Respond to the following situations either in a short story, using a dialogue and a description, or in an essay form.

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Respond to the following situations either in a short story, using a dialogue and a description, or in an essay form.


1. Describe how illustrations can help a reader to enjoy the book. Refer to two or three books you have read.

2. Imagine that one of your friends is missing from the classes visiting his parents. Give details of his appearance which would enable the teachers to issue a description or build up an identical picture.

3. Recommend a friend (who does not read much) a book which you have recently read. Try to encourage your friend to spend more time reading.

4. Halloween.

5. Discuss the reasons why many people today read books about the Second World War.

6. Write a clear and factual report for the newspaper of an accident that you have witnessed.

7. The persistent disadvantages and advantages of being a woman.

8. The advantages and disadvantages of being an only child.

9. Superstition in our lives today.

10. Write a persuasive letter giving details about the plea­sure of playing a musical instrument.

11. Suppose you were writing an account of your child­hood in such a way as to emphasize your relations with your family.

12. Television and radio plays as a reflection of real life.

13. How have your years at school prepared you for your life after leaving school?

14. Write a letter to the press stating the case for abolish­ing examinations or for handing over students discipline to a committee in which staff and students co-operate on equal terms. Invent suitable names and addresses.




1 Credit will be given for arrangement of ideas, dear expression and direct comparison.


15. Write a short story to the magazine on one of the happenings in your childhood which much influenced you.

16. The wedding of one of the members of your family.

17. Crime and punishment. Give your views on juvenile deliquency. Should the punishment fit the crime?

18. What help in running a home should a husband give to his wife?

19. Explain the pleasures of music-making.

20. What seems to you worthwhile in some forms of popular literature, e. g. detective stories, science fiction?

21. A teacher looking rather tired and harassed at the end of a day's work.

22. A student whose dress and appearance are such as to excite comment.

23. Explain in your own words what is meant by the British custom of April Fool's Day, describing some of the tricks played by British children.

24. Describe some customs of girls and boys in this country.

25. Write a description of some animal with which you are familiar for the benefit of people who have never seen this animal.



(Units One — Eight)


Unit One




Persuasion involves not only making a suggestion but ac­tively trying to convince someone to agree with you and accept it. As such, it is a mild and (usually) acceptable form of argu­ing.

But evidently to use cliches is by far not enough. What you need is valid arguments to really persuade a person to do this or that. Remember that to be convincing you must abide by certain rules in logics:




(Oh) come on I don't know, but

Don't you think I'll tell you what

After all Look

What you don't seem to Why don't we

understand is that I know you can do it

I'm awfully sorry to ask It's crucial for you

you ... but It's important for you

If you'll do it... I'll It's necessary for you


Going in to persuasions


(Well) I guess so All right

Maybe you're right Look — I'll tell you what

Oh, if you insist We'll see

Making suggestions


I wonder/was wondering how Why don't you try

to attend What do you say Don't you think

Maybe you could If I were you

I was wondering if you'd ever I have an idea

thought of I think it might be a good idea to


Resisting persuasion


I don't know No way

Oh (with using information) Absolutely not

We'll see I don't care

I know, but That's all out of the

I don't see how question

That's a good idea, but That might be OK, but

That's true, but I see what you mean, but


Some means that can be useful in persuading others


1. Citing facts to support your view, naming their source if the facts are likely to be doubted.

2. Relating relevant incidents or experiences in which you or others have been involved. A vividly told experience is memorable and convincing.

3. Citing authorities who support your view. Brief direct quotations from the authority are impressive.

4. Using humour and funny stories to hold the interest of your readers or listeners. (Be sure, however, that you don't drag in a joke simply to get a laugh. The funny story can illust­rate your arguments in a memorable way.)

5. Using associations to establish a link between things everyone likes (nice people, good feelings, etc.) and the point of view for which you are arguing, or vice versa.

6. Making a direct appeal, once you have established your case, by expressing your conviction with sincerity or feeling.

7. Appealing to emotions, if the subject is one you feel deeply about. Don't, however, let the emotion drown the think­ing!


Unit Two






Wouldn't you agree

Wouldn't you say that

Isn't it (also) true (to say), to believe, to assume

Isn't it just possible tentative that + s

Might it not (also) be true

Surely you'd admit

Don't you think direct

tag questions: X is ..., isn't it? X is ..., isn't it?

X doesn't..., does it? direct


If you ask me; As you see it; I'd like to point out that; The point is



I see (take) your point

Possibly (maybe so)

I'd agree with you to a certain extent


That may well be (direct) but+attack


Fair enough

OK informal

That's quite true...


Perhaps, but don't you think that

I'm not sure I quite agree

I see what you mean, but

Come off it! You can't be serious.



Unit Three




Agreeing. Neutral: Yes, I agree. True enough. That's right I can't help thinking the same. Hour true. I couldn't agree more. How right that is. Oh, definitely.

Informal: Well, that's the thing. Well, this is it (isn't it) ? Yes, right. Dead right. Too true. I'd go along with you there. I'm with you there.

Formal: Oh, I agree entirely. I agree absolutely with... My own view/opinion exactly. I'm of exactly the same opinion. I don't think anyone could/would disagree with...


Disagreeing. Neutral: (Oh,) I don't agree... I'm not (at all) sure, actually/in fact. Not really. Oh, I don't know. No, I don't think... I disagree (I'm afraid). That's not right, surely. That's not the way I see it. I can't agree with... I can't help thinking... But isn't it more a matter/question of... ? Do you re­ally think...?

Informal: (Oh) surely not I don't see why. I can't go along with... (Oh,) come off it. Nonsense! Rubbish! No way! You must be joking. You can't mean that!

Formal: I really must take issue with you (there). (I'm afraid) I can't accept... I can't say that I share that/your view. I'm not at all convinced... I see things rather differently myself.


Saying you partly agree. Neutral: I don't entirely agree with... I see your point, but... I see what you mean, but.. To a certain extent, yes, but... There's a lot in what you say, but... Yes, maybe/perhaps, but.. I couldn't agree more, but... That's one way of looking at it, but... Yes, but on the other hand, ... Yes, but we shouldn't forget... Yes, but don't you think... That's all very well, but...

Informal: Could be, but... OK, but... Yes, but... Mm, but... I'd go along with most of that, but...

Formal: Well, while I agree with you on the whole, ... There's some/a lot of truth in what you say. Still/however, ... I agree in principle, but... That may be so, but... Granted, but... Personally, I wouldn't go so far as (to say) that.


Unit Four


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