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CASOS IRREGULARES/ IRREGULAR CASES
1. In order to preserve the sound of the infinitive, regular verbs that end in -car, -gar, and -zar have spelling changes in the first person (yo) as follows:
2. Verbs ending in vowel + irand vowel + er, such as caer/ to fall, the preterite ending -ió (which is for él, ella, Ud.) and -ieron (which is for ellos, Uds.), change to -yó and -yeron respectively.
3. The following examples have irregular endings for yo and Ud. The endings are -e and -o instead of -í and -ió. NOTE: NO written accent is required.
4. Verbs that end in -decir and -ducir, j is used as follows:
EXCEPTION: The verb traer/ to bring is in this category.
Prefixes des-, in-, and re-
1. The prefixes des- and in- are used to indicate the opposite meaning to the word that they modify.
2. The prefix re- is used to emphasize or increase the meaning of the word that it modifies. If re- is added to a verb, it means to repeat the same action. Furthermore, if re- modifies an adjective, it means very.
NOTE: In Spanish, there are two slang prefixes, requete- and super-, that are more intense than -re, but NOT as intense as superlative forms of adjectives. They mean practically the most. Furthermore, they can modify ONLY adjectives.
Diminutives are used to express smallness or affection.
English has a few common diminutives, such as kitty, doggy, sonny,also some proper names have diminutive forms, such as Bobby, Vicky, etc. In Spanish, most nouns and adjectives have diminutive forms, which is the equivalent to modifying a word with little. The most common diminutive suffixes are the following:
The following diminutive suffixes are less commonly used:
1. Generally, when words end in -a , -o or -te, the vowel is dropped and -ito(s) or -ita(s) is added. For the other words -cito(s), -cita(s) are used. However, these are NOT rules. They are only guides because there are many variations.
NOTE: When looking up a word in a dictionary, be aware of diminutives, which are NOT listed. Therefore, try to find the base word.
2. There are many words that end in -illa(s), -illo(s), -cilla(s), -cillo(s) that are NOT diminutives:
Conocer & Saber/ to know
In Spanish, there are two verbs that are equivalent to the English verb to know:conocer and saber. They are used to express distinct types of knowledge; they are NOT interchangeable.
CONOCER/ TO KNOW
1. Conocer is used to express familiarity or acquaintance with a person, a place, or a thing.
· Conozco a tu mamá./ I know your mother. (person)
· Ella conoce Bariloche muy bien./ She knows Bariloche very well. (place)
· Ana conoce el idioma./ Ana knows the language.(thing)
NOTE: The preposition a is required before a direct object noun (mamá) only when that noun is a person, but a is NOT required when referring to a place or thing (Bariloche, idioma).
2. Conocer means to meet for the first time or to make someone's acquaintance.
· Conocí a tu mamá./ I met your mother.
· Voy a conocer a los padres de mi prometido./ I am going to meet my fiancée's parents.
NOTE: In Spanish, the past tense of conocer expresses the meaning of meeting someone for the first time.
SABER/ TO KNOW
1. Saber is used to express knowledge of factual information.
· Sé dónde queda Buenos Aires./ I know where Buenos Aires is.
· Pedro sabe de qué hablamos./ Pedro knows about what we talked.
2. Saber means to know something by heart.
· Sé esa canción (de memoria)./ I know that song (by heart).
· Sabíamos todas las óperas./ We used to know all of the operas.
3. Saber + infinitive.
This construction is used to indicate knowledge of how to do something.
· Nosotros sabemos cocinar./ We know how to cook.
· Mi hijo sabe nadar./ My son knows how to swim.
The gerund is also called the present participle; however, the gerund is NOT the equivalent to the English gerund. It may NOT be used as a noun as in English. The English gerund is normally translated into Spanish as an infinitive.
7. Saludarcon un beso es habitual en la Argentina./ Greeting with a kiss is customary in Argentina.
8. Abrir los negocios los domingos es raro./ Opening the stores on Sundays is rare.
HOW TO FORM THE GERUND
1. The gerund is formed by removing the infinitive endings, -ar, -er, and -ir and by adding -ando to -ar and -iendo to -er and -ir as follows:
2. If the -er or -ir verb stem ends in a vowel, add -yendo instead of -iendo to form the gerund as follows:
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