive means: alliteration, assonance

7 Rhyme, types of rhyme

8 Bathos and Irony

9 Different types of lexical meaning

10 Metaphor, types

11Metonymy, types

12 Polysemy, pun and zeugma

13 Epithet, types

14 Oxymoron and antonomasia

15Simile and periphrasis

16 Hyperbole and meiosis

17 Euphemism and litotes

18 Allegory and personification

19Allusion and decomposition of set phrases

20 Inversion, types

21 Parallel construction and chiasmus

22 Repetition and anadiplosis

23 Enumeration and climax

24 Antithesis, asyndeton, polysyndeton

25Graphical means and graphon

26 Functional Style: general definition, main styles

27 Belles-lettres styles: characteristic features and substyles

28 The language of poetry

29 Emotive prose

30 The Drama

31 Publicistic style: characteristic features and substyles

32 Oratory speeches, the Essay, Journalistic article

33Scientific Prose: characteristic features and substyles

34 The Style of official documents: characteristic features and substyles

35 Newspaper style: characteristic features and substyles

36 Brief news item

37 The headline

38 The Editorial

 

Stylistics. Main styles and substyles.

Stylistics is a branch of general linguistics, that studies the various functional styles of speech and also the various expressive means and devises of language. The types of texts that are distinguished by the pragmatic aspect of the communication are called functional styles of language (FS); the special media of language which secure the desirable effect of the utte­rance are called stylistic devices (SD) and expressive means (EM).

Academician Vinogradov the first described the difference types of speech in respect to their functions.

The colloquial typeof the language, Which has the function of communication. It is characteristic of the situation of direct communication more bookish styles. Official, scientific and publicist are used in situation of indirect communications.

Galperin maintains that there are 5 styles in English.

Belle-lettres 2 publicist 3 newspaper 4 scientific prose 5 style of official documents

Each styles is subdivided into a number of substyles.

1) Belle-lettres is subdivided into 1) style of poetry, 2) S. of emotive prose , 3)drama,

2) Publicisticstyle is divided into 1) oratory 2) essay 3) style of feature articles in newspaper and journals.

3) scientific prose is divided into 1) humanitarian sciences, 2) exact science prose 3) of popular scientific prose

4) style of official documents is subdivided into 1) of diplomatic documents, 2) of business documents,3) style of legal documents 4) of military documents.

5) Newspaper S. is subdivided into 1) of brief new items and communiqués, 2) of notices and advertisements.

Style is a set of characteristics by which we distinguish one author from another or members of one subclass from members of other sub­classes, all of which are members-of the same general class

Stylistic classification of the English vocabulary: obsolete, archaic words, historisms, neologisms

The word-stock of a language is in an increasing state of change. Words change their meaning and sometimes drop out of the language altogether. In every period in the development of a literary language one can find words which will show more or less apparent changes in their mean­ing or usage.

We shall distinguish three stages in the aging process of words:

The beginning of the aging process when the word becomes rarely used. Such words are called obsolescent, i.e. they are in the stage of gradually passing out of general use. To this category first of all belong morphological forms .belonging to the earlier stages in the development of the language. To the category of obsolescent words belong many French borrow­ings which have been kept in the literary language as a means of pre­serving the spirit of earlier periods, e. g. a pallet (=a straw mattress); a palfrey (=a small horse); garniture (^furniture); to emplume (^to adorn with feathers or plumes). - „

The second group of archaic words are those that have already gone completely out of use but are still recognized by the English-speaking community: e. g. methinks (=it seems to me); nay (=no). These words are called obsolete.

The third group, which may be called archaic proper, are words which are no longer recognizable in modern English, words that were in use in Old English and which have either dropped out of the language entirely or have changed in their appearance so much that they have become unrecognizable, e. g. troth (^faith); a losel (=a worthless, lazy fellow).

There is still another class of words which is erroneously classed as archaic, viz. historical words. By-gone periods in the life of any society are marked by historical events, and by institutions, customs, mater­ial objects, etc. which are no longer in use, for example: Thane, yeoman, goblet, baldric, mace. Words of this type never disappear from the lan­guage. They are historical terms and remain as terms referring to definite stages in the development of society and cannot therefore be dispensed with, though the things and phenomena to which they refer have long -passed into oblivion. Historical words have no synonyms, whereas archaic words have been replaced by modern synonyms.

Archaic words are primarily and predominantly used in the creation of a realistic background to historical novels

This, the main function of archaisms, finds different interpretation in different novels by different writers.

Neologism are word that have recently come into the language and are stilled held as new. The coining of new words generally arises first of all with the need to designate new concepts resulting from the development of science and also with the need to express nuances of meaning called forth by a deeper understanding of the nature of the phenomenon in question. It may also be the result of a search for a more economical, brief and compact form of utterance which proves to be a more expressive means of commu­nicating the idea.

Phonetic Expressive means: onomatopoeia.

Onomatopoeia is a combination of speech-sounds which aims at imitating sounds produced in nature (wind, sea, thunder, etc), by things (machines or taols, etc), by people (sighing, laughter, patter of feet, etc) and by animals. Combinations of speech sounds of this type will inevitably be associated with whatever produces the natural sound. Therefore the relation^between onomatopoeia and the phenomenon it is supposed to represent is one of metonymy.

There are two varieties of onomatopoeia: direct and indirect

Others require the exercise of a certain amount of imagination to de­cipher it.

Onomatopoetic words can be used in a transferred meaning, as for instance, ding-dong, which represents the sound of bells rung continu­ously, may mean 1) noisy, 2) strenuously contested. Examples are:

a ding-dong struggle, a ding-dong go at something.

Alliteration.

Alliterationis a phonetic stylistic device which aims at imparting a melodic effect to the utterance. The essence of this device lies in the repetition of similar sounds in particular consonant sounds, in close succession, particularly at the beginning of successive words: eg.

The possessive instinct never stands still. Through florescence and feud, frosts and fires it follows the laws of progression.

Alliteration like most phonetic expressive means does not bear any lexical or other meaning unless we agree that a sound meaning exists as such. But even so we may not be able to specify clearly the character of this meaning, and the term will merely suggest that a certain amount of information is contained in the repetition of sounds, as in the case with the repetition of lexical units.

Therefore alliteration is generally regarded as a musical accompaniment of the author's idea, supporting it with some vague emotional atmosphere which each reader interprets for himself.

Alliteration is frequently used in idioms:

Blind as a bat, tit for tat, last but not the least, as

good as gold.

In the titles of the books:

Sense and Sensibility, Pride and Prejudice.

Or in poetry:

I love your hills and 1 love your dales.

I love your flocks a-bleating.

Assonance

A variant of alliteration is assonance,that's repetition of the same or similar vowels only: eg.:, wear and tear (My shoes show signs of wear and tear).

This device is sometimes found in poetic speech:

Tenderly bury the fair young dead — the repetition of the sound [e].

Tell this soul with sorrow laden i f , within the distant

Aidenn,

It shall clasp a sainted maiden whom the angels named

Lenore-

Clasp a rare and radiant maiden, whom the angels named

Lenore? - the repetition of the sound [ei].

 

Rhyme, types of rhyme

Rhymeis a repetition of identical or similar terminal sound combinations of words. Rhyming words are generally placed at a regular distance from each other. In verse (they are usually placed at the end of the corresponding lines. We

distinguish between:

1) full rhyme presupposes identity of the lower sound and the following consonant sounds in a stressed syllable: eg. might-night

2) incomplete rhymes can be divided into:

a) in vowel rhymes the vowels of the syllables in corresponding words are identical, but consonants may be different:

flesh -fresh - press

b) consonant rhymes show concordance in consonants and disparity in vowels:

worth -forth; tale - tool - treble - trouble

3) in broken or compound rhymes one word rhymes with a combination of words; or two or even three words rhyme with corresponding two or three words: eg.: bottom - forgot ' em — shot him

4) in eye-rhyme the letters and not sounds are identical. Compound rhyme is perceived in reading aloud eye-rhyme can only be perceived in the written verse:

love - prove, flood - brood.

By the type of the stressed syllable we distinguish the male rhyme, when the stress falls on the last syllable in the rhymed rhymes, and the female rhyme, when it falls on the last but one syllable:

When the lamp is shattered ( f )

The light in the dust lies dead (m)

When the cloud is scattered ( f )

The rainbow's glory is shed, (m)

According to the way the rhymes are arranged within the stanza certain models have crystallized:

1) couplets - when the last words of two successive lines are rhymed: (aa)

2) paired rhymes - the rhyming pattern is aabb\

The seed ye sow, another reaps; (a)

The wealth ye find, another keeps; (a)

The robes ye weave, another wears; (b)

The arms ye forge, another bears, (b)

3) cross rhymes - the rhyming pattern is abab:

A slumber did my spirit seal (a)

I had no human fears (b)

The seemed a thing that could not feel (a)

The touch of earthly years, (b)

4) framing or ring rhyme - the rhyming pattern is abba:

Much have I travell'd in the reams of gold (a)

And many goodly states and kingdoms seen (b)

Round many western islands have I been (b)

Which bards in fealty to Apollo hold (a)

5) internal rhyme - the rhyming words are placed not at the ends of the lines but within the line:

1 bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers.

Bathos and Irony

Heterogeneity of the component parts of the utterance in the basis for a stylistic device called bathos. Bathosis an abrupt transition in style from the exalted to the

commonplace, producing a ludicrous effect. Unrelated elements are brought together as if they denote things equal in rank or belonging to one class, as if they were of the some stylistic aspect. By being forcibly linked together, the elements acquire a slight modification of meaning: eg.

Let us have wine and women, mirth and laughter,

Sermons and soda-water — the day after.

So, we have 3 pairs of words: wine and women, mirth and laughter, sermons and soda-water. The second pair consists of almost synonyms. This affects the next pair and makes the words sound as if they were as closely related as the words in the first two pairs. We may interpret them as a tedious but unavoidable remedy for the sins committed. The juxtaposition of highly literary norms of expression and words or phrases that must be classed as nonliterary, sometimes low colloquial or even vulgar, will produce a stylistic effect and add an element of humour:

Will you oblige me by keeping your trap shut,

darling?

While often unintended, bathos may be used deliberately to produce a humorous effect: Eg. The ballerina rose gracefully en pointe and extended one slender leg behind her, like a dog at a fire hydrant.

Irony.

Irony is a stylistic device also based on the simultaneous realization of two logical meanings - dictionary and contextual but the two meanings stand in opposition to each other:

It must be delightfulto fmd oneself in a foreign country without a penny in one's pocket.

Usually the direct meaning in such cases expresses a positive evaluation of the situation, which the context contains the opposite, negative evaluation.

The word containing the irony is strongly marked by intonation. In has an emphatic stress and is generally supplied with a special melody design.

Irony must not be confused with humor. Humor always causes laughter. But the function of the irony is not confined to producing a humorous effect. It rather expresses a feeling of irritation, displeasure, pity or regret. Irony is generally used to convey a negative meaning. Therefore only positive concepts may be used in

their logical dictionary meanings: eg.

Today was a very cold and bitter day. as cold and bitter as a cup of hot chocolate; if the cup of hot chocolate had vinegar added to it and were placed in a refrigerator for several hours.

Metaphor, types

Metaphordenotes transference of meaning based on resemblance or on associated likeness between two objects.

Not only objects can be compared in a metaphor but also phenomena, actions or qualities:

He's not a man, he is just a machine.

The leaves fell sorrowfully.

Some books are to be tasted, others swallowed.

A metaphor expresses the unfamiliar in terms of the familiar: eg. Love is a rose.

Metaphors can be classified according to their degree of unexpectedness:

1) Metaphors, which are absolutely unexpected, i.e. are quite unpredictable, are called genuine:

Juliet is the sun.

No man is an island.

2) Metaphors, which are commonly used in speech and therefore are sometimes even fixed in dictionaries as expressive means of the language. They are trite or dead metaphors. They had been created in poetry, in the Bible, in imaginative prose and have gained wide occurrence and become known to everybody: eg.: t he seeds of evil, a flight of imagination.

That gymnast is a diamond in the rough.

According to their structure metaphors may be:

1) simple, containing a work or phrase:

Man cannot live by bread along.

2) complex (prolonged or sustained) - when a broader context in required to understand it, or when the metaphor includes more than one element of the text.

A sustained metaphor may consist of trite metaphors expressing or implying a certain logical development of ideas, and yet the objects mentioned in each of them pertain to different semantic spheres. The general impression is incongruous, clumsy and comical:

Mr. Pickwick bottled up his vengeance and corked it

down.

The verb to bottle means to keep in check, to restrain. To cork down is used in direct meaning thusreviving the almost dead metaphor.

Genuine metaphors are mostly to be found in poetry and emotive prose. Trite metaphors are generally used as expressive means in newspaper articles, in oratorical style and even in scientific language.

 

Metonymy,types.

Metonymy is based on a different type of relation between the dictionary and contextual meanings, a relation based not on iden­tification, but on some kind of association connecting the two concepts which these meanings represent.

Metonymy used in language-in-action, i.e. contextual meton­ymy, is genuine metonymy and reveals a quite unexpected substitu­tion of one word for another, or one concept for another, on the ground of some strong impression produced by a chance feature of the thing. Here is another example of genuine metony'my:

"Then they came in. Two of them, a man with long fair mous­taches and a silent dark man... Definitely, the moustache and I had nothing in common."

the types of relation metonymy

1. A concrete thing used instead of an abstract notion. In this case the thing becomes a symbol of the notion, as in "The camp, the pulpit and the law For rich men's sons are free." (Shelley)

" 2. The container instead of the thing contained: • The hall applauded.

3. The relation of proximity, as in:

"The round game table was boisterous and happy." (Dickens)

4. The material instead of the thing made of it, as in: "The marble spoke." ,

5. The instrument which the doer uses in performing the action instead of the action or the doer himself, as in:

"Well, Mr. Weller, says the gentPmn, you're a very good whip, and can do what you like with your horses, we know

Polysemy, Zeugma and Pun

Polysemy is a category of lexicology and as such belongs to language-as-a-system. In actual everyday Speech polуsemy vanishes unless it is deliberatly retained for certain stylistic purposes. A context that does not seek to produce any particular stylistic effect generally materializes but one definite meaning. when a word begins to manifest an interplay between the primary and one of the derivative meanings we are confronted with a stylistic device.

Zeugma is the use of a word in the same grammatical but dif­ferent semantic relatiohs to two words in the context. Zeugma is a effective device to maintain the purity of primary meaning when the two meanings clash. Ex. "Dora, plunging at once into privileged intimacy and Into the middle of the room".

The pun is another st.device based on the interaction of 2 well-noun meanings of a word or a phrase. Puns are often used in riddles and jokes, for example, in this riddle:

Ex. What is the difference between a schoolmaster and an engine-driver?

Pun is more independent.but the pun mustdepend on a context.

 

Epithet,types.

The epithet is a stylistic device based on the interplay of emotiv,e and logicaT meaning in an attributive word/phrase or even sentenc§ used to characterize an object and pointing out to the reader, and f re-quently imposing on him, some of the properties or features of the ob-ject with the aim of giving an individual perception and evaluation of these features or properties. The epithet is markedly subjective and evaluative Semantically, epithets may be divided into 2 groups: 1) associated. Associated epithets are those which point to a feature which the essential to the objects their described: the idea expressed in the epithet is to

a certain extent inhearent in the concept of the object.

Example.Carefully attention, Pfantastic..

2) Unassociated epithets are attributes used to characterize the object by adding a feature not inherent in it a feature which may be so unex­pected as to strike the reader by its novelty.

for instance, 'heart­burning smile', 'bootless cries', 'sullen earth'

There are stable word combinations:example-bright face,fixed-true love.

Compositional structure epithets may be 1)simple(a silvary love),2)compound(carly headed),3)phrase-epithet

(say-nothing-to-me,or,I will-contradict you expression of his face)

The reversed epithet is compose of 2 nouns link in an phrase.

Ex. The shadow of a smile he brud of a brother.

 

Oxymoron and Antonomasia

 

Oxymoron is a combination of two words (mostly an adjective and a noun or an adverb with an adjective) in which the meanings of the two clash, being opposite in sense, for example:

'low skyscraper', 'sweet sorrow', 'nice rascal',

Ant.(говорящие имена-telling names) The interplay between the logical and nominal meanings of a word is call-ed antonomasia. As in other stylistic devices based on the inter-acttotr't^-tettal^meaiilngs, the two kinds of meanings must be realized in the word simultaneously. If only one meaning is materialized in the context, there is no stylistic device, as in hooligan, boycott and other examples given earlier. Antonomasia is a much favoured device in the belles-lettres style. In Russian literature this device is employed by many of our classic writers. It will suffice to mention such names as Vralman, Molchalin, Korobochka and Sobakevich to illustrate this efficient device for character­izing literary heroes, a device which is now falling out of use.

 

Simile and periphrasis

The intensification of some one feature of the concept in question is realized in a device called simile. Ordinary comparison and simile must not be confused. They represent two diverse processes. "Maidens, like moths, are ever caught by glare" (Byron), we have a simile. 'Maidens' and 'moths'.Similies have formal elements in their structure.Connective words:example such as,like ,as,if,seen.

Ex.Fresh as a rose. Such similyes often term into chiche.

Periphrasis.This device has a long history. It was widely used in the Bible and in Homer's Iliad. As a poetic device it was very popular in Latin poetry.P. is a device which denotes the use of a longer phrase instead of a shoter and playner one. Pbe devided into:1)logical-is baced on 1 of the inhearent properties or perhaps a passing feature of the obgect.

Ex.instruments of distraction(weapon)

2)figurative is based on the metaphor

Ex. To tie the nodd(to get married)

 

Hyperbole and meiosis

Hyperbolehas the function of intensifying one certain property of the object. It can be defined as a deliberate overstatement or exaggeration of a feature essential to object or phenomenon: He was so tall that I was not sure he had a face. Hyperbole may lose its quality as a stylistic device trough frequent repetition and becomes a unit of the language as a system, reproduced in speech in its unaltered

form: a thousand pardons, scared to death. In colloquial speech, expressions of this kind are the

natural outcomc of emotions or just habit. No one notices the exaggerations.

An expressive hyperbole is exaggeration on a big scale. There must be something illogical in it, something unreal, utterly impossible, contrary to common sense: One after another those people lay down on the ground to laugh - and two of them died, (падали на землю от смеха и двое из них умерли). One of survivors remarked. It is evident that illogical hyperboles are employed for humoristic purposes.

Meiosis or understatement.

Meiosisis a logical and psychological opposite of hyperbole. It is lessening, weakening, reducing the real

characteristics of the object of speech: It will cost you a pretty penny (expensive). – Это влетит тебе в копеечку. It is meiosis only when the speaker understates) normal or more than normal things: Little town of New-York; a few lights of Broadway. Otherwise it is a hyperbole. Meiosis has various forms of formal expression: I kind of liked it; I am not quite too late. Understatement (meiosis) is typical of the British

manner of speech, in opposition to American where hyperbole prevails.

 

Euphemism and litotes

Euphemismis a variety of periphrasis, a more gentle or favorable name used for an object or phenomenon so as toavoid undesirable or unpleasant associations: To die - to pass away, to join the majority, to kick the bucket; to have a bee in a bonnet. Euphemistic expressions may have the structure of a sentence: China is a country where you often get different accounts) of the same thing. There are euphemisms replacing taboo - words, words forbidden in use in a community: The Devil = the Evil One (Дьявол); Hell = The Kingdom of Darkness (Ad); Upper and low extremities - верхние и нижние конечности; То go to Bedford (like to go to Oxford) - пойти

спать. The most common cases of using euphemism are:Disability and handicap: idiot, imbecile – mentally challenged, with an intellectual disability, learning difficulties lame —* crippled —*• handicapped —• disabled —> physically challenged —> differently abled; Religion: God and Jesus - gosh and gee; hell, damnation, and the devil - what the dickens; what the heck, get the heck out. Death and murder: to die - to have gone to a better place, was taken to Jesus, met his Maker. Warfare: the word "pacification" is sometimes usedto refer to activities designed to make life more comfortable for civilians, the term can also be used to imply intervention by coercive force, including warfare; — armed conflict; aggression; action; tension; unrest; crisis are used in many respects for battles, skirmishes, prolonged wars, and undeclared wars. Job titles: CPA - car parking attendant; sanitation engineer - janitor, transparent-wall maintenance officer - window cleaner, rodent officer - a rat-catcher, cemetery operative - a gravedigger.

Litotes.

Litotesdenotes a specific form of meiosis. It is expressing an idea by means of negating the opposite idea: With his assistance (с его помощью) -> without his assistance (без его помощи) -> not without his assistance (не без его помощи). The result is double negation, it is affirmative but the meaning is weakened, it produces a meiotic effect. The negation may be doubled in different ways: Negative prefix:

Jeff is in the line of unillegal graft. Negative antonym: Good - not had.Negative particle: A ruddy face completed the not unhandsome picture.

Inversion, types

Stylistic inversion.

Word-order is a crucial syntactical problem. This predominance of S-P-0(subject-predicate-object) wordorder makes conspicuous any change in the structure of the sentence. Inversion is very often used as an independent stylistic device in which the direct word order is changed either completely so that the predicate (predicative) precedes the subject, or partially so that the object precedes the subject-predicate pair. The stylistic device of inversion should not be confused with grammatical inversion which is a norm in interrogative constructions. Stylistic inversion deals with the rearrangement of the normative word order. Stylistic inversion aims at attaching logical stress or additional emotional colouring to the surface meaning of the utterance. Patterns of stylistic inversions.

1) the object Ls placed at the beginning of sentence: Talent he has; capital he has not;

2) the attribute is placed after the word it modifies: With fingers weary and worn;

3) the predicative stands before the subject: A good generous prayer it was; the predicative stands before the link-verb and bothare placed before the subject: Rude am I in my speech;

4) the adverbial modifier is placed at the beginning of sentence: Eagerly 1 wished the morrow;

5) both modifier and predicate stand before the subject: Down dropped the breeze;

According to its structure inversion could be:

1) full inversion is P-S word-order (predicatesubject): On goes the river and out past the mill;

2) partial inversion is predicative, adverbial modifier, object - subject: Terribly cold it certainly was. Many sweet little apparels did Miss Sharp make to him. How little had 1 realized that...

 

Chiasmus

belongs to the group of stylistic devices based on the repetition of syntactical pattern, but it has across order of words and phrases. The structure of two successive sentences or parts of a sentence may be described as reversed parallel construction, the word - order of one of the sentences being inverted as compared with that of the

other:

Down dropped the breeze.

The sails dropped down.

Chiasmus contributes to the rhythmical quality of the utterance. It is widely used in text of different styles.

Mankind must put an end to war or war will put an end to mankind. John F. Kennedy

A baby-sitter is a teenager acting like an adult, while the adults are out acting like teenagers.

Parallel Construction.

Parallel Construction is a device which may be encountered not so much in the sentence as in the macrostructures. The necessary condition in parallel construction is identical, or similar, syntactical structure in two or more sentences or parts of a sentence in close succession: Let

every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, hear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survivaland the success of liberty. John F. Kennedy

Parallel constructions are often backed up by repetitions and conjunctions. Parallel constructions are used in different styles. In the matter-of-the-fact styles and in scientific prose they express the idea of semantic equality of the parts. In belles- letters style they perform an emotive function.

Repetition.

 

The stylistic device of repetitionaims at logical emphasis, an emphasis necessary to fix the attention of the reader on the key word of the utterance. Repetition proper is the recurrence of the same

element within the sentence. It is lexical repetition:

Gold! Gold! Gold! Gold!

Bright and yellow, hard and cold.

Structural types of repetition:

1) anaphora is a repetition of the same element at the beginning of several sentences:

My heart's in the Highlands,

My heart is not here.

My heart's in the Highlands,

a - chasing the deer.

2) epiphora is a repetition of the same element at the end of several sentences:

There is no Negro problem

There is no Southern problem

There is no Northern problem

There is only an American problem.

3) anadiplosis (or chain repetition) is the repetition when the final element of the sentence recurs at the very beginning of the next sentence:

Fear leads to anger. Anger leads to hate. Hate leads to suffering.

4) framing is the beginning of the sentence is repeated in the end, thus forming the "frame" for the nonrepeated part of the sentence:

How beautiful is the rain!

After the dust and heat,

In the broad andfiery street

In the narrow lane

How beautiful is the rain!

Anadiplosis (or chain repetition) is the repetition when the final element of the sentence recurs at the very beginning of the next sentence:

Fear leads to anger. Anger leads to hate. Hate leads to suffering.

Enumeration.

Enumeration is a stylistic device by which separate things, objects, phenomena, properties, actions are named one by one so that they produce a chain, the links of which, being syntactically in the same position are forced to display some kind of semantic homogeneity, remote though it may seem:

The principal production of these towns appear to be soldiers, sailors, Jews, chalk, shrimps, officers and dockyard men.

I have also in my possession, you will be pleased to hear certificates of Ms. Cardew 's birth, baptism, whooping cough, registration, vaccination, confirmation, and the measles.

Climaxis a repetition of elements of the sentence which is combined with gradual increase in the degree of some quality or quantity or in the emotional colouring of the sentence:

A smile would come into Mr. Pickwick's face: his smile extended into a laugh, the laugh into a roar, and the roar became general.

Main types of climax

1) quantitative, when it is quality or size that increases with the unfolding of the utterance: They looked at hundreds of houses, they climbed thousands of stairs, they inspected innumerable kitchens.

2) qualitative, when intensification is achieved through the introduction of emphatic words into the utterance, which fact increases its emotive force: It was a lovely city, a beautiful city, a fair city, a veritable gem of a city.

3) logical, the most frequent type, in which every new concept is stronger, more important and valid: I think we've reached a point of great decision, not just for our nation, not only for all humanity, but for life upon the earth. The opposite device is called anticlimax. In this case

the final element is obviously weaker in degree, or lower in status than the previous: it usually creates a humorous effect: A woman who could face the very devil himself or a mouse.

 

Antithesis.

In order to characterize a thing or phenomenon from a specific point of view it may be necessary not to find points of resemblance or association between it and some other thing or phenomenon, but to find points of sharp contrast, that is to set one against the other.

Opposition should be distinguished from antithesis: A saint abroad and a devil at home.

That is an opposition which is represented in antonyms. Antithesis is of a different linguistic nature: it is based on relative opposition which arises out of context through the expansion of objectively contrasting pairs: Man proposes, God disposes. Give every man thy ear, but few thyvoice. Many are called, but few are chosen.

Antithesis is generally based on parallel construction. Antithesis has the following basic functions:

1) rhythm-forming:

Youth is lovely, age is lonely,

Youth is fiery, age is frosty;

2) copulative,

3) dissevering,

4) comparative

Asyndetonis a deliberate omission of conjunctions or other connectors between parts of the sentence. It may be used in the description of a group of events connected in time: taking place simultaneously or in succession:

Youth is full ofpleasance, Age is full of care

Youth like summer Youth like summer morn, Age like winter weather.

PolysyndetonA repeated use of connectors (conjunctions,prepositions) before several parts of the sentence, as well asany other repetition, this increases the emotional impact ofthe text:

With the odours of the forest

With the dew and damp of meadows

With the curling smoke of wigwams. morn, Age like winter weather.

Graphon.

To create additional information in a prose discourse, phonetic means is seldom used. In advertising, mass media and belles-lettres sound is fore grounded through the change of its accepted graphical representation. This intentional violation of the graphical shape of a word used to reflect its authentic pronunciation is called graphon. Graphons indicate irregularities or carelessness of pronunciation. It is an extremely concise bur effective means of supplying information about the speaker's origin, social, educational background, physical or emotional condition. Graphon individualizes the character's s speech and adds to his plausibility, vividness, memorability:

The b-b-bastud he seen me c-c-coming - show the stumbling of the speaker.

Thith ith your firth time - show the lisping of the speaker.

Graphon is frequently used in advertisements: Pik- kwik store, Knee - hi socks.

Graphical changes may refer not only the peculiarities of pronunciation but also are used to convey the

intensity of the stress, emphasizing and thus foregrounding the stressed words. To such purely graphical means we refer:

1) changes of the type (italics, capitalization):

"WILL YOU BE QUIET!" he bawled.

2) spacing of graphemes and of lines (hyphenation, multiplication): Grinning like a chim — pan — zee. Hyphenation of a word suggests the rhymed or clipped manner in which it is uttered. Intensity of speech is transmitted through multiplication of a grapheme or capitalization of the word:

Allllllll aboarrrrrrd!

Help, help, HELP!!

26.Functional stylistics,

 

which became and remains an international, very important trend in style study, deals with sets, "paradigms" of language units of all levels or lan-guage hierarchy serving to accommodate the needs of certain typified communicative situations. These paradigms are known as functional styles of the language. Proceeding from the famous definition of the style of a language offered by V. V. Vinogradov more than three decades ago, we shall follow the understanding of a functional style formulated by I. R. Galperin as "a system of coordinated, interrelated and interconditioned language means intended to fulfil a specific function of communication and aiming at a definite effect." All scholars agree that a well developed language, such as English or Russian, is streamed into several functional styles. Their classifications, though, coincide only partially: most style theoreticians do not argue about the number of functional styles being five, but disagree about their nomen-clature. This manual offers one of the rather widely accepted classifications which singles out the following functional styles:official style, represented in all kinds of official
documents and papers;scientific style, found in articles, brochures, mono-
graphs and other scientific, academic publications;publicist style, covering such genres as essay, feature article, most writings of "new journalism", public speeches,
etc.;newspaper style, observed in the majority of materials
printed in newspapers;belles-lettres style, embracing numerous and versatile
genres of creative writing.

27.

The biggest controversy is flamingaround the belles-lettres style. We have already pointed out that the belles-lettres style is a generic term for three substyles in which the main principles and the most general properties of the style are materialized. These three sub-styles are: '1. The language of poetry, or simply verse. 2. Emotive pгоse, or the language of fiction. 3. Тhe language of the drama.Each of these substyles has certain common features, typical of the general belles-lettres style, which make up the foundation of the style, by which the particular style is made recognizable and can therefore be singted out. Each of them also enjoys some individuality. This is revealed in definite features typical only of one or another substyle. This correlation of the general and the particular in each variant of the belles-lettres style had manifested itself differently at different stages in its historical development. The is function of belles-lettres style which may broadly be called "aesthetic-cognitive". The purpose of the belles-lettres style is not to prove but only to suggest a possible interpretation of the phenomena of life by forcing the reader to see the viewpoint of the writer. This is the cognitive function of the belles-lettres style.The belles-lettres style rests on certain indispensable linguistic features which are: 1. Genuine, not trite, imagery, achieved by purely linguistic devices. 2. The use of words in contextual and very often in more than one dictionary meaning, or at least greatly influenced by the lexical environment. 3. A vocabulary which will reflect to a greater or lesser degree the author's personal evaluation of things or phenomena. 4. A peculiar individual selection of vocabulary and syntax, a kind of lexical and syntactical idiosyncrasy. 5. The introduction of the typical features of colloquial language to a full degree (in plays) or a lesser one (in emotive prose) or a slight degree, if any (in poems).

 

28.

The first substyle we shall consider is v e r s e. Its first differentiating property is its orderly form, which is based mainly on the rhythmic and phonetic arrangement of the utterances. The rhythmic aspect calls forth syntactical and semantic peculiarities which also fall into a more or less strict orderly arrangement. Both the syntactical and semantic aspects I of the poetic substyle may be defined as compact, for they are held in “i check by rhythmic patterns. Both syntax and semantics comply with fi the restrictions imposed by the rhythmic pattern, and the result is brevity of expression, epigram-like utterances, and fresh, unexpected imagery. Syntactically this brevity is shown in elliptical and fragmentary senten­ces, in detached constructions, in inversion, asyndeton and other syntac­tical peculiarities. Rhythm and rhyme are immediately distinguishable properties of the poetic substyle provided they are wrought into compositional patterns. They can be called the external differentiating features of the substyle, typical only of this one variety of the belles-lettres style. The various compositional forms of rhyme and rhythm are generally studied under the terms versification or prosody. Compositional Patterns of Rhythmical Arrangement(Metre and Line). There are five metrical patterns: 1. Iambic metre, in which the unstressed syllable is followed by a stressed one2. Trochaic metre, where the order is reversed, i.e..a stressed syllable is followed by one unstressed 3. Dactylic me t r e—one stressed syllable is followed by two unstressed 4. Amphibrach iсmetre—one stressed syllable is framed by two unstressed 5. Anapaestic me tr e—iwo unstressed syllables are followed by one stressed. The Stanza.It is composed of a number of lines having a definite measure and rhyming system which is repeated throughout the poem. The stanza is generally built up on definite principles with regard to the number of lines, the character of themetre and the rhyming pattern. There are many widely recognized stanza patterns in English poetry, but we shall name only the following. 1) The heroic couple t — a stanza that consists of two iambic pentameters with the rhyming patternaa2) model of stanza which once enjoyed popularity was the Spenceria-n stanza 3) The stanza named'ottavarima has also been popular in English poetry. It is composed of eight iambic pentameters, the rhyming scheme being abababcc4) A looser form of stanza is the ballad stanza. This is generally an alternation of iambic tetrameters with iambic dimeters (or trimeters), and the rhyming scheme is abcb\ that is, the tetrameters are not rhymed— the trimeters are. True, there are variants of the ballad stanza, particularly in the length of the stanza 5) One of the most popular stanzas, which bears the name of stanza x only conventionally, is the s о n n e t. Free Verse and Accented Verse

The substyle of emotive prose has the same common features as have been pointed out for the belles-lettres style in general; but all these features are correlated differently in emotive prose. The imagery is not so rich as it is in poetry; the percentage of words with contextual meaning is not so high as in poetry; the idiosyncrasy of the author is not so clearly discernible. Apart from metre and rhyfne, what most of all distinguishes emotive prose from the poetic style is the combination of the literary variant or the language, both in words and syntax, with the colloquial, variant. It would perhaps be more exact to define this as a combination of the spoken and written varieties of the language, inasmuch as there are always two forms of communication present—monologue (the writer's speech) and dialogue (the speech of the characters). The language of the writer conforms or is expected to conform to the literary norms of the given period in ~the development of the English literary language. The language"of the hero of a novel, or of a story will in the main be chosen in order to characterize the man himself. True, this language is also subjected to some kind of reshaping. This is an indispensable requirement of any literary work. Those writers who neglect this requirement may unduly contaminate the literary language by flooding the speech of their characters with non-literary elements, thus overdoing the otherwise very advantageous device of depicting a hero through his speech. It follows then that the colloquial language in the belles-lettres style is not a pure and simple reproduction of what might be the natural speech of living people. It has undergone'changes introduced by the writer. The colloquial speech has been made "literature-like." This means that only the most striking elements of what might have been a conversation in life are made use of, and even these have undergone some kind of transformation. Emotive prose allows the use of elements from other styles as well. Thus we find elements of the newspaper style the official style (see, for example, the business letters exchanged between two characters in Galsworthy's novel "The Man of Property"); the style of scientific . But all these styles under the influence of emotive prose undergo kind of transformation.

30. The third subdivision of the belles-lettres style is the language of plays. The first thing to be said about the parameters of this variety of belles-lettres is that, unlike poetry, which, except for ballads, in essence excludes direct speech and therefore dialogue, and unlike emotive prose, which is a combination of monologue (the author's speech) and dialogue (the speech of the characters), the language of plays is entirely dialogue. The author's speech is almost entirely excluded ex-,cept for the playwright's remarks and stage directions, significant though they may be. Generally speaking, the influence of Renaissance traditions can also be seen in a fairly rich injection of oaths, curses, swear-words and other vulgarisms into the language texture of the English drama of this period. The plays of this period therefore were justly called dramatic poetry. The staged performance, the dialogue character of the discourse and the then obvious tendency to keep close to the norms of colloquial language affected the verse and resulted in breaking the regular rhythm of the metre. This breaking of the regularity and strictness of the rhythmical design became one of the characteristic features of the language of dramatic poetry, and the language of plays of the earlier writers, who employed a strict rhythmic pattern without run-on lines (enjambment) or other rhythmical modifications. Shakespeare also used prose as a stylistic device. The prose passages in Shakespeare's plays are well known to any student of Elizabethan drama. The analysis of the language texture of plays has shown that the most characteristic feature here is, to use the term of the theory of information, redundancy of information caused by the necessity to amplify the utterance.

Oratory and Speeches.

The oratorical style is the oral subdivision of the publicistic style. To this style belong: 1) speeches on political and social problems of the day, orations and

addresses on solemn occasions, as public weddings, funerals, jubilees,

2) political speeches (parliamentary

debates, speeches at rallies, congresses, election campaigns,

3) sermons on religious subjects and morality.

Typical features of the spoken variety are:

1) direct address to the audience (Honorable

members),

2) contractions (I'll, isn't),

3) use of the colloquial words,

4) stylistic devices used are interwoven and complementary. Among lexical stylistic devices the most frequent are metaphor and allusions. Repetition is frequently used to the enable listeners to follow the idea in the form of synonymic phrase repetition, parallel constructions, antithesis, climax, rhetorical questions.

 

The essay.

The essayis a literary composition of moderate length on philosophical, social or literary subjects. It never goes deep into the subject. The most characteristic features of the essay are:

1) personality in the treatment of theme,

2) naturalness of expression.

The characteristic language features are:

1) the brevity of expression,

2) the use of first person singular (I think),

3) the expanded use of connectives,

4) the abundant use of emotive words,

5) the use of similes and sustained metaphors.

 

Journalistic articles.

Journalistic article is similar to newspaper article but has its differentiating characteristics:

1) rare and bookish words, neologisms, traditional word-combinations and parenthesis are more frequent here than in newspaper articles,

2) the use of the emphatic constructions (It is he who...)

3) the use of more abstract words of logical meaning, emotional words and less traditional set expressions.

 

Brief news item

 

36. Brief news item. The principal function of a brief news item is to inform the reader. . It states facts without giving explicit comments. News items are essentially matter-of-fact, and stereotyped forms of expression prevail. As an invariant, the language of brief news items is stylistically neutral, which seems to be in keeping with the allegedly neutral and unbiased nature of newspaper reporting; in practice, however, departures from this principle of stylistic neutral­ity (especially in the so-called "mass papers") are quite common. News­paper style has its specific vocabulary features and is characterized by an extensive use of:

a) Special political and economic terms, e. g. Socialism, constitution,

b) Non-term political vocabulary, e. g. public, people, progressive, nation-wide,

c) Newspaper clichés, i.e. stereotyped expressions, commonplace phrases familiar to the reader e. g. vital issue, pressing problem, informed sources, danger of war. Clichés more than anything else reflect the traditional manner of expression in newspaper writing.

d) Abbreviations. News items, press reports and headlines abound in abbreviations of various kinds. Among them abbreviated terms— names of organizations, public and state bodies, political associations, industrial and other companies, various offices, etc.—known by their initials are very common, e.g. UNO (United Nations Organization), TUG (Trades Union Congress).

e) Neologisms. These are very common in newspaper vocabulary. The newspaper is very quick to react to any new development in the life of society, in science and technology.

The following grammatical peculiarities of brief news items are of paramount importance, and may be regarded as their grammatical parameters.

a) Complex sentences with a developed system of clauses, e. g.

b) Verbal constructions (infinitive, participial, gerundial) and verbal noun constructions.

c) Syntactical complexes, especially the nominative with the infin­itive. These constructions are largely used to avoid mentioning the source of information or to shun responsibility for the facts reported.

d) Attributive noun groups are another powerful means of effecting brevity in news items.

e) Specific word-order. Newspaper tradition, coupled with the rigid rules of sentence structure in English, has greatly affected the word-order of brief news items. The word-order in one-sentence news para­graphs and in what are called "leads" (the initial sentences in longer news items) is more or less fixed.

 

The headline.

 

The headline (the title given to a news item or an article) is a dependent form of newspaper writing. The main function of the headline is to inform the reader briefly what the text that follows is about. English headlines are short and catching, they "compact the gist of news stories into a few eye-snaring words. A skillfully turned out headline tells a story, or enough of it, to arouse or satisfy the reader's curiosity. In some English and American newspapers sensational headlines are quite common. The practices of headline writing are different with different newspa­pers. In many papers there is, as a rule, but one headline to a news item.

Syntactically headlines are very short sentences or phrases of a va­riety of patterns:

a) Full declarative sentences, e.g. 'They Threw Bombs on Gipsy Sites' (Morning Star),

b) Interrogative sentences, e. g. 'Do-you love war?' (Daily World),

c) Nominative sentences, e.g. 'Gloomy Sunday' (The Guardian),

d) Elliptical sentences:

a. with an auxiliary verb omitted, e.g. 'Initial report not expected until June!' (The Guardian),

b. with the subject omitted, e.g. 'Will win' (Morning Star), lWill give Mrs. Onassis $ 250,00(Xa year'.(77i£ New York Times);

c. with the subject and part;of-the predicate omitted, e.g. 'Off to the sun' (Morning Star),

e) Sentences with articles omitted, e. g. 'Step to Overall Settlement Cited in Text of Agreement' (International Herald Tribune),

Articles are very frequently omitted in all types of headlines.

f) Phrases with verbals—infinitive, participial and gerundial, e.g. TogUS aid* (MorningStar), To visit Faisal' (Morning Star),

g) Questions in the form of statements, e.g. 'The worse the better?' (Daily World),

h) Complex sentences, e. g. 'Senate Panel Hears Board of Military Experts Who Favoured Losing Bidder' '(The New York Timesi)

Headlines including direct speech:

a. introduced by a full sentence, e.g.', 'Prince Richard says: "I was not in trouble"' (The Guardian),

b. introduced elliptically, e.g. 'The Queen: "My deep distress'" (The Guardian),

The above-listed patterns are the most typical, although they do not cover all the variety in headline structure.

The headline in British and American newspapers is an important vehicle both of information and appraisal; editors give it special atten­tion, admitting that few read beyond the headline, or at best the lead. To lure the reader into going through the whole of the item or at least a greater part of it, takes a lot of skill and ingenuity on the part of the headline writer.

The Editorial

The function of the editorial is to influence the reader by giving an interpretation of certain facts. Editorials comment on the political and other events of the day. Their purpose is to give the editor's opinion and interpretation of the news published and suggest to the reader that it is the correct one. Like any evaluative writing, editorials appeal not only to the reader's mind but to his feelings as well. Hence the use of emotionally coloured language elements, both lexical and structural, Here are examples:

"The long-suffering British housewife needs a bottomless purse to cope with this scale of inflation." (Daily Mirror)

In addition to vocabulary typical of brief news items, writers of edi­torials make an extensive use of emotionally coloured vocabulary. Along­side political words and expressions, terms, cliches and abbreviations one can find colloquial words and expressions, slang, and professionalisms. The language of editorial articles is characterized by a combination of different strata of vocabulary, which enhances the emotioiial effect, for example:

THATCHER

MRS. THATCHER has now arrived back from her American jamboree proudly boasting that she is now "totally established as a political leader in the international sphere."

This simply goes to show that the fawning American audiences drawn from the top drawer of US capitalist society to whom she spoke will buy any farrago of trite and pious platitudes.

 

СПИСОК ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ

 

1 Арнольд И.В. Стилистика. Современный английский язык: Учебник для вузов / И.В. Арнольд .— 4-е изд., испр. и доп. — М: Б.и., 2002 .— 384 с.

2 Гальперин И.Р.English Stylistics. Учебник./И.Р. Гальперин.- Изд. 2-е, испр. и доп.- М.: «KD LIBROCOM», 2010.-336 с.

3 Кузнец М.Д., Скребнев Ю.М. Стилистика английского языка. – Л.: Государственное учебно-педагогическое издательство, 1960. – 172с

4 Кухаренко, В.А. Практикум по стилистике английского языка: Учеб. пособие для студентов филол. фак. ун-тов, ин-тов и фак. ин. яз.- М: «Флинта», «Наука», 2009.- 184 с.

5 Мороховский А.Н. Стилистика английского языка: Учебник для студентов ин-тов и фак.иностр.языков / А.Н.Мороховский О.П.Воробьева, Н.И.Лихошерст, З.В.Тимошенко .— Киев: Высш.шк., 1991 .— 271с

6 Скребнев Ю.М. Основы Стилистики английского языка: Учебник для ин-тов и фак. иностр. яз.- 2-е изд., испр.- М.: ООО «Издательство АСТ»: ООО «Издательство Астрель», 2000. -224 с.

 

ТЕОРЕТИЧЕСКИЕ ВОПРОСЫ ДЛЯ САМОКОНТРОЛЯ

1 Stylistics. Main styles and substyles

2 Stylistic classification of the English vocabulary: obsolete, archaic words, historisms, neologisms

3 Stylistic classification of the English vocabulary: barbarisms, terms, slang, jargonisms, professionalisms, dialectal words

4 Stylistic classification of the English vocabulary: neutral, colloquial, literary coinages, poetic, vulgarisms

5 Phonetic Expressive means: onomatopoeia

6 Phonetic Expressive means: alliteration, assonance

7 Rhyme, types of rhyme

8 Bathos and Irony

9 Different types of lexical meaning

10 Metaphor, types

11Metonymy, types

12 Polysemy, pun and zeugma

13 Epithet, types

14 Oxymoron and antonomasia

15Simile and periphrasis

16 Hyperbole and meiosis

17 Euphemism and litotes

18 Allegory and personification

19Allusion and decomposition of set phrases

20 Inversion, types

21 Parallel construction and chiasmus

22 Repetition and anadiplosis

23 Enumeration and climax

24 Antithesis, asyndeton, polysyndeton

25Graphical means and graphon

26 Functional Style: general definition, main styles

27 Belles-lettres styles: characteristic features and substyles

28 The language of poetry

29 Emotive prose

30 The Drama

31 Publicistic style: characteristic features and substyles

32 Oratory speeches, the Essay, Journalistic article

33Scientific Prose: characteristic features and substyles

34 The Style of official documents: characteristic features and substyles<



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