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ЧТЕНИЕ

Тематическая структура АПИМ

№ ДЕ Наименование дидактической единицы ГОС № задания Тема задания
Чтение Ознакомительное чтение с целью определения истинности утверждения
Ознакомительное чтение с целью определения ложности утверждения
Поисковое чтение с целью определения наличия в тексте запрашиваемой информации
Поисковое чтение с целью определения наличия или отсутствия в тексте запрашиваемой информации
Изучающее чтение с элементами анализа информации
Изучающее чтение с элементами аннотирования
Изучающее чтение с элементами сопоставления
Изучающее чтение с выделением главных компонентов содержания текста

ЧТЕНИЕ

I вариант

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания

SPECIALITIES

1. At the beginning of World War II it was possible to recognise a number of major medical specialties, including internal medicine, obstetrics and gynaecology, paediatrics, pathology, anaesthesiology, ophthalmology, surgery, orthopaedic surgery, plastic surgery, psychiatry and neurology, radiology, and urology. Haematology was also an important field of study, and microbiology and biochemistry were important medically allied specialities.


2. Since World War II, however, there has been an almost explosive increase of knowledge in the medical sciences as well as enormous advances in technology as applicable to medicine. These developments have led to more and more specialization.

 

3. The knowledge of pathology has been greatly extended, mainly by the use of the electron microscope; similarly microbiology, which includes bacteriology, expanded with the growth of such other subfields as virology (the study of viruses) and mycology (the study of yeasts and fungi in medicine). Biochemistry, sometimes called clinical chemistry or chemical pathology, has contributed to the knowledge of disease, especially in the field of genetics where genetic engineering has become a key to curing some of the most difficult diseases. Haematology also expanded after World War II with the development of electron microscopy.

 

4. Contributions to medicine have come from such fields as psychology and sociology especially in such areas as mental disorders and mental handicaps. Clinical pharmacology has led to the development of more effective drugs and to the identification of adverse reactions. More recently established medical specialities are those of preventive medicine, physical medicine and rehabilitation, family practice, and nuclear medicine. In the United States every medical specialist must be certified by a board composed of members of the speciality in which certification is sought. Some type of peer certification is required in most countries.

(Encyclopedia Britannica)

ЗАДАНИЕ № 27 (выберите один вариант ответа)

Определите, является ли утверждение:

Medical specialists’ certification is required in most countries all over the world.

ВАРИАНТЫ ОТВЕТОВ:

Aистинным B ложным C нет информации

ЗАДАНИЕ №28(выберите один вариант ответа)

Определите, является ли утверждение:

Psychology and sociology made a certain contribution to medicine.

ВАРИАНТЫ ОТВЕТОВ:

AистиннымB ложнымC нет информации

ЗАДАНИЕ №29 (выберите один вариант ответа)

Определите, является ли утверждение:

Genetic engineering has led to the development of more effective drugs.

ВАРИАНТЫ ОТВЕТОВ:

AистиннымB ложным C нет информации

ЗАДАНИЕ №30(выберите один вариант ответа)

Определите, является ли утверждение:

The maintenance of health is now becoming as important a concern as the cure of disease

ВАРИАНТЫ ОТВЕТОВ:

AистиннымBложнымCнет информации


ЗАДАНИЕ №31 (выберите один вариант ответа)

Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует следующая информация:

Family practice is one of the recently established medical specialities.

ВАРИАНТЫ ОТВЕТОВ:

A1B2

C3D4

 

ЗАДАНИЕ № 32 (выберите один вариант ответа)

Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует следующая информация:

Anaesthesiology was a recognized medical speciality in 1940s.

ВАРИАНТЫ ОТВЕТОВ:

A1B2

C3D4

 

ЗАДАНИЕ № 33 (выберите один вариант ответа)

Ответьте на вопрос:

What does the science of mycology study?

ВАРИАНТЫ ОТВЕТОВ:

A The object of studies of mycology is fungi.

B It studies drugs.

CThe object of studies of mycology is bacteria.

D It studies micro-organisms and their ill effects on the body.

 

ЗАДАНИЕ № 34 (выберите один вариант ответа)

Определите основную идею текста

ВАРИАНТЫ ОТВЕТОВ:

A Microbiology and biochemistry are important medically allied specialities

B Different medical specialities appeared after World War II.

C The knowledge of haematology and pathology expanded with the development of electron microscopy.

D The diversification in medical specialities is connected with the increase of knowledge.

_____________________________________________________________________________

II вариант

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания

 

PRIMITIVE MEDICINE

l. Unwritten history is not easy to interpret, and, although much may be learned from a study of tie drawings, bony remains, and surgical tools of the early man, it is difficult to reconstruct his mental attitude toward the problems of disease: and death. It seems probable that humans, as soon as they had reached the stage of reasoning, discovered, by the process of trial and error, which plants might be used as foods, which of them were poisonous, and which of them had some medicinal value.

 

2. However, the man did not at first regard death and disease as natural phenomena. Common maladies, such as colds were accepted as part of existence, but serious and disabling diseases were placed in a very different category and were considered to be of supernatural origin.

3. One curious method of providing the disease with means of escape from the body was by making a hole, 2.5 to five centimeters across, in the skull of the victim - tile practice of trepanning. Trepanned skulls of prehistoric date have been found in Britain, France and other parts of Europe and in Peru. The practice still exists among primitive people in parts of Algeria, in Melanesia, and perhaps elsewhere, though it is fast becoming extinct.

 

4. Magic and religion played a large part in the medicine of the prehistoric or primitive man. Administration of a vegetable drug or remedy by mouth was accompanied by incantations, dancing, grimaces, and all the tricks of the magician. Therefore, the first doctors, or "medicine men," were witch doctors. The use of charms and talismans, still prevalent in modern times, is of ancient origin. Apart from the treatment of wounds and broken bones, primitive physicians showed their wisdom by treating the whole person, soul as well as body. Treatments and medicines that produced no physical on the body could nevertheless make a patient feel better when both medicine man and the patient believed in their efficacy. This so-called placebo effect is applicable even in modern clinical medicine.

 

Задание № 27(выберите один вариант ответа)

Определите, является ли утверждение

Primitive physicians were very wise as they treated both the person’s soul and his body.

ВАРИАНТЫ ОТВЕТОВ:

АистиннымВложным С нет информации

Задание № 28(выберите один вариант ответа)

Определите, является ли утверждение

Humans discovered which plants had some medicinal value by the process of trial and error.

ВАРИАНТЫ ОТВЕТОВ:

АистиннымВложным Снет информации

Задание № 29(выберите один вариант ответа)

Определите, является ли утверждение

At first the man regarded serious and disabling diseases as natural phenomena.

ВАРИАНТЫ ОТВЕТОВ:

АистиннымВложным Снет информации


Задание № 30(выберите один вариант ответа)

Варианты ответов

A It was influenced by natural phenomena.

BIt was influenced by patients.

CIt was influenced by disabling diseases.

DIt was influenced by magic and religion.

Задание № 34(выберите один вариант ответа)

Определите основную идею текста:

Варианты ответов:

АModern medical practice originates from primitive medicine and folklore.

BThe first doctors or “medicine men” were witch doctors.

CIt is very difficult to interpret ancient history.

DThe practice of trepanning is fast becoming extinct.

__________________________________________________________________


III вариант

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания

VITAMINS AND PROVITAMINS

1. Vitamin is any of several organic substances that usually are separated into water-soluble and fat-soluble groups. The substances commonly known as vitamins are diverse in chemical structure and function. Originally defined as organic compounds obtainable in a normal diet and capable of maintaining life, vitamins are distinct from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in function, as well as in the quantities in which organisms require them. If a vitamin is absent from the diet, a specific deficiency disease may develop.

 

2. The term “vitamin” originated from “vitamine,” a word first used in 1911 to designate a group of compounds considered vital for life; each was thought to have a nitrogen-containing component known as an amine. The final e of vitamine was dropped when it was discovered that not all of the vitamins contain nitrogen, and, therefore, not all are amines. The term “accessory food factor” sometimes is used instead of vitamin to refer to these substances.

 

3. Since they generally cannot be synthesized by an animal and must be obtained from the diet or from some synthetic source, vitamins are called essential nutrients. Vitamin C can be synthesized by some organisms in sufficient amounts so that the dietary requirement is eliminated; vitamin C usually is considered a vitamin, however, because it must be included in the diet of man. Vitamins are distinct from many other compounds, which, although indispensable for proper animal functions, can be synthesized in adequate quantities.

 

4. A provitamin is similar in structure to a specific vitamin and can be converted to it by a few metabolic reactions. Antivitamins are compounds that prevent the normal function of certain vitamins. Antivitamins may act by binding a vitamin, by destroying a vitamin, or by inhibiting the coenzyme function of a vitamin.

(Encyclopedia Britannica)

Задание № 27(выберите один вариант ответа)

Определите, является ли утверждение:

Vitamin and its provitamin are similar in chemical structure.

ВАРИАНТЫ ОТВЕТОВ:

A истинным B ложным в тексте C нет информации

 

Задание № 28(выберите один вариант ответа)

Определите, является ли утверждение:

The term vitamin was originated from the word meaning “important for life”.

ВАРИАНТЫ ОТВЕТОВ:

A истинным B ложным в тексте C нет информации


Задание № 29(выберите один вариант ответа)

Определите, является ли утверждение:

Vitamin C participates in some enzyme-catalyzed reactions.

ВАРИАНТЫ ОТВЕТОВ:

A истинным B ложным в тексте C нет информации

 

Задание № 30(выберите один вариант ответа)

Определите, является ли утверждение:

Vitamins are synthesized by a man in sufficient amount.

ВАРИАНТЫ ОТВЕТОВ:

A истинным B ложным в тексте C нет информации

 

Задание №31(выберите один вариант ответа)

Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует следующая информация:

Vitamins are different in their structures.

ВАРИАНТЫ ОТВЕТОВ:

A1B2

C3D4

 

Задание № 32(выберите один вариант ответа)

Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует следующая информация:

Vitamins can be destroyed by some compounds.

ВАРИАНТЫ ОТВЕТОВ:

A1B2

C3D4

Задание № 33(выберите один вариант ответа)

Ответьте на вопрос:

Why is vitamin C treated as a vitamin?

Варианты ответов:

A It can not be synthesized by a man.

B It is distinct from other organic compounds.

C It is a water-soluble substance.

D It should be included in a diet.

Задание № 34(выберите один вариант ответа)

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания

ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION

1. In 1967 surgery arrived at a climax that made the whole world aware of its medico-surgical responsibilities when the South African surgeon Christian Barnard transplanted the first human heart. Reaction contained more than an element of hysteria. Yet, in 1964, James Hardy, of the University of Mississippi, had transplanted a chimpanzee's heart into a man. Research had been leading up to such an operation ever since Charles Guthrie and Alexis Carrel, at the University of Chicago, perfected the in 1905 and then carried out experiments in me transplantation of many organs, including the heart.

 

2. New developments in immunosuppression have advanced the field of transplantation enormously. Kidney transplantation is now a procedure that is supplemented by dialysis with an artificial kidney before and after the operation; mortality has been reduced to about 10 per cent per year. Rejection of the transplanted heart by the patient's immune system was overcome to some degree in the 1980s with the introduction of the immunosuppressant cyclosporine; records show that many patients have lived for five or more years after the transplant operation.

 

3. The complexity of the liver and the unavailability of supplemental therapies such as the artificial kidney have contributed to the slow progress in liver transplantation. An increasing number of patients, especially children, have undergone successful transplantation; however a substantial number may require re-transplantation due to the failure of the first graft.

 

4. Lung transplants are difficult procedures, and much progress is yet to be made in preventing rejection. A combined heart-lung transplant is still in the experimental stage, but it is being met with increasing success; two-thirds of those receiving transplants are surviving, although complications such as infection are still common. Transplantation of all or part of the pancreas is not completely successful, and further refinements of the procedures are needed.

(Encyclopedia Britannica)

Задание №27(выберите один вариант ответа)

RADIATION THERAPY

1. Ionizing radiation is the transmission of energy by electromagnetic waves (e.g. X-rays) or by particles such as electrons, neutrons, or protons. Interaction with tissue produces free radicals and oxidants that, damage or leading to cell death. When used properly, radiation may cause less damage than surgery and can often preserve organ structure and function.

 

2. The type of radiation used depends on the radio sensitivity of the tumour and which healthy organs are within the radiation field. High-energy sources such as linear accelerators, deposit their energy at a greater depth, sparing the skin but treating the deep-seated tumour. Electron-beam radiation has low penetration and is useful in treating some skin cancers. Healthy organs have varying tolerance thresholds to radiation, bone marrow being the most sensitive and skin the least. The nervous system can tolerate much more radiation than the lungs or kidneys.

3. Radiation therapy can also be palliative if a cure is not possible; the size of the tumour can be reduced, thereby relieving pain or pressure on adjacent vital structures. It also can shrink a tumour to allow better drainage of an infection and decrease the chance of bleeding. Radioactive implants in the form of metal needles or “seeds” are used to treat some cancers, such as those of the prostate, and uterine cervix. They can deliver high doses of radiation directly into the tumour with less effect on distant tissues.

 

4. An organ can also be irradiated by the ingestion of a radioactive substance. The drawback to this procedure is the difficulty in calculating the correct dose. Irradiation is less effective in treating tissues that are poorly oxygenated (hypoxic) because of inadequate blood supply that it is in treating those that are well oxygenated. Some drugs enhance the toxic effect of radiation on tumour cells, especially those that are hypoxic.

 

Задание №27(выберите один вариант ответа)

ARMY MEDICAL ORGANIZATIONS

1. The medical doctor of first contact to the soldier in the armies of developed countries is usually an officer in the medical corps. In peacetime the doctor sees the sick and has functions similar to those of the general practitioner, prescribing drugs and dressings, and there may be a sick bay where slightly sick soldiers can remain for a few days. The doctor is usually assisted by trained nurse and corpsmen. If a further medical opinion is required, the patient can be referred to a specialist at a military or civilian hospital.

2. In a war zone, medical officers have an aid post where, with the help of corpsmen, they apply first aid to the walking wounded and to the more seriously wounded who are brought in. The casualties are evacuated as quickly as possible by field ambulances or helicopters. At a company station medical officers and medical соrpsmen may provide further treatment before patients are evacuated to the main dressing station at field ambulance headquarters, where a surgeon may perform emergency operations. Thereafter, evacuation may be to advanced hospitals, or to base hospitals. Air evacuation is widely used.

 

3. In peacetime most of the intermediate medical units exist only in skeleton form, the active units are at the battalion and hospital level. When physicians join the medical cops, they may join with specialist qualifications, or they may obtain such qualifications while in the army. A feature of army medicine is promotion to administrative positions. The commanding officer of a hospital and the medical officer at headquarters may have no contacts with actual patients.

 

4. Although medical officers in peacetime have some choice of the kind of work they will do, they are in a chain of command and are subject to military discipline. When dealing with patients, however, they are in a special position; they cannot be ordered by a superior officer to give some treatment or take other action that they believe is wrong. Medical officers also do not bear or use arms unless their patients are being attacked.

(Encyclopedia Britannica)

Задание № 27(выберите один вариант ответа)

THERAPEUTICS

1. Therapeutics is treatment and care of a patient for the purpose of both preventing and combating disease or alleviating pain or injury. The term comes from the Greek “therapeuticos” which means “inclined to serve”. In a broad sense therapeutics means serving and caring for the patient in a comprehensive manner, preventing disease as well as managing specific problems.

 

2. Exercise, diet, and mental factors are therefore integral to the prevention, as well as the management of disease processes. More specific measures that are employed to treat specific symptoms include the use of drugs to relieve pain or treat infection, surgery to remove diseased tissue or replace poorly functioning or nonfunctioning organs with fully operating ones, and counseling or psychotherapy to relieve emotional distress. Confidence in the physician and in the method selected enhances effectiveness.

 

3. Disease is a harmful deviation from the normal structural or functional state of an organism. A diseased organism commonly exhibits signs or symptoms indicative of its abnormal state. Thus, the normal condition of an organism must be understood in order to recognize the hallmarks of disease. Nevertheless, a sharp demarcation between disease and health is not always apparent.

 

4. The study of disease is called pathology. It involves the determination of the cause (etiology) of the disease, the understanding of the mechanisms of its development (pathogenesis), the structural changes associated with the disease process (morphological changes), and the functional consequences of these changes. Correctly identifying the cause of a disease is necessary to identifying the proper course of treatment. Humans, animals, and plants are all susceptible to disease of some sort. However, that which disrupts the normal functioning of one type of organism may have no effect on the other types.

(Encyclopedia Britannica)

Задание №27(выберите один вариант ответа)

TROPICAL MEDICINE

1. The first half of the 20th century witnessed the virtual conquest of three of the major diseases of the tropics: malaria, yellow fever, and leprosy. At the turn of the century, as for the preceding two centuries, quinine was the only known drug to have any appreciable effect on malaria. With the increasing development of tropical countries and rising standards of public health, it became obvious that quinine was not completely satisfactory. Intensive research between World Wars I and II indicated that several synthetic compounds were more effective.

 

2. The first of these to become available, in 1934, was quinacrine (known as mepacrine, Atabrine, or Atebrin). In World War II it fulfilled the highest expectations and helped to reduce disease among Allied troops in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Far East. A number of other effective antimalarial drugs subsequently became available, the insecticide DDT among them. The lethal effect of DDT on the mosquito, its relative cheapness, and its ease of use on a widespread scale provided an intensive world-wide campaign, sponsored by the World Health Organization, bringing malaria under control.

 

3. Yellow fever is another mosquito-transmitted disease, and the prophylactic value of modern insecticides in its control was almost as great as in the case of malaria. The forest reservoirs of the virus present a more difficult problem, but the combined use of immunization and insecticides did much to bring this disease under control.

 

4. Until the 1940s the only drugs available for treating leprosy were the chaulmoogra oils and their derivatives. These, though helpful, were far from satisfactory. In the 1940s the group of drugs known as the sulfones appeared, and it soon became apparent that they were infinitely better than any other group of drugs in the treatment of leprosy. Several other drugs later proved promising. Although there is as yet no known cure for leprosy, the outlook has so changed that there are good grounds for believing that this age-old scourge can be brought under control.

ЗАДАНИЕ №27 (выберите один вариант ответа)

HOSPITALS

1. A hospital is an institution that is built, staffed, and equipped for the identification (diagnosis) of disease; for the treatment, both medical and surgical, of the sick and the injured; and for their housing during this process. The modern hospital also often serves as a centre for investigation and for teaching. To better serve the wide-ranging needs of the community, the modern hospital has often developed outpatient facilities, as well as emergency, psychiatric, and rehabilitation services.

 

2. Hospitals have long existed in every civilized country. The developing countries, which contain a large proportion of the world’s population, do not have enough hospitals, equipment, and trained staff, and by the standards of the industrialized countries, the hospitals that do exist are poorly equipped to handle the volume of people who need care. These people, then, do not always receive the benefits of modern medicine, public health measures, or hospital care, and they generally have lower life expectancies.

 

3. In the developed countries the hospital as an institution is becoming more complex as modern technology increases the range of diagnostic capabilities and expands the possibilities for treatment. As a result of the greater range of services and the more involved treatment and surgery available, the ratio of staff to patient has increased and a more highly trained staff is required.

 

4. During recent years a combination of medicine and engineering has produced a vast array of new instrumentation, much of which requires a hospital setting for its use. Hospitals thus are becoming more expensive to run, and health service administrators are increasingly concerned with the question of cost-effectiveness.

ЗАДАНИЕ №27 (выберите один вариант ответа)

PUBLIC HEALTH CARE

1.Public health has been defined as the art and science of preventing diseases, prolonging life, and promoting physical and mental health,sanitation, personal hygiene, control of infection, and organization of health services. From the normal human interactions there has emerged recognition of the importance of community action in the promotion of health and the prevention and treatment of disease.

 

2.The practice of public health draws heavily on medical science and philosophy and concentrates especially on manipulating and controlling the environment for the benefit of the public. It is concerned therefore with housing, water supplies, and food. Public health medicine is a part of the greater enterprise of preserving and improving the public health. Occupational medicine is concerned with the health, safety, and welfare of people in the workplace. Its aim is to reduce the risks in the environment in which people work.

 

3.The venture of preserving, maintaining, and actively promoting public health requires special methods of information – gathering (epidemiology) and corporate arrangements to act upon significant findings and put them into practice. Statistics collected by epidemiologists attempt to describe and explain the occurrence of disease in a population by correlating factors such as diet, environment, radiation, or cigarette smoking with the incidence and prevalence of disease.

4.The government, through laws and regulations, create agencies to oversee and formally inspect such things as water supplies, food processing, sewage treatment, drains, air contamination, and pollution. Governments are also concerned with the control of epidemic infections by means of enforced quarantine and isolation – for example, the health control that takes place at seaports and airports in an attempt to assure that infectious diseases are not brought into a country.

(Encyclopedia Britannica)

ЗАДАНИЕ №27 (выберите один вариант ответа)

ЧТЕНИЕ

Тематическая структура АПИМ

№ ДЕ Наименование дидактической единицы ГОС № задания Тема задания
Чтение Ознакомительное чтение с целью определения истинности утверждения
Ознакомительное чтение с целью определения ложности утверждения
Поисковое чтение с целью определения наличия в тексте запрашиваемой информации
Поисковое чтение с целью определения наличия или отсутствия в тексте запрашиваемой информации
Изучающее чтение с элементами анализа информации
Изучающее чтение с элементами аннотирования
Изучающее чтение с элементами сопоставления
Изучающее чтение с выделением главных компонентов содержания текста

ЧТЕНИЕ

I вариант

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания

SPECIALITIES

1. At the beginning of World War II it was possible to recognise a number of major medical specialties, including internal medicine, obstetrics and gynaecology, paediatrics, pathology, anaesthesiology, ophthalmology, surgery, orthopaedic surgery, plastic surgery, psychiatry and neurology, radiology, and urology. Haematology was also an important field of study, and microbiology and biochemistry were important medically allied specialities.


2. Since World War II, however, there has been an almost explosive increase of knowledge in the medical sciences as well as enormous advances in technology as applicable to medicine. These developments have led to more and more specialization.

 

3. The knowledge of pathology has been greatly extended, mainly by the use of the electron microscope; similarly microbiology, which includes bacteriology, expanded with the growth of such other subfields as virology (the study of viruses) and mycology (the study of yeasts and fungi in medicine). Biochemistry, sometimes called clinical chemistry or chemical pathology, has contributed to the knowledge of disease, especially in the field of genetics where genetic engineering has become a key to curing some of the most difficult diseases. Haematology also expanded after World War II with the development of electron microscopy.

 

4. Contributions to medicine have come from such fields as psychology and sociology especially in such areas as mental disorders and mental handicaps. Clinical pharmacology has led to the development of more effective drugs and to the identification of adverse reactions. More recently established medical specialities are those of preventive medicine, physical medicine and rehabilitation, family practice, and nuclear medicine. In the United States every medical specialist must be certified by a board composed of members of the speciality in which certification is sought. Some type of peer certification is required in most countries.

(Encyclopedia Britannica)

ЗАДАНИЕ № 27 (выберите один вариант ответа)

Определите, является ли утверждение:

Medical specialists’ certification is required in most countries all over the world.

ВАРИАНТЫ ОТВЕТОВ:

Aистинным B ложным C нет информации

ЗАДАНИЕ №28(выберите один вариант ответа)

Определите, является ли утверждение:

Psychology and sociology made a certain contribution to medicine.

ВАРИАНТЫ ОТВЕТОВ:

AистиннымB ложнымC нет информации

ЗАДАНИЕ №29 (выберите один вариант ответа)

Определите, является ли утверждение:

Genetic engineering has led to the development of more effective drugs.

ВАРИАНТЫ ОТВЕТОВ:

AистиннымB ложным C нет информации

ЗАДАНИЕ №30(выберите один вариант ответа)

Определите, является ли утверждение:

The maintenance of health is now becoming as important a concern as the cure of disease

ВАРИАНТЫ ОТВЕТОВ:

AистиннымBложнымCнет информации


ЗАДАНИЕ №31 (выберите один вариант ответа)

Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует следующая информация:

Family practice is one of the recently established medical specialities.

ВАРИАНТЫ ОТВЕТОВ:

A1B2

C3D4

 

ЗАДАНИЕ № 32 (выберите один вариант ответа)

Укажите, какой части текста (1, 2, 3, 4) соответствует следующая информация:

Anaesthesiology was a recognized medical speciality in 1940s.

ВАРИАНТЫ ОТВЕТОВ:

A1B2

C3D4

 

ЗАДАНИЕ № 33 (выберите один вариант ответа)

Ответьте на вопрос:

What does the science of mycology study?

ВАРИАНТЫ ОТВЕТОВ:

A The object of studies of mycology is fungi.

B It studies drugs.

CThe object of studies of mycology is bacteria.

D It studies micro-organisms and their ill effects on the body.

 

ЗАДАНИЕ № 34 (выберите один вариант ответа)

Определите основную идею текста

ВАРИАНТЫ ОТВЕТОВ:

A Microbiology and biochemistry are important medically allied specialities

B Different medical specialities appeared after World War II.

C The knowledge of haematology and pathology expanded with the development of electron microscopy.

D The diversification in medical specialities is connected with the increase of knowledge.

_____________________________________________________________________________

II вариант

Прочитайте текст и выполните задания

 

PRIMITIVE MEDICINE

l. Unwritten history is not easy to interpret, and, although much may be learned from a study of tie drawings, bony remains, and surgical tools of the early man, it is difficult to reconstruct his mental attitude toward the problems of disease: and death. It seems probable that humans, as soon as they had reached the stage of reasoning, discovered, by the process of trial and error, which plants might be used as foods, which of them were poisonous, and which of them had some medicinal value.

 

2. However, the man did not at first regard death and disease as natural phenomena. Common maladies, such as colds were accepted as part of existence, but serious and disabling diseases were placed in a very different category and were considered to be of supernatural origin.

3. One curious method of providing the disease with means of escape from the body was by making a hole, 2.5 to five centimeters across, in the skull of the victim - tile practice of trepanning. Trepanned skulls of prehistoric date have been found in Britain, France and other parts of Europe and in Peru. The practice still exists among primitive people in parts of Algeria, in Melanesia, and perhaps elsewhere, though it is fast becoming extinct.

 

4. Magic and religion played a large part in the medicine of the prehistoric or primitive man. Administration of a vegetable drug or remedy by mouth was accompanied by incantations, dancing, grimaces, and all the tricks of the magician. Therefore, the first doctors, or "medicine men," were witch doctors. The use of charms and talismans, still prevalent in modern times, is of ancient origin. Apart from the treatment of wounds and broken bones, primitive physicians showed their wisdom by treating the whole person, soul as well as body. Treatments and medicines that produced no physical on the body could nevertheless make a patient feel better when both medicine man and the patient believed in their efficacy. This so-called placebo effect is applicable even in modern clinical medicine.

 

Задание № 27(выберите один вариант ответа)



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