Major histocompatibility complex molecules



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Major histocompatibility complex molecules



A) secrete antibodies;

B) kill certain microbes and cancer cells as soon as they are formed;

C) initiate an immune response and send signal to mobilize neutrophiles to join them at a trouble spot;

D) help the body to distinguish self from nonself.

AIDS

A) acknowledged infection developing suddenly;

B) acquired immunodeficiency syndrome;

C) alcohol, insulin, drug screening;

D) human immunodeficiency virus infection.

Rhinallergosis

A) pertaining to the nose and month;

B) inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose;

C) allergic rhinitis;

D) change in speech as a result of pathology in nose structures.

Encephalitis

A) resembling brain, brain-like;

B) inflammation of the spinal cord;

C) abnormal accumulation of fluid in the brain;

D) inflammation of the brain.

Amnesia

A) bleeding inside the skull;

B) a malfunction of the peripheral nerves;

C) a disorder characterized by the tendency to have recurring seizures;

D) the total or partial inability to recall recent or remote experiences.

Touch

A) the sense of pressure perception, generally in the skin;

B) one of the “chemical” senses;

C) the sense of sound perception;

D) the ability to detect electromagnetic waves within the visible range by the eye and the brain to interpret the images.

Cornea

A) the front relatively tough white outer layer of the eye;

B) a membraneous lining inside the sclera that contains many blood vessels;

C) a transparent dome on the surface of the eye;

D) an area at the back of the eye on which the light is focused.

Otosclerosis

A) inflammation of the eye;

B) inflammation of the ear;

C) an over-growth of the bone of the inner ear that leads to inability of sound conduction to the inner ear;

D) a fungus infection of the ear.

Eustachian tube

A) a tympany that is attached to the hammer and keeps he eardrum taut;

B) a small tube that connects the middle ear with the back of the nose;

C) a muscle, which is attached to the stirrup and stabilizes the connection between the stirrup and the oval window;

D) three tiny bones that connect the eardrum to the inner ear.

Subcutaneous adipose layer

A) a skin layer composed of connective tissue which specializes in the formation of fat;

B) a living tissue composed of blood and lymph vessels and nerve fibers which lies directly below the external layer of the skin;

C) a total name for all the three layers of the skin;

D) the outermost, totally cellular layer of the skin forming the waterproof, protective wrap of the body surface.

Neutrophile

A) a protein that interacts with the antigen;

B) a cell of the lymphatic system;

C) a large white blood cell that ingests microbes and antigens;

D) an immunoglobulin.

Autoimmune reaction

A) a group of diverse conditions in which the immune system doesn’t function adequately;

B) a reaction produced by treatment of both congenital and acquired immunodeficiency;

C) malfunctioning of the immune system, misinterpretation of the body tissues and attacking them by the immune system;

D) minor impairment of the immune system.

Hives

A) an allergy to airborne particles that causes sneezing; an itchy or runny nose; and irritated eyes;

B) also called urticaria, a reaction in the skin characterized by small, pale or reddened swelling (wheals);

C) a condition in which allergic symptoms develop in response to a physical stimulus, such as cold, sunlight, heart, or minor injury;

D) a condition in which allergy is caused by physical exertion and produces vomiting and diarrhea.

Nasopharynx

A) the second division of the throat below nasopharynx and closer to the mouth;

B) the first division of the throat that is the nearest to the nasal cavities;

C) the third division of the pharynx serving as a common passegeway for food from the mouth and air from the nose;

D) a small flap of muscular tissue covering the entrance to the larynx.

Pyoptysis

A) the coughing up of blood from the respiratory tract;

B) the coughing up of white sputum;

C) the expectoration of sputum containing pus;

D) good, normal breathing.

Pulmonologist

A) inflammation of the lungs;

B) a specialist in blood diseases;

C) resection of lung tissue;

D) a specialist in lung diseases.

Alveoli

A) clusters of air sacs at the end of the bronchioles;

B) masses of lymphatic tissue located in the nasopharynx;

C) a small flap of muscular tissue at the entrance to the larynx;

D) a bell-shaped sheet of muscle separating the thoracic from abdominal cavity.

Fungal pneumonia

A) inflammation of the lungs caused by a virus;

B) inflammation of the bronchi caused by a virus;

C) inflammation of the lungs caused by bacteria;

D) inflammation of the lungs caused by fungi.

Antibody

A) post-mortem examination of the body;

B) glycoprotein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign bodies;

C) examination of tissue removed from the body to confirm the diagnosis;

D) paralysis of one side of the body.

Rhinitis

A) kidney inflammation;

B) stomach inflammation;

C) inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose;

D) inflammation of the body’s inner organs, namely bladder, gallbladder, liver, spleen, etc.

Hyperemia

A) lack of blood;

B) presence of excess of blood;

C) resembling blood;

D) abnormal tendency of bleeding.

Hypoglossal

A) under the tongue;

B) under the skin;

C) on the tongue;

D) on the skin.

Autonomic nervous system

A) the system that consists of the brain and spinal cord;

B) the nervous system that consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves, which carry impulses between the brain and the head and neck;

C) the system of nerve fibers that carries impulses from the central nervous system to the glands, heart, blood vessels, and the involuntary muscles;

D) the system that consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves.

Neurasthenia

A) physical condition characterized by general lassitude, irritability, and lack of concentration, worry, and hypochondria;

B) a physician specializing in the field of neurology trained to diagnose, treat, and manage patients with neurological disorders;

C) a group of nerve cells forming a nerve centre;

D) a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.

Encephaloma

A) any disease of the brain;

B) incision of part of the brain;

C) inflammation of the brain;

D) any swelling or tumour of the brain.

Tactition

A) smell-one of the “chemical” senses;

B) touch-sense of pressure perception;

C) hearing-sense of sound perception;

D) taste-the other “chemical” sense.

Retina

A) the front relatively tough white outer layer of the eye;

B) a shin membrane in the eye;

C) an area at the back of the eye on which the light is focused;

D) the black area in the middle of the iris.

Pinna

A) the external part of the ear;

B) the external part of the eye;

C) tympanic membrane;

D) a small tube that connects the middle ear with the back of the nose.

Dermatology

A) localized pain confined to the skin;

B) inspection of the skin, usually with the aid of a lens;

C) pertaining to the mucous membrane and the skin;

D) the branch of medicine concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the skin.

Antibodies

A) large white blood cells that ingest microbes and antigens;

B) cells of the lymphatic system;

C) proteins that interact with the antigen that initially stimulated the B lymphocytes;

D) 18 proteins which act in a cascade, with one protein activating the next protein.

Autohemotherapy

A) serum prepared from the patient’s own blood;

B) bleeding, haemorrhage;

C) treatment by administration of the patient’s own blood;

D) vaccine prepared from the patient’s own tissue or secretion.

Nasopharyngoscopy

A) examination of the nose and throat by flexible or rigid optical instrument, or with a mirror;

B) examination of the nose, voice box and ear with the help of rigid and flexible optical instrument;

C) an instrument for inspection of the nose and voice box;

D) an instrument for examining of the nose and throat.

Epiglottis

A) fine hairs (cilia) in the nasal cavities that help to filter out foreign bodies;

B) a bell-shaped sheet of muscle separating the thoracic from abdominal cavity;

C) the smallest of the bronchial branches;

D) a small flap of muscular tissue covering the entrance to the larynx that closes when swallowing, thus preventing food from entering the airways.

Pectoralgia

A) good, normal breathing;

B) difficult breathing;

C) pertaining to the breast or chest;

D) pain in the chest.

Immune system

A) the interaction of organs and / or substances within human body that strictly pertain to reproduction;

B) the system of organs that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients;

C) the collection of mechanisms within an organism that protects against infection by identifying and killing;

D) the system that coordinates the activity of muscles.

Malignant tumour

A) a noncancerous neoplasm;

B) a malfunction of the trigeminal nerve;

C) a malfunction of the peripheral nerves;

D) a cancerous neoplasm.

Hypothalamus

A) a part of the brain which monitors the sensory stimuli we receive by suppressing some and magnifying others;

B) a part of the brain located beneath the posterior part of the cerebrum;

C) a part of the brain which contains neurons which control body temperature, sleep, appetite, and emotions;

D) a part of the brain which literally means “bridge”.

Otorrhea

A) discharge from the ear;

B) discharge from the eye;

C) a doctor qualified to treat ear diseases;

D) a venereal disease.

Stroke

A) the death of brain tissue resulting from the lack of blood flow and insufficient oxygen to the brain;

B) a tumour originating in the cells of the meninges, which lines the brain and the spinal cord;

C) the total or partial inability to recall recent or remote experiences;

D) a chronic disease in which there is a scattered demyelination of the central nervous system.

Esthesiology

A) study of the vision organs;

B) study of the sense of smell and hearing;

C) study of the sense organs;

D) any factor causing senses.

Cyanosis

A) yellow or even brown colouration of the skin;

B) bluish colouration of the skin and mucous membranes;

C) red or sometimes purple colour of the mucous membranes;

D) subjective visual perception of the blue colour.

Finger clubbing

A) a difficulty in breathing;

B) any fracture of a finger or a toe because of low oxygen level in the blood;

C) a familial but complicated reflex in which the lungs and airways are protected;

D) an enlargement of the tips of fingers or toes caused by lung diseases.

Pharyngotomy

A) a surgical procedure of making an incision into the throat to remove a tumour or anything obstructing the passage;

B) a surgical procedure of removing part of the throat;

C) plastic surgery of the throat;

D) inflammation of both throat and voice box.

Thrombasthenia

A) faulty nerve conduction characterized by weakness and quick fatigue of muscles;

B) inherited weakness of blood platelets;

C) psychoneurosis characterized by abnormal fatigability;

D) weakness of the voice from fatigue.

Neurilemmoma

A) a tumour of the myelinated sheaths of nerve fibers;

B) surgical removal of a nerve or a section of a nerve;

C) a group of nerve cells forming a nerve center;

D) a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.

Cerebrology

A) examination of the brain;

B) atrophy of the brain gray substance;

C) inflammation of the gray substance of the brain;

D) study of the structure and functions of the brain.

Thermoception

A) the perception of pain;

B) the perception of balance or acceleration;

C) the sense of heat and cold;

D) one of “chemical” senses.

Keratitis

A) inflammation of the retina;

B) blood in the retina;

C) a toxin affecting eyes;

D) inflammation of the retina and conjunctiva.

The hammer

A) one of the ossicles that is attached to the oval window;

B) one of the ossicles that is attached to the eardrum;

C) one of the ossicles that connects the malleus and stirrup;

D) all three tiny bones, called ossicles.

Central nervous system

A) the system that consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves;

B) the system that consists of the brain and spinal cord;

C) the system that carries impulses from the CNS to the glands, heart, blood vessels and the involuntary muscles;

D) the system that consists of 31 pairs of spinal nerves, which carry messages between the spinal cord and the chest, abdomen, and extremities.

Neuralgia

A) formation of the nervous tissue;

B) trauma of the nervous system;

C) acute paroxysmal pain along a peripheral sensory nerve;

D) a group of nerve cells forming a nerve centre.

Polioencephalitis

A) inflammation of the brain;

B) inflammation of the spinal cord;

C) atrophy of the brain gray substance;

D) inflammation of the gray substance of the brain.

Taste

A) gustation;

B) olfaction;

C) nociception;

D) thermoception.

Pupil

A) the circular, coloured area of the eye;

B) the black area in the middle of the iris;

C) the transparent dome on the surface of the eye;

D) the white of the eye.

Auricle

A) the external part of the eye;

B) the external part of the ear;

C) tympanic membrane;

D) a small tube that connects the middle ear with the back of the nose.

Mucocutaneous

A) ossification of the dermis;

B) any skin eruption due to emotional stimuli;

C) pertaining to or affecting the skin;

D) pertaining to the mucous membrane and the skin.

Complement system

A) large white blood cells that ingest microbes and antigens;

B) the main cells of the lymphatic system which are relatively small;

C) 18 proteins which act in a cascade, with one protein activating the next protein;

D) messengers of the immune system secreted by cells of the immune system in response to stimulation.

Autointoxication

A) treatment by administration of the patient’s own blood;

B) chemical regulation of the body functions by means of own components of own tissues, i.e. by hormones;

C) poisoning by toxins, generated in the body;

D) toxin developed in the patient’s own blood.

Rhinorrhagia

A) nose hemorrhage;

B) pain in the nose;

C) any disease of the nose;

D) throat hemorrhage.

Bronchioles

A) cluster of air sacs at the end of the bronchioles;

B) the smallest of the bronchial branches;

C) a double folded membrane enveloping each lung;

D) fine hairs (cilia) in the nasal cavities that help to filter out foreign bodies.

Pneumonia

A) inflammation of the bronchi usually caused by an infection;

B) inflammation of the middle ear;

C) infection of the cornea and pupil;

D) infection of the lungs that involves alveoli and the tissues around them.

Anosmia

A) the inability to taste;

B) the inability to hear;

C) the inability to smell;

D) the inability to spell words property.

Eczema

A) a cell that ingests fat;

B) pathologic dryness of the mucous membrane;

C) perspiration, especially profuse perspiration;

D) inflammation of the skin.

Innate immunity

A) an obtained or gained immunity;

B) an immunity a person is born with;

C) an immunity which comes as a result of injected antiserum produced in another individual or animal;

D) an immunity which comes about through natural processes that follow exposure to the infectious agent.

Adenoids

A) masses of lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx;

B) hormones secreted by adenohypophysis;

C) clusters of air sacs at she end of bronchioles;

D) rounded masses of lymphatic tissue in the orolarynx.

Bronchoplasty

A) originating from the bronchi;

B) swelling of the mucosa of the bronchial tube;

C) surgical alteration of the configuration of a bronchus;

D) narrowing of the bronchus lumen.

Pleura

A) a bell-shaped sheet of muscle, separating the thoracic from the abdominal cavity;

B) a double-folded membrane enveloping each lung;

C) a small flat of muscular tissue at the entrance of the larynx;

D) fine hairs (cilia) that help to filter out foreign bodies from the nasal cavities.

Allergic rhinitis

A) an allergic inflammation of the conjunctiva;

B) an allergic reaction to a particular food;

C) an allergy to airborne particles that causes sneezing; itchy, runny, or stuffy nose; and irritated eyes;

D) also called urticaria, a reaction in the skin characterized by small, pale or reddened swelling (wheals).

AIDS

A) highly contagious disease caused by filterable virus and spread by droplets from the nose, mouth and throat of individuals in the infective stage;

B) chronic autoimmune disease in which body’s own defense system attacks otherwise healthy tissue;

C) fatal disease caused by rapidly mutating retrovirus that attacks the immune system and leaves the victim vulnerable to infections;

D) failure of the organism to recognize its own constituent parts as “self”, which results in an immune response against its own cells and tissues.

HIV

A) the virus that can cause cancer;

B) the virus that causes a sudden death;

C) the virus that can cause AIDS;

D) the virus that causes atherosclerosis.

Atopic disease

A) gastro-intestinal tract disorder;

B) an inherited allergic disease;

C) a catching skin disease;

D) a grave heart disease.

Hyposusceptibility

A) the state of being pathologically too influenced, harmed or affected by a disease, infection, etc.;

B) a pathological condition in which a person doesn’t feel any pain at all;

C) a scientific study of a person’s susceptibility to a disease, infection, etc.;

D) a medical condition in which susceptibility to infection, disease, etc. is much lower than normal.

Oncology

A) a person qualified to treat tumours in the body;

B) the scientific study of and treatment of tumours in the body;

C) a specialized hospital for people suffering from tumours;

D) the scientific study of and treatment of eye diseases.

Tumour

A) a pathologic new growth that can be either malignant or benign;

B) an inflammation of the brain caused by a virus;

C) a slowly progressing degenerative disorder of the nervous system;

D) a malfunction of the peripheral nerves.

Cerebrospinal fluid

A) a fluid used in treatment of cerebrospinal disorders;

B) a colourless acidic fluid located in the stomach, also often called as gastric juice;

C) a watery fluid which flows throughout the brain and around the spinal cord and protects them from shock as might a cushion;

D) the red liquid that flows through the bodies of humans and animals.

Pyorrhea

A) discharge from the ear;

B) discharge of pus;

C) discharge of saliva;

D) discharge from the eye.

Anticoagulant

A) a substance that helps to prevent infection in wounds by killing bacteria;

B) a substance that the body produces in the blood to fight disease;

C) a substance that stops the blood from becoming thick and forming clots;

D) a substance that enters the body and can cause a disease.

Anvil

A) one of the ossicles, that is attached to the eardrum;

B) all three tiny bones, called ossicles;

C) one of the ossicles which is attacked to the oval window;

D) one of the ossicles also called incus that connects the hammer and stirrup.

Angiasthenia

A) weakness of the voice from fatigue;

B) extreme strongness of blood vessels;

C) paralysis of some blood vessels;

D) fragility and weakness of blood vessels.

Neuritis

A) a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system;

B) a group of nerve cells forming a nerve center;

C) inflammation of a peripheral nerve, often accompanied by degenerative changes in nervous tissue;

D) physical condition characterized by general lassitude, irritability, and lack of concentration, worry, and hypochondria.

Knee jerk reflex

A) an autonomic response to a stimulus;

B) a reflex that demonstrates that the sensory nerve to the spinal cord, the nerve connections in the cord, and motor nerves back to the leg muscles are all functioning;

C) a reflex which is tested by firmly stroking the outer border of the sole of the foot with a blunt object and in which the toes curl downward;

D) a test in which a doctor asks a person to touch his nose with a forefinger, next to touch the doctor’s finger, and then to repeat these actions rapidly.

Equilibrioception

A) the perception of balance or acceleration;

B) the perception of pain;

C) the sense of heat and cold;

D) the sense of pressure perception, generally in the skin.

Osphresiometer

A) instrument for measuring tactile sensitivity;

B) olfactory nerve tumour;

C) instrument for measuring smell sensitivity;

D) a doctor trained to administer aneaesthesia.

Ophthalmologist

A) a doctor trained to treat ear diseases;

B) a doctor trained to treat eye diseases;

C) study of the structure and functions of the eye;

D) pertaining to eyes and face.

Diaphoresis

A) perspiration, especially profuse perspiration;

B) dryness of the mouth from salivary gland dysfunction;

C) pathologic dryness of the skin;

D) condition in which painful areas of subcutaneous fat develop.

Antiperspirant

A) a substance that helps to prevent infection in wounds by killing bacteria;

B) a substance that the body produces in the blood to fight disease;

C) a substance that stops the blood from becoming thick and forming clots;

D) a substance that people use, especially in their armpits, to prevent or reduce sweat.

Allergic conjunctivitis

A) an allergy to airborne particles that causes sneezing, itching and runny nose;

B) an allergic inflammation of the conjunctiva;

C) an injury of the conjunctiva;

D) an acute, generalized, potentially severe and life-threatening allergic reaction.

Pneumoalveolography

A) pertaining to the lungs and heart;

B) a specialist in lung and alveoli diseases;

C) x-ray examination of the air sacs of the lungs;

D) resection of lung tissue.

AIDS

A) highly contagious disease caused by filterable virus and spread by droplets from the nose, mouth and throat of individuals in the infective stage;

B) chronic autoimmune disease in which body’s own defense system attacks otherwise healthy tissue;

C) fatal disease caused by rapidly matching retrovirus that attacks the immune system and leaves the victim vulnerable to infections;

D) failure of the organism to recognize its own constituent parts as “self”, which results in an immune response against its own cells and tissues.

Tonsils

A) masses of lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx;

B) rounded masses of lymphatic tissue in the orolarynx;

C) cluster of air sacs at the end of bronchioles;

D) the smallest of the bronchial branches.

Congenital immunodeficiency

A) immunodeficiency that occurs later in life;

B) immunodeficiency present from birth;

C) autoimmune reaction of an adult organism;

D) immune reaction in the genitals.

Rhinitis

A) pain in the nose;

B) nose hemorrhade;

C) inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose;

D) inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose and voice box.

Cerebral angiography

A) a technique used to detect blood vessels abnormalities in the brain;

B) the procedure in which a needle is inserted into the spinal canal to obtain a sample of cerebrospinal fluid;

C) a computer-enhanced scanning technique for analyzing X-ray pictures to detect a wide range of brain abnormalities;

D) the procedure used to measure blood flow through the carotid arteries.

Presbyopia

A) impairment of hearing due to old age;

B) loss of feelings;

C) impairment of vision due to old age;

D) method of vision loss measuring.

Active immunity

A) the immunity developed by means of injected antigens which are either vaccines or toxoids;

B) various types of inherent, inborn resistance to infections and diseases;

C) the body’s resistance to infections that comes about through natural processes which may follow exposure to the infectious agent;

D) the immunity developed due to injection of antibodies against infectious agents produced by some individuals or by animals and thus given “ready-made” to the patient.

AIDS

A) a disease which destroys mental abilities of a person;

B) an illness which causes inability of a person to think, to hear, to speak and to talk;

C) an illness which attacks the body’s ability to resist infection and which usually causes death;

D) a cardio-vascular disease which attacks elderly people and causes a sudden death.

Allergen

A) a substance that improves allergic condition;

B) a substance that causes allergic reaction;

C) a substance that affects central nervous system;

D) a substance that causes intracranial hemorrhage.

Dysfunction

A) a state or act of working in a very satisfactory and successful way;

B) the science of the forces involved in the movement;

C) energy and enthusiasm to make new things happen or to make things succeed;

D) a state or act of not working in a satisfactory and successful way.

Hypertension

A) blood pressure that is higher than normal;

B) blood pressure that is lower than normal;

C) normal blood pressure;

D) a doctor qualified to treat pathologic increase of blood pressure.

Coma

A) a condition characterized by an abnormal increase and accumulation of fluid in the skull;

B) a disturbance in brain function resulting from a temporary deficiency in the brain’s blood supply;

C) malfunction of the peripheral nerves in the brain;

D) a state of deep and prolonged unconsciousness caused by injury or disease; a condition of stupor and lethargy.

Epidermis

A) the third skin layer which consists of interweaving loose bundles of connective tissue fibres which form a large-mesh network;

B) a doctor qualified to treat skin, especially epidermis diseases;

C) an external skin layer which consists of epithelial cells which possess great ability to multiply and replace the destroyed cells of this layer;

D) the second layer of the skin which is located under the skin.

Stirrup

A) one of the ossicles also called malleus attacked to the eardrum;

B) one of the ossicles also called incus that connects the malleus and stapes;

C) all three tiny bones connecting the eardrum to the inner ear;

D) one of the ossicles also called stapes attached to the oval window at the entrance to the inner ear.

Ageusia

A) the inability to hear;

B) the inability to smell;

C) the inability to taste;

D) the inability to feel anything.

Suppository

A) a small spherical or ovoid mass of a medicinal substance, intended to be swallowed whole;

B) a flattish medicinal formulation made of a compressed powdered substance containing an active drug and excipients;

C) a medicinal preparation consisting of a mixture of two or more drugs in the form of fine particles;

D) an encapsulated or solid medication for insertion into the vagina, rectum, or urethra, where it melts and releases the active substance.

Lipoedema

A) transformation of other types of cells into squamous cells;

B) relating to both fatty and cellular tissue, or to connective tissue with many fat cells;

C) oedema of subcutaneous fat, causing painful swellings, especially of the legs in women;

D) a cell that ingests fat.

Antihistamine

A) a substance that helps to prevent infection in wounds by killing bacteria;

B) a drug used to treat allergies, especially hay fever;

C) a substance that enters the body and can cause a disease;

D) a substance the people use, especially in their armpits, to prevent or reduce sweat.

Cataract

A) a condition in which loss of vision occurs because of an abnormally high pressure in the eye;

B) any opacity in the lense of the eye that results in blurred vision;

C) paralysis of the iris sphincter;

D) inflammation of the inner ear.

Pneumobilia

A) pertaining to the lungs and heart;

B) presence of air or other gas in the bile system;

C) presence of air or some other gas in bronchoedema;

D) changes of breathing process.

Perioral dermatitis

A) results from direct contact with one of many irritants or allergens;

B) typically develops in areas where something, such as a tight garment, rubs or scratches the skin;

C) may be a form of the skin disorder rosacea, adult acne or seborrheic dermatitis, involving the skin around the mouth or nose;

D) can occur when fluid accumulates in the tissues just beneath the skin, and typically involves the lower leg.

 

Sclera

A) the front relatively tough white outer layer of the eye;

B) a thin membrane in the eye;

C) a transparent dome on the surface of the eye;

D) the black area in the middle of the iris.

Anaphylaxis

A) a condition in which allergic symptoms develop in response to a physical stimulus, such as cold, sunlight, heat, or minor injury;

B) also called urticaria, a reaction in the skin characterized by small, pale or reddened swelling (wheals);

C) an allergic inflammation of the conjunctiva;

D) an acute, generalized, potentially severe and life-threatening allergic reaction in a person who was previously sensitized by prior exposure to an allergen and who comes into contact with the same allergen again.

Cough

A) a sudden explosive movement of air that tends to clear material from the airways;

B) the unpleasant sensation of difficulty in breathing;

C) a whistling, musical sound during breathing that results from partially obstructed airways;

D) the coughing up of blood from the respiratory tract.

Meninges

A) fluid, which flows over the surface of the brain, fills the ventricles and cushions the brain against injury;

B) the three layers of tissue, the brain and the spinal cord are wrapped in;

C) nerves at the front of the spinal cord, which carry information from the brain to the muscles;

D) nerves at the back of the spinal cord, which carry sensory information from distant parts of the body to the brain.

Pharynx

A) windpipe;

B) voice box;

C) trachea;

D) throat.

Otosclerosis

A) a progressive degenerative condition of the temporal bone which can result in hearing loss;

B) an infection or inflammation of the middle ear;

C) an inflammation or infection of the inner ear;

D) discharge from the ear.

Adiposalgia

A) condition in which painful areas of subcutaneous fat develop;

B) relating to both fatty and cellular tissue, or to connective tissue with many fat cells;

C) a cell that ingests fat;

D) headache or pain in the ear.

Ear

A) the organ of vision;

B) the organ of tasting;

C) the organ of hearing and balance;

D) the gas we breathe in.

Ophthalmoplasty

A) pertaining to eyes and face;

B) plastic surgery of eyes;

C) any disease of the eye;

D) plastic surgery of the ears.

Esthesiometer

A) instrument for measuring tactile sensitivity;

B) method of measuring smell sensitivity;

C) method of hearing loss measuring;

D) instrument for measuring of the extend of feelings loss.

Quadriplegia

A) paralysis affecting the lower extremities;

B) paralysis affecting right or left side of the body;

C) paralysis affecting all four extremities;

D) lack of strength or a very slight paralysis of four extremities.

Dyspepsia

A) eyesight impairment;

B) science, sum of knowledge about gastro-intestinal tract;

C) improvement of digestion;

D) impairment of digestion.

Hyperacidity

A) excess of acid in gastric juice;

B) below normal amount of acid in gastric juice;

C) extreme physical sensitivity to acid;

D) normal amount of acid in gastric juice.

Parkinson’s disease

A) a tumour originating in the cells of the meninges, which lines the brain and the spinal cord;

B) an inflammation of the brain caused by a virus;

C) a slowly progressing degenerative disorder of the nervous system;

D) a pathologic new growth that can be either malignant or benign.

Dermatitis

A) a scientific study of skin diseases;

B) an inflammation of skin that usually involves swollen, red and itchy skin;

C) a doctor qualified to treat skin diseases;

D) a medical condition that causes you react badly when you eat, smell or touch a particular substance.

Cerebellum

A) a part of the brain which controls body temperature, sleep, appetite, and emotions;

B) a part of the brain which monitors the sensory stimuli we receive by suppressing some and magnifying others;

C) a part of the brain which contains nerve fiber tracts which connect the cerebellum and cerebrum with the rest of the brain;

D) a part of the brain located beneath the posterior part of the cerebrum and aids in the coordination of voluntary movements and maintains balance and muscular tone.

Oropharynx

A) the third division of the pharynx serving as a common passageway for food from the mouth and air from the nose;

B) the second division of the throat below nasopharynx and closer to the mouth;

C) the first division of the throat that is the nearest to the nasal cavities;

D) a small flap of muscular tissue covering the entrance to the larynx.

Choroid

A) a membranous lining inside the sclera that contains many blood vessels, which supply nutrients to the eye;

B) a transparent dome on the surface of the eye;

C) the circular, coloured area of the eye;

D) the black area in the middle of the iris.

Xerophthalmia

A) pathologic dryness of the skin;

B) dryness of the mouth from salivary gland dysfunction;

C) oedema of the conjunctiva and cornea due to profuse perspiration;

D) dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea due to vitamin A deficiency.

Cerebrospinal fluid

A) nerves at the back of the spinal cord, which carry sensory information from distant parts of the body to the brain;

B) the three layers of the brain and the spinal cord tissue are wrapped in; otherwise called as meninges;

C) nerves at the front of the spinal cord carrying information from the brain to the muscles;

D) fluid which flows over the surface of the brain between the meninges, fills internal spaces within the brain, and cushions it against sudden jarring and minor injury.

Stroke

A) temporary disturbances of brain function caused by insufficient blood supply to parts of the brain for brief period;

B) an insufficient blood supply to parts of the brain in which brain tissue die causing disabling neurologic damage;

C) a slowly progressing degenerative disorder of the nervous system which is characterized by tremor, sluggish initiation of movements, and muscle rigidity;

D) an inflammation of the meninges usually caused by a virus.

Anosmia

A) the inability to taste;

B) the inability to feel anything or almost anything;

C) the inability to smell;

D) the inability to see.

Otitis

A) inflammation of the eye;

B) inflammation of the ear;

C) an over-growth of the bone of the inner ear that leads to inability of sound conduction to the inner ear;

D) a fungus infection of the ear.

Vaccine

A) misinterpretation of the body tissues and attacking them by the immune system;

B) a substance made of weakened or killed microorganisms which is introduced into the body for prevention, improvement of the course or treatment of infectious diseases;

C) a group of diverse conditions in which the immune system doesn’t function adequately;

D) the drug used in treatment of both congenital and acquired immunodeficiency.

Physical allergy

A) a condition in which allergic symptoms develop in response to a physical stimulus, such a cold, sunlight, heat, or minor injury;

B) acute, generalized, potentially severe and life-threatening allergic reaction to airborne particle;

C) an allergic reaction to a particular food;

D) damage or injury of the body caused by physical force, that is a blow, hick, prick, etc.

Wheezing

A) a sudden explosive movement of air that tends to clear material from the airways;

B) the unpleasant sensation of difficulty in breathing;

C) a whistling, musical sound during breathing that results from partially obstructed airways;

D) the coughing up of blood from the respiratory tract.

Pneumocardial

A) presence of gas or air in the cardium;

B) air-like tissue surrounding the heart;

C) inflammation of the lungs and head;

D) pertaining to the lungs and heart.

Subhepatic

A) located below the lower jaw;

B) under the tongue;

C) located below the liver;

D) under the skin.

Seborrheic dermatitis

A) caused a red rash with a yellowish and somewhat “oily” scale;

B) occurs when fluid accumulates in the tissues just beneath the skin, and typically involves the lower leg;

C) develops in areas where something rubs or scratches the skin;

D) results from direct contact with one of many irritants or allergens.

Cataract

A) a painless clouding of the lens of the eye that may reduce a person’s vision;

B) an increased intraocular tension, “hardening” of the eyeball;

C) a decreased intraocular tension, “lightening” of the eyeball;

D) a very painful but not dangerous to the eye-sight clouding of the lens and the pupil of the eye.

Antibiotic

A) a drug used to treat allergies, especially hay fever;

B) a substance that helps to reduce fever;

C) a substance that can destroy or prevent the growth of bacteria and cure infections;

D) a substance that the body produces in the blood to fight disease.

Autolesion

A) erosion of skull bones in patients suffering from brain tumours;

B) self-inflicted injury;

C) serum prepared from the patient’s own tissue or secretion;

D) toxin developed in the patient’s own blood.

Rhinalgia

A) pain in the nose;

B) pertaining to the nose and lip;

C) allergic rhinitis;

D) inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose.

Bronchoedema

A) narrowing of the bronchus lumen;

B) swelling of the mucosa of the bronchial tube;

C) originating from the bronchi;

D) presence of air or other gas in the bile system.

Neurologist

A) the branch of chemistry that studies chemical processes in the nervous system;

B) the branch of anatomy that studies the anatomical organization of the nervous system;

C) a group of nerve cells forming a nerve center;

D) a physician specializing in the field of neurology and trained to diagnose, treat, and manage patients with neurological disorders.

Natural immunity

A) the body’s resistance to infections that comes about through natural processes which may follow exposure to the infectious agent;

B) various types of inherent, inborn resistance to infections and diseases;

C) the body’s ability of being immortal;

D) the immunity developed by means of injected antigens which are either vaccines or toxoids.

HIV

A) Higher Institution’s Victory;

B) Human Infectious Venereal disease;

C) Very Important Person;

D) Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

Allergy

A) a medical condition that causes you react badly or feel ill when you eat, smell or touch a particular substance;

B) an illness that is caused by bacteria or a virus and that affects one part of the body;

C) the act of discovering or identifying the exact cause of an illness or a problem;

D) the chemical processes in living things that change food, etc. into energy and materials for growth.

Hyperglycemia

A) lack of sugar in the blood;

B) extreme physical sensitivity to sugar;

C) excess of sugar in the blood;

D) normal amount of sugar in the blood.

Dermatology

A) a skin condition in which the skin becomes red, swollen and sore;

B) a doctor who studies and treats skin diseases;

C) the scientific study of skin diseases;

D) a cosmetic cream applied to the skin.

Encephalitis

A) kidney inflammation;

B) an inflammation of both the brain and the spinal cord;

C) an inflammation of the brain caused by a virus;

D) an inflammation of the meninges caused by a virus.

Retina

A) the middle layer of the eye which is comprised of three parts: the choroids, ciliary body, and iris;

B) the posterior cavity of the eye which is filled with a gel-like substance;

C) the thick white outer layer that gives the eyeball its spherical shape;

D) the inner layer of the eye which is responsible for receiving images projected through the cornea and lens.

Passive immunity

A) the immunity developed due to injection of antibodies against infectious agents produced by some individuals or by animals and thus given “ready-made” to the patient;

B) the body’s resistance to infections that comes about through natural processes which may follow exposure to the infectious agent;

C) the immunity developed by means of injected antigens which are either vaccines or toxoids;

D) various types of inherent, inborn resistance to infections and diseases.

Spinal cord

A) a part of the CNS that lies beneath the cerebrum just above the brain stem and coordinates the body movements;

B) the portion of the CNS enclosed in the vertebral column;

C) the enlarged and highly developed mass of nervous tissue that forms the upper end of the CNS;

D) fluid, which flows over the surface of the brain between the meninges, fills internal spaces within the brain, and cushions the brain against sudden jarring.

Electroencephalography

A) a simple, painless procedure in which 20 wires are pasted on the scalp to trace and record the electrical activity of the brain;

B) in this procedure a needle is inserted into the spinal canal to obtain a sample of cerebrospinal fluid that is examined under the microscope;

C) a computer-enhanced scanning technique for analyzing x-ray pictures to detect a wide range of brain and spinal abnormalities;

D) a technique used to detect blood vessels abnormalities in the brain, such as an aneurism, inflammation or a blocked blood vessel.

Deafness

A) the inability to see;

B) the ability to hear very well;

C) the inability to hear;

D) the inability to smell.

Hyperesthesia

A) any factor causing senses;

B) loss of feeling;

C) excessive sensitiveness;

D) olfaction impairment.

Capsule

A) a medicinal preparation consisting of a mixture of two or more drugs in the form of fine particles;

B) a medicinal tablet, usually oval in shape, coated in a soluble substance;

C) alcoholic extract of a drug derived from a plant;

D) a fatty medicated formulation applied to the skin or mucous membranes to heal or protect.

Otologist

A) a specialist trained to treat ear diseases;

B) a specialist trained to treat eye diseases;

C) examination of the ear;

D) inflammation of the Eustachian tube.

Epidermis

A) a living tissue composed of blood and lymph vessels and nerve fibers, which lies directly below the external layer of the skin;

B) a skin layer composed of connective tissue which specializes in the formation of fat;

C) a total name for all the three layers of the skin;

D) the outermost, totally cellular layer of the skin forming the waterproof, protective wrap of the body surface.

Macrophage

A) a protein that interacts with the antigen;

B) a cell of the lymphatic system;

C) a large white blood cell that ingests microbes and antigens;

D) an immunoglobulin.

Immunodeficiency disorders

A) malfunctioning of the immune system, misinterpretation of the body tissues and attacking them by the immune system;

B) a group of diverse conditions in which the immune system doesn’t function adequately;

C) disorders which have autoimmune cause, including lupus, myasthenia gravis, Graves’ disease, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, pemphigus, rheumatoid arthritis, etc;

D) a disorder caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila, that accounts for 1 to 8 % of all pneumonias and about 4 % of fatal pneumonias.

Rhinoscope

A) pain in the nose;

B) an instrument for inspection of the nose;

C) the procedure in which nose is inspected;

D) nose tampon.

Hypopharynx

A) a small flap of muscular tissue covering the entrance to the larynx;

B) the first division of the throat that is the nearest to the nasal cavities;

C) the second division of the throat below nasopharynx and closer to the mouth;

D) the third division of the pharynx serving as a common passageway for food from the mouth and air from the nose.

Hemoptysis

A) a sudden explosive movement of air that tends to clear material from the airways;

B) the coughing up of blood from the respiratory tract;

C) difficulty in breathing;

D) a bluish discoloration of the skin resulting from a inadequate amount of blood causes by lung diseases.

Pharyngitis

A) inflammation of the throat;

B) inflammation of the larynx;

C) inflammation of the tonsils;

D) inspection of the throat, larynx and tonsils.

AIDS

A) Acquired Infectious Diseased State;

B) Acute Inflammatory Disease Syndrome;

C) Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome;

D) Acute Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

Antibody

A) a substance, for example penicillin, that can destroy or prevent the growth of bacteria and cure infections;

B) a substance that the body produces in the blood to fight disease;

C) a substance that enters the body and can cause disease;

D) a drug used to treat allergies.

Hypodermic

A) on the skin;

B) in the skin;

C) above the skin;

D) under the skin.

Cardiology

A) a scientific study of eye diseases;

B) a doctor who studies and treats heart diseases;

C) a scientific study of heart diseases;

D) a scientific study of gastro-intestinal tract disorders.

Amnesia

A) the total or partial inability to recall recent or remote experiences;

B) a state of deep and prolonged unconsciousness caused by injury or disease;

C) a chronic disease in which there is a scattered demyelination of the central nervous system;

D) bleeding inside the skull.

Brain

A) a natural covering and inseparable part of the human body;

B) the primary center for requesting and coordinating of body activities;

C) a muscular partition which separates the thoracic from the abdominal cavity;

D) a slippery membrane that helps the lungs move smoothly during each breath.

Otitis

A) an infection or inflammation of the middle ear;

B) any disease of the outer ear;

C) surgical operation performed on the ear;

D) discharge from the ear.

Otoscopy

A) examination of the ear;

B) a method of Eustachian tube examination;

C) an instrument used while examining the ear;

D) plastic surgery of the eardrum.

Dermopathy

A) pain under the skin;

B) any disease of the skin;

C) inflammation of the skin;

D) ossification of the dermis.

Sublingual

A) inflammation of the tongue caused by harmful microorganisms;

B) located below the lower jaw;

C) located below the liver;

D) under the tongue.

Pathogenesis

A) the scientific study about general regularities of development, course and termination of diseases;

B) medical treatment of injuries or diseases;

C) a slight disorder of the brain that causes difficulty in reading and spelling, for example, but does not affect intelligence;

D) pain caused by difficulty in digesting food.

Asthma

A) a medical condition of the oral cavity that causes gingivitis;

B) a respiratory disorder characterized by difficulty in breathing;

C) inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose and mouth;

D) a doctor qualified to treat respiratory disorders.

Hypertrophy

A) underdevelopment of an organ;

B) overdevelopment of an organ;

C) organ excision;

D) organ incision.

Hyposecretion

A) diminished secretion;

B) increased secretion;

C) normal secretion;

D) extremely high secretion.

Intracranial hemorrhage

A) the death of brain tissue;

B) an abnormality of the facial nerve that leads to paralysis of the muscles on one side of the face;

C) abdominal bleeding;

D) bleeding inside the skull.

Osphresiology

A) a scientific study which deals with the reception of sound vibration by the ear;

B) a scientific study of visual sensory system;

C) a science which deals with the study of odours and the sense of smell;

D) a scientific study of tactile perception.

Glaucoma

A) hypertension, blood pressure higher than normal;

B) an increased intraocular tension, “hardening” of the eyeball;

C) a disease of the middle ear;

D) cloudiness of the lens of the eye.

Ophthalmometer

A) an instrument for measuring the eye;

B) an instrument for measuring the ear;

C) a doctor qualified to treat ophthalmologic diseases;

D) an instrument for measuring the blood pressure.

Cough

A) a sudden explosive movement of air that tends to clear material from the airways;

B) a crowing sound when breathing;

C) the unpleasant sensation of difficulty in breathing;

D) a whistling, musical sound during breathing that result from partially obstructed airways.

Pharyngitis

A) an inflammation of the bronchi caused by an infection;

B) an infection of the lungs that involves alveoli and the tissues around them;

C) an inflammation of the throat, usually caused by a virus but also commonly caused by bacteria;

D) an inflammation of the voice box caused either by a virus or by bacteria.

Encephaloscopy

A) study of the structure and functions of the brain;

B) any disease of the brain;

C) abnormal accumulation of fluid in the brain;

D) examination of the brain.

Parkinson’s disease

A) a slowly progressing degenerative disorder of the nervous system;

B) inflammation of the brain caused by a virus;

C) inflammation of both the brain and the spinal cord;

D) a stroke or a transient ischemic attack causing disabling neurologic damage.

Tincture

A) a medicinal preparation consisting of a mixture of two or more drugs in the form of fine particles;

B) a medicinal tablet, usually oval in shape, coated in a soluble substance;

C) alcoholic extract of a drug derived from a plant;

D) a fatty medicated formulation applied to the skin or mucous membranes to heal or protect.

Tumour

A) a pathologic new growth (neoplasm) that can be either malignant or benign;

B) a slowly progressing degenerative disorder of the nervous system;

C) an inflammation of any organ or part of the body;

D) a chronic disease characterized by speed defects, loss of muscular coordination, etc.

Hemiplegia

A) fragility and weakness of blood vessels;

B) paralysis affecting right or left side of the body;

C) paralysis affecting all four extremities;

D) slight paralysis affecting left side of the body.

Ear

A) the organ of both hearing and balance;

B) the organ of seeing;

C) the smell organ;

D) the organ of gastro-intestinal tract.

Xeroderma

A) a cell that ingests fat;

B) pathologic dryness of the skin;

C) perspiration, especially profuse perspiration;

D) dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea due to vitamin A deficiency.

Salpingitis

A) inflammation of the eardrum;

B) method of Eustachian tube examination;

C) inflammation of the Eustachian tube;

D) a specialist trained to treat ear diseases.

Occulopathy

A) a toxin affecting eyes;

B) pertaining to eyes and face;

C) any disease of eyes;

D) plastic surgery of eyes.

Vision

A) the sense of pressure perception, generally in the skin;

B) the study of odours and the sense of smell;

C) one of the two main “chemical” senses;

D) the ability to detect electromagnetic waves within the visible range by the eye and the brain to interpret the images as sight.

Coma

A) is an abnormality of the facial nerve that leads to sudden weakness or paralysis of the muscles on one side of the face;

B) a disease of faulty nerve conduction characterisea by speech defects, loss of muscular coordination, etc.;

C) a state of deep and prolonged unconsciousness caused by injury or disease; a condition of stupor and lethargy;

D) is a genetically transmitted disease in which many soft, fleshy growths of abnormal nerve tissues appear in the skin.

Acquired immunity

A) various types of inherent, inborn resistance to infections and diseases;

B) the immunity developed by means of injected antigens which are either vaccines or toxoids;

C) the body’s resistance to infections that comes about through natural processes which may follow exposure to the infectious agent;

D) the immunity developed due to injection of antibodies against infectious agents produced by some individuals or by animals and thus given “ready-made” to the patient.

Sample

A) a small amount of a substance taken from a larger amount and tested in order to obtain information about the substance;

B) knowledge about the structure and behaviour of the natural and physical world, based on facts that you can prove;

C) not complicated; easy to understand or do;

D) something such as an object, a fact or a situation that shows, explains or supports what you say.

Hypersensivity



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