Object(s) — subject(s); to object — to oppose; to obtain — to come by; to happen — to come about; to yield — to give in

Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!

Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!

Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


Object(s) — subject(s); to object — to oppose; to obtain — to come by; to happen — to come about; to yield — to give in


1. How did you ... that scratch on your cheek? 2. I haven't been able ... that record anywhere; can you... it for me? 3. The accident ...last week. 4. How did it …that you did not report the theft until two days after it occurred? 5. After months of refusing, Irene ... to Soames and agpeed to marry him. 6. Mr Davidson had never been known?... to temptation. 7. He become an … of ridicule among the other children. 8. There were many ... of delight and interest claiming his attention. 9. My favourite ... at school were history and geography. 10. The ... of the painting is the Battle of Waterloo. 11. Ruth had ... his writing because it did not earn money. 12. Like many of the scientists he had been actively ... to the use of the bomb. 13. I... most strongly to this remark.


8. Review the essential vocabulary and translate the following sentences into English:


1.Мы хотели пойти в театр, но из этого ничего не вышло. 2. Как к вам попала эта изумительная картина? 3. Как продвигается ваша


работа? 4. Он часто делал свою сестру объектом насмешек. 5. Целью его звонка было пригласить меня в гости. 6. Учитель проработал большой материал за один час. 7. Ваше мнение вполне обоснован­ное. 8. Американские колонисты выступали против политики бри­танского правительства увеличить налоги. 9. Что бы я ни просил, она делает наоборот. 10. Он имел обыкновение говорить, что перво­начальная стадия в работе самая главная. 11. Предварительные пере­говоры послужили основой последующего соглашения. 12. Прези­дента сопровождали в поездках три секретаря. 13. Именно он обра­тил мое внимание на эту картину. 14. Не обращайте внимания-на то, что он говорит. 15. Он заверил меня в честности своего приятеля. 16. Его слова были для меня большой поддержкой. 17. Разговор с врачом успокоил меня. 18. Нас заставили уступить.


9. a) Find the Russian equivalents for the following English proverbs:


1. Easy come, easy go.

2. Everything comes to him who waits.

3. A bad penny always comes back.

4. Christmas comes but once a year.

5. Curses, like chickens, come home to roost.

6. Tomorrow never comes.

7. A thing of beauty is a joy for ever.

8. A little learning is a dangerous thing.


b) Explain in English the meaning of each proverb.


c) Make up a dialogue to illustrate one of the proverbs.






1. Categorisation:Children's and adult's books; travel books and biography; romantic and historical novels; crime/thrillers; detective stories; war/adventure; science fiction/fantasy; liter­ary fiction and genre fiction; feon-fiction; pulp fiction.



Absorbing; adult; amusing; controversial; dense; depressing; delightful; dirty; disturbing; dull; fascinating; gripping; moral­istic; nasty; obscene; outrageous; profound; whimsical; unput-downable. .

2. Books and their parts:paperback and hardback; binding; cover; spine; jacket; title; epigraph; preface; the contents list; fly leaf; bookplate; blurb; a beautifully printed book; a tome bound in leather/with gilt edges; a volume with a broken bind­ing; a book with dense.print/with loose pages; a well-thumbed book.

3. Reading habits:to form a reading habit early in life; to read silently/incessantly/greedily/laboriously; to read curled up in a chair; to read a child/oneself to sleep; to make good bed-time reading; to be lost/absorbed in a book; to devour books; to dip into/glalice over/pore over/thumb through a book; to browse through newspapers and periodicals; to scan/skim a magazine; a bookworm; an ayid/alert/keen reader.

4. Library facilities:reading rooms and reference sections; the subject/author/title/on-line catalogue; the enquiry desk; computer assisted reference, service; to borrow/renew/loan books, CDs and video tapes; rare books; to keep books that are overdue; books vulnerable to theft; to suspend one's member­ship; to be banned from the library.




Many professions are associated with a particular stereo­type. The classic image of a writer, for instance, is of a slightly demented-looking person, locked in an attic, scribbling away furiously for days on end. Naturally, he has his favourite pen and notepaper, or a beat-up old typewriter, without which he could not produce a readable word.

Nowadays we know that such images bear little resem­blance to reality. But are they completely false? In the case of at least one writer it would seem not. Dame Muriel Spark, who is 80 this month, in many ways resembles this stereotypical "writ­er". She is certainly not demented, and she doesn't work in an attic. But she is rather neurotic about the tools of her trade.

She insists on writing with a certain type of pen in a certain type of notebook, which she buys from a certain stationer in Edinburgh called James Thin, in fact, so superstitious is she



that, if someone uses one of her pens by accident, she im­mediately throws it away.

Aswell as her "fetish" about writing materials, Muriel Spark shares one other characteristic with the stereotypical "writer" — her work is the most important thing in her life. It has stopped her from remarrying; cost her old friends and made her new ones; and driven her from London to New York, to Rome. To­day, she lives in the Italian province of Tuscany with a friend.

Dame Muriel discovered her gift for writing at school in the Scottish .capital, Edinburgh. "It was a very progressive school," she recalls. "There was complete racial [and] religious tolerance."

Last year, she acknowledged the part the school had played in shaping her career by giving it a donation of £10,000. The money was part of the David Cohen British Literature Prize, one of Britain's most prestigious literary awards. Dame Muriel received the award for a lifetime's writing achievement, which really began with her most famous novel, The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie. It was the story of a teacher who encouraged her girls to believe they were the "creme de la creme". Miss Jean Brodie was based on a teacher who had helped Muriel Spark realise her talent.

Much of Dame Muriel's writing has been informed by her personal experiences. Catholicism, for instance, has always been a recurring theme in her books — she converted in 1954. Another novel, Loitering with Intent (1981), is set in London just after World War II, when she herself came to live in the capital.

How much her writing has been influenced by one part of her life is more difficult to assess. In 1937, at the age of 19, she travelled to Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), where she married a teacher called Sydney Oswald Spark. The couple had a son, Robin, but the marriage didn't last. In 1944, after spending some time in South Africa, she returned to Britain, and got a job with the Foreign Office in London.

Her first novel The Comforters (1957) was written with the help of the writer, Graham Greene. He didn't help with the writing, but instead gave her £20 a month to support herself while she wrote it. His only conditions were that she shouldn't meet him or pray for him. Before The Comforters she had con­centrated on poems and short stories. Once it was published, she turned her attentions to novels, publishing one a year for


the next six years. Real success came with The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie, which was published in 1961, and made into a film. By this time she was financially secure and world famous.

(from BBC English, February 1998)


1. As you read the text:


a) Look for the answers to these questions:


1. What profession stereotypes are there? What is a stereo­typical "student"? "lecturer"? "poet"? 2. Is the "classic image of a writer" completely false? Be specific. 3. Would you agree that artistic people are often superstitious? 4. Who is given the title of "Dame" in Britain? 5. What suggests that Dame Muriel Spark is rather neurotic about the tools of her trade? 6. What part did the school play in shaping her career? 7. How did Gra­ham Green help the young writer? 8.What are the scanty bio­graphical details given in the profile?


b) Find in the text the facts to illustrate the following:


1. For Muriel Spark writing is the most important thing in her life. 2. Dame Muriel Spark is a stereotypical writer. 3. "The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie" is a great novel.


c) Summarize the text in three paragraphs.


In spite of the Russian proverb one can argue about taste: everybody does, and one result is that tastes change. If given a choice what would you rather read a novel or short stories in book form? Why? Try to substantiate your point of view. Use some of the ideas listed below.


"A novel appeals in the same way that a portrait does — through the richness of its human content."


"It is not only an author's characters that endear him to the public: it is also his ethical outlook that appears with greater or less distinctness in everything he writes."


"A volume of short stories contains more ideas, since each story is based on an idea; it has much greater variety of mood, scene, character and plot."



3. a) What do children want to read about? This is a question that teachers and parents have been asking for a long time. Read the texts below and prepare to give your view on the problem.


One person who had no doubts about what youngsters wanted to read was the children's author Enid Blyton. Although she died in 1968, and many of her stories are today rather dated, her books continue to be hugely popular with children. They have been translated into 27 languages, and they still sell over eight million copies a year, despite tough competition from television and computer games.

Blyton. was not only a gifted children's author, she was also incredibly prolific. During her lifetime, she wrote over 700 books for children of all ages. Her best-known creations are the The Famous Five series, about a group of teenagers who share exciting adventures, and the Noddy books, about a little boy who lives in a world where toys come to life.

But if chidren love Blyton's books, the same cannot be said for adults. All her stories have one thing in common: a happy ending. And this, combined with predictable plots, has led many grown-ups to dismiss Blyton's stories as boring. After her death, her critics went further and accused her of racism and of negative stereotyping — the villains in her Noddy books were "golliwogs", children's dolls representing black people. Many of her books were also denounced as sexist because of the way she treated female characters — girls were usually given a secondary role, while the boys had the real adventures.

Enid Blyton firmly believed in the innocence of childhood. She offered her young readers imaginary worlds, which were an escape from harsh realities of life. In Blyton's books, baddies were always defeated and the children who defeated them were always good.

(BBC English, August 1997)


Once many years ago, in anticipation of the children we would one day have, a relative of my wife's gave us a box of Ladybird Books from the 1950s and 60s. They all had titles like Out in the Sun and Sunny Days at the Seaside, and contained meticulously drafted, richly coloured illustrations of a prosper­ous, contented, litter-free Britain in which the sun always shone, shopkeepers smiled, and children in freshly pressed clothes derived happiness and pleasure from innocent pastimes



— riding a bus to the shops, floating a model boat on a park pond, chatting to a kindly policeman.

My favourite was a book called Adventure on the Island. There was, in fact, precious little adventure in the book — the high point, I recall, was finding a starfish suckered to a rock — but I loved it because of the illustrations (by the gifted and much-missed J.H. Wingfield). Lyras strangely influenced by this book and for some years agreed to take our family holidays at the British seaside on the assumption that one day we would find this magic place where summer days were forever sunny, the water as warm as a sitz-bath, and commercial blight un­known.

When at last we began to accumulate children, it turned out that they didn't like these books at all because the charact­ers in them-never did anything more lively than visit a pet shop or watch a fisherman paint his boat. I tried to explain that this was sound preparation for life in Britain, but they wouldn't have it and instead, to my dismay, attached their affections to a pair of irksome little clots called Topsy and Tim.

(Bill Bryson "Notes From a Small Island", 1997)


b) Use the topical vocabulary in answering the questions:


1. Can you remember at all the first books you had? 2. Did anyone read bedtime stories to you? 3. You formed the reading habit early in life, didn't you? What sorts of books did you pre­fer? 4. What English and American children's books can you name? Have you got any favourites? 5. Is it good for children to read fanciful stories which are an escape from the harsh realities of life? Should they be encouraged to read more seri­ous stuffs as "sound preparation for life"? 6. How do you select books to read for pleasure? Do you listen to advice? Do the physical characteristics matter? Such as bulky size, dense print, loose pages, notations on the margins, beautiful/gaudy illustra­tions etc.? 7. Do you agree with the view that television is grad­ually replacing reading? 8. Is it possible for television watching not only to discourage but actually to inspire reading? 9. Some teachers say it is possible to discern among the young an in-sensitivity to nuances of language and an inability to perceive more than just a story? Do you think it's a great loss? 10. What do you think of the educational benefits of "scratch and sniff” books that make it possible for young readers to experience the



fragrance of the garden and the atmosphere of a zoo? 11. What kind of literacy will be required of the global village citizens of the 21st century?


c) There is some evidence to suggest that the concentration of young children today is greatly reduced compared with that of similar children only 20 years ago. Do yon agree with the view that unwillingness to tackle printed texts that offer a challenge through length and complexity has worked its way up through schools into universities? Discuss in pairs.


4. Read the interview with Martin Amis (MA.), one of the most successful writers in Britain today. He talks to a BBC English reporter (R) about his work.


R: Asthe son of a famous writer, how did your own writing style develop?

MA.: People say, you know, "How do you go about getting: your style?" and it's almost as if people imagine you kick off by writing a completely ordinary paragraph of straightforward, declarative sentences, then you reach for your style pen — your style highlighting pen — and jazz it all up. But in fact it comes in that form and I like to think that it's your talent doing that.

R: In your life and in your fiction you move between Britain and America and you have imported American English into your writing. Why? What does it help you do?

MA: I suppose what I'm looking for are new rhythms of thought. You know, I'm as responsive as many people are to street words and nicknames and new words; And when I use street language, I never put it down as it is, because it will look like a three-month-old newspaper when it comes out. Phrases like "No way, Jose" and "Free lunch" and tilings like that, they're dead in a few months. So what you've got to do is come up with an equivalent which isn't going to have its street life exhausted. I'm never going to duplicate these rhythms be­cause I read and I studied English literature and thaf s all there too. But perhaps where the two things meet something original can be created. That's where originality, if it's there, would be, in my view.

R: You have said that it's no longer possible to write in a wide range of forms — that nowadays we can't really write tragedy, we can't write satire, we can't write romance, and that comedy the only form left.

MA: I think satire's still alive. Tragedy is about failed he­roes and epic is, on the whole, about triumphant or redeemed



heroes. So comedy, it seems to me, is the only thing left. As illusion after illusion has besen cast aside, we no longer believe in these big figures — Macbeth, Hamlet, Tamburlaine — these big, struggling, tortured heroes. Where are they in the modern world? So comedy's having to do it all. And what you get, cer­tainly in my case, is an odd kind of comedy, full of things that shouldn't be in comedy.

R: What is it that creates the comedy in your novels?

M.A: Well, I think the body, for instance, is screamingly funny as a subject. I mean, if you live in your mind, as every­one does but writers do particularly, the body is a sort of dis­graceful joke. You can get everything sort of nice and crisp and clear in your mind, but the body is a chaotic slobber of disobedience and decrepitude. And think that is hysterically funny myself because it undercuts us. It undercuts our pom­posities and our ambitions.

R: Your latest book The Information is about two very differ­ent writers, one of whom, Gywn, has become enormously suc­cessful and the other one, Richard, who has had a tiny bit of success but is no longer popular. One of the theories which emerges is that it's very difficult to say precisely that some­one's writing is better by so much than someone else's. It's not like running a race when somebody comes first and somebody comes second.

MA: No, human beings have not evolved a way of separat­ing the good from the bad when it comes to literature or art in general. All we have is history of taste. No one knows if they're any good — no worldly prize or advance or sales sheet is ever going to tell you whether you're any good. That's all going to be sorted out when you're gone.

R: Is this an increasing preoccupation of yours?

MA.: No, because there's nothing I can do about it. My fa­ther said. "That's no bloody use to me, is it, if I'm good, be­cause I won't be around."

R: Have you thought about where you might go from here?

MA: I've got a wait-and-see feeling about where I go next. One day a sentence or a situation appears in your head and you just recognise it as your next novel and you have no con­trol over it. There's nothing you can do about it. That is your next novel and I'm waiting for that feeling.

(BBC English, August 1995)



a) Express briefly in your own words what the talk to about. What makes it sound natural and spontaneous?


b) What "does Martin Amis emphasise about his style of writing? What does, he say about modern literary genres? Do you agree that "comedy is the only form left"? Is it really impossible to separate "the good from the bad when it comes to literature or art in general"? How do you understand the sentence "all we have is a history of taste"?


c) Do library research and reproduce a talk with an important writer.


5. Read the following extract and observe the way literary criticism is written:


Jane Austensaw life in a clear, dry light. She was not with­out deep human sympathies, but she had a quick eye for vani­ty, selfishness, but vulgarity, and she perceived the frequent in­congruities between the way people talked and the realities of a situation. Her style is quiet and level. She never exaggerates, she never as it were, raises her voice to shout or scream. She is neither pompous, nor sentimental, nor flippant, but always gravely polite, and her writing contains a delicate but sharp-edged irony.

L.P. Hartleyis one of the most distinguished of modern novelists; and one of the most original. For the world of his cre­ation is composed of such diverse elements. On the one hand he is a keen and accurate observer of the process of human thought and feeling; he is also a sharp-eyed chronicler of the social scene. But his picture of both is transformed by the light of a Gothic, imagination that reveals itself now in fanciful rever­ie, now in the mingled dark and gleam of a mysterious light and a mysterious darkness... Such is the vision of- life presented in his novels.

Martin Amisis the most important novelist of his genera­tion and probably the most influential prose stylist in Britain to­day. The son of Kingsley Amis, considered Britain's best novel­ist of the 1950s, at the age of 24 Martin won the Somerset Maugham Award for his first novel The Rachel Papers (his father had won the same prize 20 years earlier). Since 1973 he has published seven more novels, plus three books of journal­ism and one of short stories. Each work has been well received, in particular Money (1984), which was described as "a key novel of the decade." His latest book is The Information (1995). It has been said of Amis that he has enjoyed a career more like that of a pop star than a writer.


a) Turn the above passages into dialogues and act them out.


b) Choose an author, not necessarily one of the greats, you'd like to talk about. Note down a few pieces of factual information about his life and work. Your fellow-students will ask you questions to find out what you know about your subject.


Pair work. Discussing books and authors involves exchanging opinions and expressing agreement and disagreement. Team up with another student to talk on the following topics (Use expressions of agreement and disagreement (pp.290).


"A man ought to read just as inclination leads him; for what he reads as a task will do him little good."

(Samuel Johnson)


"A classic is something that everybody wants to have read and nobody wants to read."

(Mark Twain)


"There's an old saying that all the world loves a lover. It doesn't. What all the world loves is a scrap. It wants to see two lovers struggling for the hand of one woman."



"No furniture is so charming as books, even if you never open them and read a single word."

(Sydney Smith)


"Books and friends should be few but good."

(a proverb)


Group discussion.

Despite the increase in TV watching, reading still is an im­portant leisure activity in Britain. More than 5,000 titles were nominated in a national survey conducted in 1996. The public was invited to suggest up to five books. It was later suggested that the votes either came from English literary students or from people who were showing off. What do you think? Can you point out a few important names that failed to make it into the top 100 list?



1.The Lord of the Rings J.R.R. Tolkien

2.1984George Orwell

3. Animal Farm George Orwell

4. UlyssesJames Joyce

5. Catch-22Joseph Heller

6. The Catcher in the RyeJ.D. Salinger

7. To Kill a MockingbirdHarper Lee

8. One Hundred Years of SolitudeGabriel Garcia Marquez

9. The Grapes of Wrath John Steinbeck

10. TrainspottingIrvine Welsh

11. Wild SwansJung Chang

12. The Great GatsbyF. Scott Fitzgerald

13. Lord of theFlies William Golding

14. On the RoadJack Kerouac

15. Brave New World Aldous Huxley

16.The Wind in the WillowsKenneth Grahame

17. Winnie-the-PoohA. A, Milne

18. TheCotor PurpleAlice Walker

19. The HobbitJ. R. R. Tolkien

20. The OutsiderAlbert Camus

21. The lion, the Witch and the WardrobeC. S. Lewis

22. The TrialFranz Kafka

23. Gone with the Wind Margaret Michell

24. The Hitchhiker's Guide to the GalaxyDouglas Adams

25. Midnight's Children Salman Rushdie

26. The Diary of Anne Frank

27. A Clockwork Orange Anthony Burgess

28.Sons and LoversD.S. Lawrence

29. To the LighthouseVirginia Woolf

30. If this isa ManPrimo Levi

31. LolitaVladimir Nabokov

32. The Wasp FactoryIain Banks

33. Remembrance of Things PastMarcel Proust

34. Charlie and the Chocolate FactoryRoald Dahl

35. Of Mice and MenJohn Steinbeck

36. BelovedToni Morrison

37. PossessionA. S. Byatt

38. Heart of DarknessJoseph Conrad

39. A Passage to IndiaE. M. Forster

40. Watership DownRichard Adams

41.Sophie's WorldJostein Gaarder

42. The Name of the RoseUmberto Eco

43. Love in the Time of CholeraGabriel Garcia Marquez

44. RebeccaDaphne du Maurier

45. The Remains of the DayKazuo Ishiguro

46. The Unbearable Lightness of BeingMilan Kundera

47. BirdsongSebastian Faulks

48. Howards EndE. M. Forster

49. Brideshead RevisitedEvelyn Waugh

50. A Suitable BoyVikram Seth


51. DuneFrank Herbert

52. A Prayer for Owen MeanyJohn Irving

53. PerfumePatrick Susskind

54. Doctor ZhivagoBoris Pasternak

55. The Gormenghast TrilogyMervyn Peake

56. Cider with RosieLaurie Lee

57. The BellJar Sylvia Plath

58. The Handmaid's TaleMargaret Atwood

59. Testament Of YouthVera Brittain

60. The MagusJohn Fowles

61. Brighton RockGraham Greene

62. The Ragged Trousered Phi­lanthropistRobert Tressell

63. The Master and MargaritaMikhail Bulgakov

64. Tales of the CityArmistead Maupin

65. The French lieutenant's WomanJohn Fowles

66. Captain Corelli's MandolinLouis de Bernieres

67. Slaughterhouse 5Kurt Vbnhegut

68. Zen and the Art of Motorcycle MaintenanceRobert Pirsig

69. A Room with aView E.M. Forster

70. Lucky JimKingsley Amis

71. If Stephen King

72. The Power and the GloryGraham Greene

73. The StandStephen King

74. All Quiet on the Western FrontErich Maria Remarque

75. Paddy Clarke Ha Ha HaRoddy Doyle

76. MatildaRoald Dahl

77.American Psycho Bret Easton Ellis

78. Fear and Loathiflg in Las Vegas Hunter S. Thompson

79. A Brief History of Time Stephen Hawking

80. James and the Giant Peach Roald Dahl

81. Lady Chatterley's Lover D. H. Lawrence

82. The Bonfire of the Vanities Tom Wolfe

83. The Complete Cookery Course Delia Smith

84. An Evil Cradling Brian Keenan

85. The Rainbow D. H. Lawrence

86. Down and out in Paris and London George Orwell

87. 2001 — A Space Odyssey Arthur C. Clarke

88. The Tin Drum Gunther Grass

89. One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich Alexander Solzhenitsyn

90. Long Walk to Freedom Nelson Mandela

91. The Selfish Gene Richard Dawkifts

92. Jurassic Park Michael Crichtdn

93. The Alexandria Quartet Lawrence Durrell

94. Cry, the Beloved Country Alan Paton

95. High Fidelity Nick Hornby

96. The Van Roddy Doyle

97. The BFG Roald Dahl

98. Earthly Powers Anthony Burgess

99. I, Claudius Robert Graves

100. The Horse Whisperer Nicholas Evans


8. Compile your own list "Favourite Books of the Century."


9. Alexander Herzen called public libraries "a feast of ideas to which all are invited”. Read the text below and say how the modem libraries differ from those of the old days. Use the topical vocabulary.




There are many libraries which I use regularly in London, some to borrow books from, some as quiet places to work in, but the Westminster Central Reference Library is unique, in a small street just off Leicester Square, it is run by the London borough of Westminster. You don't need a ticket to get in, and it is available to foreign visitors just the same as to local resi­dents. You simply walk in, and there, on three floors, you can consult about 138,000 reference books and they include some very remarkable and useful items.

As you come in, the first alcove on the right contains tele­phone directories of almost every country in the world — Ar­gentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, and so on, besides direc­tories of important addresses in each country. There is also a street directory of every British town of any size, with the streets in alphabetical order, and the residents' names, as a rule, against their number in the street, while in another section the residents themselves are listed in alphabetical order.

Next there are technical dictionaries in all the principal languages. I counted 60 specialised technical dictionaries for Russian alone. Then there is a section which, besides the best world atlases, contains individual atlases of a great many countries, some of them almost too heavy to lift. Seven hundred periodicals, mostly technical, are taken by the library, and the latest issues are put out on racks nearby. By asking at the enquiry desk you can see maps of the whole of Britain on the scale of 1/60,000 and 1/24,000, and smaller-scale maps of nearly every other country in Europe.

Around the walls, on this floor and the floor above, are reference books on every possible subject, including, for instance, standard works of English literature and criticism. Foreign literature, however, is represented mainly by antho­logies.

Finally, on the top floor of all, is a wonderful art library, where you can take down from the shelves all those expensive, heavy, illustrated editions that you could never really afford yourself. The librarian at the desk can direct you to answers for


almost any query you may have about the plastic alts. There is in fact a busy enquiry desk on each floor, and the last time I was there they had just received a letter from a distinguished medical man. He had written to ask for information about sword-swallowing.He was very interested in the anatomy of sword-swallowers, and had failed to find anything either in medical libraries or in the British Museum Library! (Anglia, 1972)


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