ТОП 10:

Read the following conversational situations with statements. Remember that the low fall is used in final, calm, reserved, categoric statements.



Английская интонация.

Правила, упражнения

 

Практикум

 

Сыктывкар 2011


ПЕЧАТАЕТСЯ ПО РЕШЕНИЮ РЕДАКЦИОННО-ИЗДАТЕЛЬСКОГО СОВЕТА

КОМИ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОГО ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКОГО ИНСТИТУТА ОТ …

 

Рекомендовано к изданию заседанием кафедры

английского языка КГПИ от 19.05.2011, протокол № 8

 

Рецензент:О.Ю. Захарова, доцент кафедры английского языка

 

З.М. Шенина.Английская интонация. Правила, упражнения. Учебное пособие. – Сыктывкар: Коми пединститут, 2011. – 54 с.

 

Представленное пособие по фонетике английкого языка содержит правила и комплекс упражнений для студентов I и II курсов очного и заочного отделений факультетов иностранных языков.

Сведения по интонации английского языка изложены с учётом материала учебников «Практический курс английского языка» для 1 и 2 курсов под редакцией В.Д. Аракина, и сборника «Intermediate English Course»,University College, London. Для упражнений использована лексика соответствующих курсов.

 

 

© З.М. Шенина

© Коми государственный педагогический институт, 2011


Предисловие

 

Практикум по фонетике английского языка содержит правила и комплекс упражнений для студентов I и II курсов очного и заочного отделений факультетов иностранных языков. В работе представлены утвердительные, восклицательные, побудительные и вопросительные предложения. В упражнениях акцентируются следующие функции интонации: различение коммуникативных типов высказывания, выражение конкретных эмоций, вскрытие подтекста высказывания, характеристика ситуации общения. Сведения по интонации английского языка изложены с учётом материала учебников «Практический курс английского языка» для 1 и 2 курсов под редакцией В.Д. Аракина, и сборника «Intermediate English Course»,University College, London. Для упражнений использована лексика соответствующих курсов.

Расположение глав не обязывает к определённой последовательности изучения содержащегося в них материала. Внутри каждой главы материал расположен по степени трудности так, как кажется методически целесообразным.

 


Statements

I.the low fall;

II.the high fall;

III.the low rise;

IV.the high rise;

V.the fall-rise

VI.the rise-fall

I

The low fall

Statements with the low fall convey a calm, reserved, unsurprised, dull, possibly grim attitude on the part of the speaker.

When the law fall is preceded by the descending head the speaker may sound considered, responsible, intense, pressing, and rather emphatic.

E.g. Nora: I’m exˈpecting ˎMother – she is ˈcoming ˎover, for the ˎday. (Meet the Parkers 12)

Exercise 1.

Read the following conversational situations with statements. Remember that the low fall is used in final, calm, reserved, categoric statements.

1. Can you come tomorrow? – ˎYes.

2. Whose book is this? – ˎAnne’s.

3. Where do you come from? – ˎRussia.

4. How old are you? – ˎTwenty.

5. When is he coming? – Toˎmorrow.

6. Where is Ann? – She’s ˎout now.

Exercise 2.

Read the following conversational situations with statements. Remember, when the statements get longer they sound considered and weighty.

1. How much did you pay for it? – It ˈcosts ˈover ­two ˈhundred ˎpounds.

2. What is the weather like? – I ˈthink it is ˈgoing to ˎrain.

3. When can you come? – As ˈsoon as the ˈweather imˎproves.

4. Why didn’t the guard let you in? – He ˏsaid ∣he ˈcouldn’t ˈlet me ˈin without a ˎpass.

5. Have you any news of Malcolm? – We ˈhaven’t ˈheard from him for ˎages.

6. How did you spend the morning? – I ˈstayed in ˈbed until ˈnearly ˎlunch time.

7. David has grown a beard. – ˈSo he ˎhas.

8. What’s the time, please? – ˈTen ˈminutes to ˎnine.

9. I don’t like this film. – I enˈtirely aˎgree with you.

II

The high fall

Statements withthe high fall sound insistent, lively and interested, sometimes surprised. They are very common in conversation.

E.g. Mrs. Howard: Oh, but I’m sure he’ll win a scholarship.

Nora:`Yes, we `hope he ˏwill. (lively) (Meet the Parkers 3)

Harry:ˈNo, ˎseriously, ˏNora, │I ˈcan’t `bear it. (insistent) (Meet the Parkers 12)

Exercise 1.

Read the following conversational situations with statements, use the high fall. Convey your personal concern, including irritation or interest.

1. – Now what have you done to Mary? – `Nothing.

2. – Who has been eating my grapes? – `No one.

`No one has.

`No one’s been ˌeating your ˌwretched ˌgrapes.

3. – Which will you take, Henry? – `This one.

4. – How many of his books have you read? – `All of them.

5. – When did you see him? – On `Thursday.

6. – Would you like to join us? – I’d `love to.

7. – Come on. Let’s get going. – We `can’t. It’s `raining.

8. – It was your entire fault. – But it `wasn’t. And I can `prove it.

9. – What was the show like? – `First rate. ˈSimply `splendid.

10. – It’s not very valuable, is it? – It ˈcosts `three ˌhundred ˌpounds.

11. – We’ll never get there. – It’s `not as ˌfar as you iˌmagine.

12. – Which would you like, tea or coffee? – I’d preˈfer `tea.

13. – I may be a bit late. – It ˈwouldn’t ˈmatter in the `least.

14. – Has he caught up with the group? – `Better than that. He is the `best in the ˌgroup.

15. – Why doesn’t she join our trips? – ˈSometimes she `does.

16. – I’m an amateur. – I’ll ˈnever beˎlieve it. You are ˈgood at ˈtennis in`deed.

17. – Where is my tie? It’s gone again. – You `never reˌmember where you ˌput your ˌthings.

18. – Let’s go to the pictures tonight. – I ˈreally ‵can’t. I’ve ˈgot a `lot of ˌwork to ˌdo.

19. – I’m going to consult a doctor. – It’s ˈhigh ˈtime you `thought about your ˌhealth.

20. – We are leaving tonight. – It’s a `pity. You ˈpromised to ˈstay with us a ˈbit `longer.

 

Exercise 2.

Read the following conversational situations. Use either the low fall or the high fall in accordance with the speaker’s attitude given in brackets.

1. – I’m going to consult a doctor.

– It’s high time you thought about your health. (weighty)

– It’s high time you thought about your health. (lively)

2. – We are leaving tonight.

– It’s a pity. You promised to stay with us a bit longer. (weighty)

– But you promised to stay with us a bit longer. (surprised)

3. – Why don’t you go to the doctor?

– Sometimes I do. (weighty)

– Sometimes I do. (surprised)

4. – How many students of your group were present?

– All of them. (calm)

– All of them. (lively)

5. – I’m an amateur.

– I’ll never believe it. You are very good at tennis indeed. (weighty)

– I’ll never believe it. (surprised) You are very good at tennis indeed. (lively)

6. – I may be a bit late.

– It wouldn’t matter in the least. (calm)

– It wouldn’t matter in the least. (lively)

7. – I don’t often have time these days.

– Yes, there are so many other things to do. (lively)

– Yes, there are so many other things to do. (weighty)

8. – I’ll ring you tomorrow to confirm if we are coming.

– Fine. (lively)

– Fine. (calm)

9. – All his friends are just the same.

– All of them are wild. (surprised)

– All of them are wild. (weighty)

10. – Do you like to play squash?

– Yes, and I enjoy myself in the process. (calm and weighty)

– Yes, and I enjoy myself in the process. (lively)

11. – You haven’t got to go yet, have you?

– There is no need to rush. (lively)

– There is no need to rush. (weighty)

12. – The exams were much too hard for me.

– Oh, come on. You’ve probably done better than you think. (lively)

– Oh, come on. You’ve probably done better than you think (weighty)

13. – I’m not much of a swimmer.

– Well, I’m hardly the world’s best swimmer myself. (lively)

– Well, I’m hardly the world’s best swimmer myself. (calm)

14. – I don’t think I’ll fly.

– Well, the air-fair is quite expensive, I admit. (surprised)

– Well, the air-fair is quite expensive, I admit. (calm and weighty)

 

III

The low rise

 

With the descending scale statements with the low rise sound soothing and reassuring.

E.g. Nora:Yes, of course, Mrs. Howard, I mustn’t boast, but it ˈreally is a ˏcomfort to ˈhave ˈsuch a hard-working ˈboy as ˏRobert.

Exercise 1.

Read the following conversational situations, use the low rise. The statements reserve judgments and encourage further conversation.

1. Have you heard about Max? – ˏNo.

2. Whose book is this? – ˏMine.

3. How many blouses have you got? – ˏSix.

4. Aren’t they expensive? – ˈSome of them ˏare.

5. Can he come to tea tomorrow? – ˈMaybe he ˏcan.

6. I’m sorry, I’m late again. – That ˈdoesn’t ˏmatter.

7. How about asking Max to join us? – He ˈought to be ˈable to ˈget aˏway.

8. Do you think the proposal is reasonable? – On the ˈwhole it’s ˈquite ˏfair.

9. Can you turn up at nine on Tuesday? – As a ˈrule I ˏcan.

Exercise 2.

Exercise 3.

Read the following conversational situations. Use either the low fall or the low rise

The high rise

 

Statements with the high rise have in most cases the effect of questions expressing wonder.

E.g. You ˊlike him? (is equivalent to ˈDo you ˏlike him?)

ˊSugar? (is equivalent to ˈDo you ˈtake ˏsugar?)

Exercise 1.

The fall-rise

The fall-riseis a combination of the high fall and the low rise.

Statements with the fall-rise are used when the speaker draws a special attention to one element of the sentence for the purpose of contrast and at the same time shows an intention to continue the utterance. On the whole the fall-rise in statements conveys several meanings. It may sound apologetic, appreciative, grateful, regretful, sympathetic, pleading, plaintive, reassuring.

E.g. On ˋweek days I ˏstudy, ∣ but on ˋSaturdays I ˏdon’t. (contrast)

As ˋsoon as I ˌmake it ˏclean∣ the ˌboys make it ˋdirty aˌgain. (regretful)

Exercise 1.

The rise-fall

Statements with the rise-fallimply all the definiteness and finality, associated with the other falling tones.

In addition the rise-fall in statements shows that the speaker is greatly impressed. According to the situation it can express irony, mockery, putting up, sarcasm, challenge, reproach, admiration. So it may express attitude both pleasant and unpleasant from quizzical to challenging and from being pleasantly impressed to admiration.It is often used in echoing prior remarks.

E.g. Harry:I’m tired of lying here on my back with nothing to do. I hate doing nothing.

Nora:Don’t be silly, Harry. ˈYou’ve ˈgot a ˄temperature. (reproach) (Meet the Parkers 12)

A. Sorry, I’m a bit too late.

B.I’m afraid you’ve ˈcome a bit too ˄early. It’s five o’clock in the morning. (sarcasm)

A.His acting was not bad.

B.His acting was ˄marvellous. (admiration)

Here the meaning of the word marvellous itself is intensified. It is contrasted with the previous not bad.

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2.

Exercise 3.

Exercise 4.

Statements

I.the low fall;

II.the high fall;

III.the low rise;

IV.the high rise;

V.the fall-rise

VI.the rise-fall

I

The low fall

Statements with the low fall convey a calm, reserved, unsurprised, dull, possibly grim attitude on the part of the speaker.

When the law fall is preceded by the descending head the speaker may sound considered, responsible, intense, pressing, and rather emphatic.

E.g. Nora: I’m exˈpecting ˎMother – she is ˈcoming ˎover, for the ˎday. (Meet the Parkers 12)

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2.

The high fall

Statements withthe high fall sound insistent, lively and interested, sometimes surprised. They are very common in conversation.

E.g. Mrs. Howard: Oh, but I’m sure he’ll win a scholarship.

Nora:`Yes, we `hope he ˏwill. (lively) (Meet the Parkers 3)

Harry:ˈNo, ˎseriously, ˏNora, │I ˈcan’t `bear it. (insistent) (Meet the Parkers 12)

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2.

III

The low rise

 

With the descending scale statements with the low rise sound soothing and reassuring.

E.g. Nora:Yes, of course, Mrs. Howard, I mustn’t boast, but it ˈreally is a ˏcomfort to ˈhave ˈsuch a hard-working ˈboy as ˏRobert.

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2.

Exercise 3.

The high rise

 

Statements with the high rise have in most cases the effect of questions expressing wonder.

E.g. You ˊlike him? (is equivalent to ˈDo you ˏlike him?)

ˊSugar? (is equivalent to ˈDo you ˈtake ˏsugar?)

Exercise 1.

The fall-rise

The fall-riseis a combination of the high fall and the low rise.

Statements with the fall-rise are used when the speaker draws a special attention to one element of the sentence for the purpose of contrast and at the same time shows an intention to continue the utterance. On the whole the fall-rise in statements conveys several meanings. It may sound apologetic, appreciative, grateful, regretful, sympathetic, pleading, plaintive, reassuring.

E.g. On ˋweek days I ˏstudy, ∣ but on ˋSaturdays I ˏdon’t. (contrast)

As ˋsoon as I ˌmake it ˏclean∣ the ˌboys make it ˋdirty aˌgain. (regretful)

Exercise 1.

The rise-fall

Statements with the rise-fallimply all the definiteness and finality, associated with the other falling tones.

In addition the rise-fall in statements shows that the speaker is greatly impressed. According to the situation it can express irony, mockery, putting up, sarcasm, challenge, reproach, admiration. So it may express attitude both pleasant and unpleasant from quizzical to challenging and from being pleasantly impressed to admiration.It is often used in echoing prior remarks.

E.g. Harry:I’m tired of lying here on my back with nothing to do. I hate doing nothing.

Nora:Don’t be silly, Harry. ˈYou’ve ˈgot a ˄temperature. (reproach) (Meet the Parkers 12)

A. Sorry, I’m a bit too late.

B.I’m afraid you’ve ˈcome a bit too ˄early. It’s five o’clock in the morning. (sarcasm)

A.His acting was not bad.

B.His acting was ˄marvellous. (admiration)

Here the meaning of the word marvellous itself is intensified. It is contrasted with the previous not bad.

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2.

Exercise 3.

Exercise 4.

Exclamations

I.The law fall

II.The high fall

III.The low rise

IV.The fall-rise

V.The rise-fall

The low fall

The low fall is used in calm, unsurprised, reserved exclamations.

E.g. Would you like an apple? – ˎThank you.

He’s just arrived. – ˎFine!

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2.

Exercise 3.

The high fall

 

Pattern: (LOW PRE-HEAD +) HIGH FALL (+ TAIL)

The high fall in the nucleus starts very high and usually reaches the lowest pitch. The syllables of the tail are pronounced on the low level.

This intonation pattern is used in exclamations which are very emotional and sometimes they are pronounced with affronted surprise.

E.g.It’s eight o’clock. – `Heavens! I’m late. (affronted surprise)

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2.

Exercise 3.

III

The low rise

 

Intonation pattern (LOW PRE-HEAD +) LOW RISE (+ TAIL)

When the speaker uses the low rise in exclamations he reserves judgment; encourages further conversation; expresses calm, casual acknowledgment.

E.g.If you like I can book four seats for next Saturday. – All ˏright.

(Intermediate English. A Date for the Theatre.)

 

The low rise is often used in greetings.

E.g.Good morning. – ˏMorning!

 

 

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2.

Exercise 3.

The fall -rise

 

The fall -rise is a combination of the high fall and the low rise. The fall and the rise occur on separate syllables. The fall starts from a high level and ends very low. The syllables between the high fall and the low rise are said on a very low pitch. The falling part renders the main idea that the speaker wants to emphasize. In exclamations the fall- rise renders warm, sympathetic, encouraging, sometimes plaintive, puzzled or surprised attitude.

E.g. `Careˏful! (= it’s dangerous.)

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2.

The rise-fall

The rise-fall in exclamations shows that the speaker is greatly impressed. According to the situation it can express irony, mockery, putting up, sarcasm, challenge, reproach, admiration. So it may express attitude both pleasant and unpleasant from quizzical to challenging and from being pleasantly impressed to admiration.

E.g. ˄Oh, what a pity. I thought perhaps you might stay up to see her.

(emphatic) (Meet the Parkers 12)

- Did you have a good game Gerry? – ˄Splendid. (emphatic) (Intermediate English. Weight Problem)

- I am coming with you this evening. – ˄Wonderful!

- I think it’s good. – It’s ˄lovely!

- Everything is all right, isn’t it? – Yes, I’m so ˄happy!

 

Exercise 1.

General questions

I.The low rise

II.The high rise

III.The high fall + the low rise

IV.The high fall

V.The rise-fall

 

 

I

The low rise

 

The most common way of asking general questions is the low rise preceded by the descending scale. The speaker sounds sympathetically interested or puzzled.

E.g.ˈWill he ˈgo to the ˌUniˏversity, do you think? (sympathetically interested) (Meet the Parkers 3)

ˈIs he ˈstudying ˏscience? (sympathetically interested) (Meet the Parkers 3)

 

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2.

Exercise 3.

Exercise 4.

Exercise 5.

The high rise

General meaning: questioning, unofficial.

General questionswith the high rise sound casual, echoed.

 

Pattern: (LOW PRE-HEAD +) HIGH RISE (+ TAIL)

 

This intonation pattern is used in questions echoing, calling for repetition or additional information. Sometimes shading into disapproval or puzzlement.

If there is no tail the voice in the nucleus rises from a medium to a high pitch.

If there are unstressed syllables following the nucleus the latter is pronounced on a fairly high level pitch and the syllables of the tail rise gradually.

The syllables of the pre-head rise from a low pitch up to the start of the high rise.

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2.

III

The high fall + the low rise

 

The combination of the high fall with the low rise is used in sentences expressing highly emotional reaction to the situation. It is often heard in general questions conveying a plaintive, pleading, sometimes impatient tone. All other words of the head are not stressed.

E.g. – He played very badly today.

– ˈWill he `ever be any ˏbetter d’you think?

ˈThis ˈbeing ˈSaturday ˈafterˎnoon, │ˈdo you ˈknow what `I thought of ˏdoing first Dad?

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2.

Exercise 3.

The high fall

 

Intonation pattern: (LOW PRE-HEAD +) HIGH FALL (+ TAIL)

 

The high fall in the nucleus starts very high and reaches the lowest pitch. The syllables of the tail are pronounced on the low level.

The high fall provides a greater degree of prominence for the word, making it more emphatic.

In general questions this intonation pattern conveys mildly surprised acceptance of the listener’s premises, sometimes with a shadow of impatience.

E.g. ˈIs it ̀possible ∣ to ˈsee ˈanything of ˈLondon in ˈone or ̀two ˌdays?

(Practical Course of English, part two. Edited by V.D. Arakin. Sightseeing)

Compare: ˈDid she ˈask you to ˈgo ˏthere? (unemphatic)

ˈDid she ˈask you to ˈgo `there? (= Didn’t she ask you to go to another place?)

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2.

a) Read the following conversational situations. Use the low rise in the general questions. Show that you are sympathetically interested.

1. – I’m quite booked up next week. – ˈWill the ˈweek ˈafter ˈsuit you ˏbetter?

2. – I can’t meet you this Tuesday. – ˈShall we ˈleave it till ˈnext ˏweek?

3. – I’m sorry, but I hate cocoa. – ˈWould you ˈlike a ˈcup of ˏtea, then?

4. – Thank you for all you’ve done. – ˈIs there ˈanything ˈelse I can ˈdo to ˏhelp?

5. – He’s promised to stop smoking. – ˈDoes he ˈreally ˈmean what he ˏsays?

6. – Shall we go for a walk to the forest? – ˈIsn’t it ˈstill ˏraining?

7. – She promised to bring the book. – ˈDoes she ˈalways ˈkeep her ˏpromises?

b) Now show difference in your attitude to the situation. Use either the high fall or the low rise. Explain your attitude.

1. – I’m quite booked up next week.

– ˈWill the ˈweek ˈafter ˈsuit you ˏbetter?

– ˈWill the ˈweek `after suit you better?

2. – I can’t meet you this Tuesday.

– ˈShall we ˈleave it till ˈnext ˏweek?

– ˈShall we ˈleave it till `next week?

3. – I’m sorry, but I hate cocoa.

– ˈWould you ˈlike a ˈcup of ˏtea, then?

– ˈWould you ˈlike a ˈcup of `tea, then?

4. – Thank you for all you’ve done.

– ˈIs there ˈanything ˈelse I can ˈdo to ˏhelp?

– ˈIs there ˈanything `else I can do to help?

5. – He’s promised to stop smoking.

– ˈDoes he ˈreally ˈmean what he ˏsays?

– ˈDoes he `really mean what he says?

6. – Shall we go for a walk to the forest?

– ˈIsn’t it ˈstill ˏraining?

– ˈIsn’t it ˈstill `raining?

7. – She promised to bring the book.

– ˈDoes she ˈalways ˈkeep her ˏpromises?

– ˈDoes she `always keep her promises?

Exercise 3.

The rise-fall

 

With the rise-fall the idea of the utterance is intensified.

 

Ex.1.

Special questions

(I)the low fall;

(II)descending head + the low fall;

(III)the high fall;

(IV)the low rise;

(V)the high rise;

(VI)the fall-rise;

(VII)the rise-fall.

I

The low fall

Special questions are commonly used with the falling tones. In special questions with the law fall only the speaker sounds calm, serious, flat, reserved, very often unsympathetic.

E.g. Mrs. Howard:ˈWhat’s he ˈstudying ˎnow? (Meet the Parkers 3)

Harry:ˈWhat’s the ˈuse of ˈstaying in ˎbed? (Meet the Parkers 12)

Harry: ˈWhy do you ˈkeep ˈlooking at the ˎclock?

Exercise1.

Exercise 2.

E.g.

a)the speaker sounds serious and responsible, answerable, trustworthy:

Harry:Oh, yes. I’ll soon get the water to boil. ˎAh, │ ˈ where’s the ˎcoal? (Meet the Parkers 27)

ˈWhat would you say are the ˈmost ˎpopular ˌgames in ˌEngland toˌday? (Sports and Games Popular in England)

ˈWhat are the ˎother ˌoutdoor ˌgames? (Sports and Games Popular in England)

ˈWhat about ˎhorse-racing? (Sports and Games Popular in England)

ˈWhat about ˎindoor ˌgames? (Sports and Games Popular in England)

ˈWhat about ˈgoing to the ˎZoo? (Sightseeing)

 

b)the speaker sounds irritated, impatient:

ˈWhat have you been ˎbusy with ˌall ˌday? ˈWhy ˈisn’t the ˈsupper ˎready?

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2.

Exercise 3.

III

The high fall

 

Specialquestions with the high fall are very common in conversation. Theysound lively and interested.

E.g. Peter:Mum! Dad! ˈWhere is `everyone? Is the house empty? Hallo! (Meet the Parkers 8)

But sometimes the high fall shows that the speaker is unpleasantly surprised.

E.g.Robert:Peter! ˈWhat are you ˈmaking ˈall that` noise about? (Meet the Parkers 8)

Nora: The “Rovers” Robert? Why, ˈwhere have you `been? (Meet the Parkers 3)

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2.

Exercise 3.

The low rise

The low rise is used in special questions when the speaker:

(a) expresses a friendly interest;

E.g.ˈWhere is ˏMum? I want to ask her something. (“Meet the Parkers”8)

(b) sounds wondering or mildly puzzled, and wants the speaker to repeat the previously made statement calling for information already given;

E.g.ˈHow ˏold are you? (= I wonder what your age might be; please, tell it to me.)

(c)implies a mild reproach or sounds soothing;

E.g.ˈWhat have you ˏdone? (implying a mild reproach)

And ˈhow ˈoften do you ˈhear of a ˏcrash? ˈOnce or ˈtwice a ˏyear? (soothing)

 

(a)

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2.

Exercise 3.

Exercise 4.

Exercise 5.

The high rise

 

The high rise is used in special questions echoing, calling for repetition or additional information, sometimes shading into disapproval or puzzlement.

E.g. Nora:Oh, what a pity. I thought perhaps you might stay up to see her.

Harry: That’s the very reason I’m getting back into bed.

Nora:ˊWhat did you say? (“Meet the Parkers”12)

What’s that bowl for? – ˊWhat’s it for?

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2.

Exercise 3.

The fall-rise

 

Special questions with the fall-rise sound plaintive, pleading, weary, despairing.

E.g. Sorry, I’m late. – Oh, `why ˌcan’t you ˌcome on ˏtime for once?

Sometimes special questions with the fall-rise sound warm, sympathetic.

E.g. I feel so miserable, mother. – ˈWhat’s the `matter, ˏdearest?

The falling part marks the idea which the speaker wants to emphasize.

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2.

VII

The rise-fall

The rise-fall in questions shows that the speaker is greatly impressed. According to the situation it can express irony, mockery, putting up, sarcasm, challenge, reproach, admiration. So it may express attitude both pleasant and unpleasant from quizzical to challenging and from being pleasantly impressed to admiration.It is often used in echoing prior remarks.

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2.

Alternative Questions

In alternative questions consisting of two sense- groups only the sequence rise+fall is used, as a rule. The two facts expressed in such a question are mutually exclusive, the choice is limited and exhausted. For this reason the final sense-group is pronounced with the falling tone.

E.g. ˈIs the ˈmirror ̗round or ˎsquare?

Shall ̗I look after the luggage or will ˎyou?

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2.

Exercise 3.

Tag Questions

I. Balanced Tag Questions (the Basic Structure):

1) Tags with the low rise

2) Tags with the low fall

II. Unbalanced Tag Questions:

1) Positive-to-positive tag questions

2) Negative-to-negative tag questions

Tags with the low rise

A tag question is a special construction in English. It is a statement followed by a mini question. The whole sentence is a “tag question” and the mini question at the end is called “a question tag”.

As a rule, the English rising pattern is used when some sort of response is required. These tags make a grammatical statement into a real question. When you want an answer, are asking for information or want someone to do something you use the low rise.

E.g. You are ˈcoming to the ˎparty, │̗aren’t you?

 

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2.

Exercise 3.

Exercise 4.

Exercise 5.

Exercise 6.

Write down five facts about yourself and then say things to your partner like this:

(a change of person) I got an excellent mark for the test, didn’t you?

Exercise 7.

Tags with the low fall

Most English tag questions have the falling intonation. The falling tone is used to underline a statement. The statement itself ends with a falling tone, and the tag sounds like an echo, strengthening it. The falling tone is used when you don’t really need an answer.

E.g. He ˈdoesn’t ˈknow what he is ˎdoing, │ˎdoes he?

ˈThis is ˈreally ˎboring, │ˎ isn’t it?

It’s a ˈfine ˎday, │ˎ isn’t it?

It ˈthreatens to ˎrain, │ˎdoesn’t it?

ˈThat will be ˎnice, │ˎwon’t it?

 

Exercise 1.

Exercise2.

Complete the following sentences making them tag questions. The speaker is not certain of the fact expressed in the first part of the sentence. An answer is expected. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of the tag.

1. You aren’t reading this book now, …?

2. She doesn’t like tomatoes, …?

3. He lives in London, …?

4. They usually have dinner at seven o’clock,…?

5. You like both apples and pears,…?

6. He never uses pepper,…?

7. It’s high time we had a bite,…?

8. Going out in such weather is out of the question,…?

9. You’ve passed your exams,…?

 

Exercise 3.

Exercise 4.

Write down five facts about your partner that you think you are sure of, and five facts that you are not really sure of and need to check. Then say things to your partner like this:

(sure)You are twenty, ˎ aren’t you?

(not quite sure)You were in London last year, ˏweren’t you?

Exercise 5.

Exercise 6.

Exercise 7.

The New Pool

Andy Have they finished work on your new swimming-pool yet, Charles? When I passed by yesterday, it was being filled with water, wasn’t it?

Charles That’s right. We had our first swim in it this morning. The concrete path around it is going to be widened, but everything will have been completed before the end of the week.

AndyYou must be pleased. How long is it?

CharlesIt’s only 25 feet long and 15 feet wide, but that’s big enough to cool down in, isn’t it?

AndyAnd to get a spot of exercise in. If you normally swim twenty lengths in a big pool, you can get the same benefit if you swim up and down forty or fifty times in a small one, can’t you?

CharlesYes, but I’m hardly aiming at getting into the Olympic team, am I?

AndyHow deep is it? You can’t dive into it, can you?

CharlesOh yes you can! It’s eight feet in depth at one end. The diving board will be installed tomorrow. By the way we are holding a swimming party on Sunday, if it’s not too cold. You will come, won’t you?

AndyI’d love to come, but I’m not much of a swimmer, and I can barely dive at all. I’ll probably drown.

CharlesWell, I’m hardly the world’s best swimmer myself. Anyway there’ll be plenty to drink.

AndyGood. I’d rather drown in beer than in water.

 

Intermediate English Course recorded by Professor A.C.Gimson., Professor of Phonetics, University College London. Recorded in Great Britain.

 

 

II

Unbalanced Tag Questions

 

When there is special emphasis the rule applies that a positive sentence has a positive tag and a negative sentence has a negative tag.

The low rise of the tag usually creates a confrontational effect. It is mainly used when we are trying to be sarcastic or to make a strong point, to show anger, disbelief, shock, concern…

Besides positive-to-positive tag questions express a reaction as surprise or interest.

E.g. Jack: I refuse to spend Sunday at your mother’s house!

Jill: Oh you do, ˏdo you? We’ll see about that! (surprised)

 

He was the best in his class, ˏwas he? (disbelief / surprise)

You think you are funny, ˏdo you? (anger)

 

Negative-to-negative tag questions sound rather hostile.

E.g. Jack: I just won’t go back.

Jill: Oh you won’t, ˏwon’t you? (hostile)

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2.

Exercise 3.

Exercise 4.

Exercise 5.

a) Read the following tag questions; use either the low rise or the low fall according to the meaning.

He was the best in the class, ˏwas he? (the speaker is surprised, doesn’t believe)

He was the best in the class, ˏwasn’t he? (a response is expected)

He was the best in the class, ˎwasn’t he? (the speaker is sure)

He wasn’t the best in the class, ˏwasn’t he? (the speaker sounds rather hostile)

b) Read the following tag questions; use either the low rise or the low fall according to the meaning.

You aren’t going home after school, are you? (a response is expected)

You aren’t going home after school, are you? (the speaker is sure)

You aren’t going home after school, aren’t you? (the speaker sounds rather hostile)

You are going home after school, aren’t you? (a response is expected)

You are going home after school, are you? (the speaker is surprised, doesn’t believe)

 

c) Read the following tag questions; use either the low rise or the low fall, comment on the attitude of the speaker to the situation.

He is the best football player in his team, isn’t he?

He is the best football player in his team, isn’t he?

He is the best football player in his team, is he?

He isn’t the best football player in his team, is he?

He isn’t the best football player in his team, isn’t he?

III

Exercise 1.

You remember when “OK?” is used as a tag it means “I know you don’t believe it but…” Transform the following statements into tag questions by adding “OK?”, use the low rise and comment on your attitude to the situation.

Model: – He is a nice person.

– He is a nice person, OK?(I know you don’t believe it, but I think he is a nice person.)

1. She doesn’t like me.

2. We remembered everything.

3. He did a good job when he fixed my car.

4. She was prevented from going out.

5. He has gone on to the station with some of the luggage.

6. There is a good comedy on at the theatre today.

7. The doctor wasn’t called until this morning.

8. The Woods are rather careless.

9. It was a bad sore throat.

10. She hates waiting around.

11. He was always good at languages at school.

12. He enjoyed the work immensely.

 

Exercise 2.

Exercise 3.

Exercise 4.

Английская интонация.

Правила, упражнения

 

Практикум

 

Сыктывкар 2011


ПЕЧАТАЕТСЯ ПО РЕШЕНИЮ РЕДАКЦИОННО-ИЗДАТЕЛЬСКОГО СОВЕТА

КОМИ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОГО ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКОГО ИНСТИТУТА ОТ …

 

Рекомендовано к изданию заседанием кафедры

английского языка КГПИ от 19.05.2011, протокол № 8

 

Рецензент:О.Ю. Захарова, доцент кафедры английского языка

 

З.М. Шенина.Английская интонация. Правила, упражнения. Учебное пособие. – Сыктывкар: Коми пединститут, 2011. – 54 с.

 

Представленное пособие по фонетике английкого языка содержит правила и комплекс упражнений для студентов I и II курсов очного и заочного отделений факультетов иностранных языков.

Сведения по интонации английского языка изложены с учётом материала учебников «Практический курс английского языка» для 1 и 2 курсов под редакцией В.Д. Аракина, и сборника «Intermediate English Course»,University College, London. Для упражнений использована лексика соответствующих курсов.

 

 

© З.М. Шенина

© Коми государственный педагогический институт, 2011


Предисловие

 

Практикум по фонетике английского языка содержит правила и комплекс упражнений для студентов I и II курсов очного и заочного отделений факультетов иностранных языков. В работе представлены утвердительные, восклицательные, побудительные и вопросительные предложения. В упражнениях акцентируются следующие функции интонации: различение коммуникативных типов высказывания, выражение конкретных эмоций, вскрытие подтекста высказывания, характеристика ситуации общения. Сведения по интонации английского языка изложены с учётом материала учебников «Практический курс английского языка» для 1 и 2 курсов под редакцией В.Д. Аракина, и сборника «Intermediate English Course»,University College, London. Для упражнений использована лексика соответствующих курсов.

Расположение глав не обязывает к определённой последовательности изучения содержащегося в них материала. Внутри каждой главы материал расположен по степени трудности так, как кажется методически целесообразным.

 


Statements

I.the low fall;

II.the high fall;

III.the low rise;

IV.the high rise;

V.the fall-rise

VI.the rise-fall

I

The low fall

Statements with the low fall convey a calm, reserved, unsurprised, dull, possibly grim attitude on the part of the speaker.

When the law fall is preceded by the descending head the speaker may sound considered, responsible, intense, pressing, and rather emphatic.

E.g. Nora: I’m exˈpecting ˎMother – she is ˈcoming ˎover, for the ˎday. (Meet the Parkers 12)

Exercise 1.

Read the following conversational situations with statements. Remember that the low fall is used in final, calm, reserved, categoric statements.

1. Can you come tomorrow? – ˎYes.

2. Whose book is this? – ˎAnne’s.

3. Where do you come from? – ˎRussia.

4. How old are you? – ˎTwenty.

5. When is he coming? – Toˎmorrow.

6. Where is Ann? – She’s ˎout now.

Exercise 2.







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