ТОП 10:

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UNIT I . DRUG NAMES

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Drugs and Drug Names

Drugs are chemical or biological substances used in the prevention or treatment of disease or to alter bodily functions, such as mood, behaviour, or performance, in a beneficial way. Drugs can come from many different sources. Some drugs are obtained from parts of plants, such as the roots, leaves, and fruit. Examples of such drugs are digitalis (from the foxglove plant) and antibiotics such as penicillin and erythromycin. Drugs can also be obtained from animals; for example, certain hormones are secretions from the glands of animals. Drugs can be made as chemical substances that are synthesized in the laboratory. Anticancer drugs may be examples of laboratory-synthesized drugs. Some drugs are isolated from plant or animal sources and are contained in food substances. These drugs are called vitamins.

Drugs are prepared and dispensed by a pharmacist through a drugstore or pharmacy on written order from a physician or dentist.

A drug can have three different names. The chemical name is the chemical formula for the drug. This name, often long and complicated, is useful for the chemist because it shows the structure of the drug.

The generic, or official, name is a shorter, less complicated name that is recognized as identifying the drug for legal and scientific purposes. The generic name becomes public property after some years of use by original manufacturer, and any drug manufacturer may use it thereafter. There is only one generic name for each drug.

The brand (trade or proprietary) name is the private property of the individual drug

manufacturer, and no competitor (конкурент) may use it. A brand name often has the superscript ® after or before the name, indicating that it is a registered trade name. Drugs may have several brand names because each manufacturer producing a drug gives it a different name. When a specific brand name is ordered on a prescription by a physician, it must be dispensed by the pharmacist; no other brand name may be substituted. It is usual practice to capitalize the first letter or a brand name.

The following list shows the chemical, generic, and brand names of the antibiotic drug ampicillin; note that the drug can have several names but only one generic, or official, name:

Chemical Name

derivative of 6-aminopenicillanic acid

Generic Name ampicillin

Brand Name

Omnipen

Polycillin

Principen

Totacillin

Прочитайте и переведите предложения, определите, являются ли они верными или ложными. Исправьте ложные утверждения .

1) There are many different sources of drugs.

2) The only function of a drug is to prevent or treat diseases.

3) The drugs are dispensed on written order from a physician and over-the-counter.

4) The chemical name is the chemical formula for the drug and shows its structure.

5) Each drug may have several generic names.

6) The brand name is the private property of the individual drug manufacturer.

7) Drugs may have only one brand name.

3. Ответьте на вопросы.

1) What are drugs? What are they used for?

2) What are the sources of drugs?

3) Are antibiotics obtained from plants?

4) What drugs are called vitamins?

5) Where and by whom are drugs prepared and dispensed?

6) What names can a drug have?

7) What name shows the structure of the drug?

8) Which one is the only name for each drug?

9) What is the brand name?

10) Which name may be used by competitors and which one may not?

11) Why may drugs have several brand names?

12) What is special about brand names?

 

Выпишите из текстов урока слова и выучите их.

UNIT 2. DOSAGE FORMS

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The dose is the amount of drug taken at any one time. It can be expressed as the weight of drug (e.g. 250 mg), volume of drug solution (e.g. 10 mL, 2 drops), the number of dosage forms (e.g. 1 capsule, 1 suppository) or some other quantity (e.g. 2 puffs). There are many factors taken into consideration when deciding a dose of drug - including age, health state, etc. Other medicines may also affect the drug dose.

The dosage is the frequency at which the drug doses are given. Examples include 2.5 mL twice a day, one tablet three times a day, one injection every four weeks. Dosage instructions are written on the prescription and on the pharmacy label of a prescribed medicine. Dosage instructions are also found on the packaging and inserts of over-the-counter medicines.

The dosage form is the physical form of a dose of drug. Common dosage forms include tablets, capsules, creams, ointments, aerosols, and patches. Each dosage form may also have a number of specialized forms such as extended-release, buccal, dispersible, and chewable tablets.

The route of administration is the way the dosage form is given. Common routes of administration include oral, rectal, inhalation, nasal and topical.

Глоссарий 2. Dosage form

1. доза

2. дозировка

3. способ применения лекарственного препарата

4. давать лекарственные препараты в …(таблетках, капсулах…)

5. таблетки

- пероральные / жевательные / шипучие /буккальные (защечные)/ сублингвальные (подъязычные)

- таблетки, покрытые оболочкой

- таблетки, покрытые кишечнорастворимой оболочкой

6. пастилки

7. пилюля

8. суппозиторий, свеча

9. аэрозоль

10. порошок

11. капсула

12. раствор

13. мазь

14. крем

15. капли

- глазные

- назальные

- ушные

16. сироп

17. инъекция

18. ингаляция

19. растворять(ся) --растворение

20. ломать на 2 части

21. проглотить целиком

22. разжевать

23. запивать водой

24. принимать с едой / без еды, на пустой /полный желудок, до / после еды

25.  ежедневно / 3 раза в день

26. положить под язык

27. растолочь


 

UNIT 3. DRUG ADMINISTRATION

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Administration of Drugs

Drugs may be administered by many routes. The route of administration of a drug is very important in determining the rate and completeness of its absorption into the bloodstream and the speed and duration of the drug‘s action in the body.

The enteral route, the most commonly used one, involves drug absorption through the gastrointestinal tract. There are two ways to administer drugs orally: oral and sublingual administration. In oral route drugs are given by mouth, swallowed and are slowly absorbed into the blood stream through the stomach or intestinal wall. Sublingual administration means that drugs are not swallowed but are placed under the tongue and allowed to dissolve in the saliva. This method sometimes has several disadvantages. If the drug is destroyed in the digestive tract by digestive juices, or if the drug is unable to pass through the intestinal mucosa, it will be ineffective. Oral administration is also disadvantageous if time is a factor in therapy.

The parenteral route means any route other than through the digestive tract. It is usually an injection or infusion. There are several types of parenteral injections:

1. Subcutaneous injection (SC). This is also called a hypodermic injection and it is given just under the skin. The outer surface of the thigh is a usual location for this injection.

2. Intradermal injection is shallow and made into the upper layers of the skin and is used chiefly in skin testing for allergic reactions.

3. Intramuscular injection (IM). The buttock or upper arm is usually the site for this injection into muscle.

4. Intravenous injection (IV). This injection is given directly into a vein. It is used when an immediate effect from the drug is desired or when the drug cannot be safely introduced into other tissues. Good technical skill is needed to administer this injection because leakage of a drug into surrounding tissues may result in irritation and inflammation.

Inhalation. Vapours, or gases, are taken into the nose or mouth and are absorbed into the bloodstream through the thin walls of the air sacs in the lungs. Aerosols (particles of drug suspended in air) are administered by inhalation, as are many anaesthetics, and various aerosolized medicines used to treat asthma.

The epidural route involves giving a drug (usually an aesthetic or narcotic analgesic) through a catheter inserted near the spinal cord by a lumbar puncture.

The topical route includes aural, ocular, nasal and vaginal administration (ointments, creams, lotions).

Rectal administration is used when oral administration presents difficulties, such as in case of nausea or vomiting. Suppositories (cone-shaped objects containing drugs) and aqueous solutions are inserted into the rectum.

 

Дополните предложения.

1. We give a medicine to an infant with high fever that cannot swallow _________.

2. We administer ointments and gels____________.

3. The nurse did the Mantoux test________.

4. We will take tablets _____(when we swallow them) or________________ (under the tongue).

5. The doctors administered solutions _______. It could only be done by a nurse using special equipment.

6. The nurse does most vaccinations ________.

7. We call tablets that are held between the cheek and gum ____ tablets.

 

Составьте предложения .

1. Tablets, Take, Orally, A glass of water, An empty stomach

2. Suppositories, Insert, Rectum, Infants, Fever

3. Tablet, Put, Tongue, Dissolve, Mouth

4. Buccal, Cheek, Gum, 30 min., Place, Hold

5. Capsule, Gel, Powder, Container, Easy to swallow

6. Injections, Muscle, Intramuscular, Common, Buttock, Thigh, Site, Give

7. Intravenous, Into a vein, Drug, Bloodstream, Deliver

8. Intravenous, Infusion, Experienced nurse, Special equipment

9. Film-coated, Chew, Crush, Release, Drug, Intestine

10. Gel, Administration, Apply, Surface, Clean, Topical

UNIT 4. CLASSES OF DRUGS

Дополните предложения

1) _____ reduces or eliminates sensation.

2) _____ are used to regulate the level of insulin in the body.

3) _____ relieves pain.

4) _____ prevent the formation of clots or break up clots in blood vessels and are added in preserved blood.

5) _____ cannot cure the allergic reaction, but they can relieve its symptoms.

6) _____ depress the central nervous system and promote drowsiness and sleep.

7) _____ are taken if something is wrong with the organs of the digestive tract.

8) _____ elevate mood, increase physical activity and mental alertness, and improve appetite and

sleep.

9) _____ act on the heart and blood vessels.

10) _____ inhibit or kill bacteria, fungi, and parasites.

Дополните диалоги .

Anticonvulsant; anticoagulant; antacid; antibiotic; ACE inhibitor; bronchodilator; antihistamine; tranquillizer; analgesic

1. A: This patient has the history of severe behaviour disturbances and anxiety.

B: He needs a (an) ….

2. A: Doctor, this patient has a convulsion attack. I think, it‘s epilepsy.

B: We shall give him a (an) ….

3. A: The cardiologist made the diagnosis of congestive heart failure and hypertension.

B: I‘m sure he administered a (an) ….

4. A: Doctor, I often feel some epigastric discomfort after meal.

B: You may take some ….

5. A: Can you recommend me anything for myalgia and neuralgia?

B: I can advise you a mild ….

6. A (in the operating room): This patient is developing the anaphylactic shock.

B: We must prevent it with a (an) ….

7. A: What should I administer in case of thrombosis or embolism?

B: …s are in that drug cabinet.

8. A: The diagnosis of the patient admitted to the ward 617 is bacterial pneumonia.

B: Give him injections of this … every 6 hours.

9. A: Can I help you?

B: My daughter suffers from asthma attacks. I need a new prescription for her ….

 

REFERENCE

Indomethacin

Composition:

Indomethacinum 10 g in ointment base up to 100 g.

Properties:

The ointment exhibits anti-inflammatory and antiexudative properties. Being a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor it exercises both keratolytic and antiseptic effect. The excellent resorption of this

ointment ensures its therapeutic effect creating high tissue concentrations at the application areas.

Indications:

Acute and chronic rheumatic polyarthritis, osteoarthrosis, Behterev‘s disease, degenerative articular

diseases, discopathies, neuritis, plexitis, radiculitis, post-operative edema, contusions,

thrombophlebitis, hyperkeratolytic eczemas, herpes zoster, arthropathic psoriasis, climacteric

keratosis, etc.

Contraindications:

Drug allergy, peptic and duodenal ulcer, bronchial asthma, epilepsy, Parkinsonism, during pregnancy and breast feeding, leucopenia, haemorrhagic diathesis (thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy).

Side-effects:

Allergic reactions, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis. Following long term treatment, however

rarely, headache, drowsiness, depressive states, hepatitis and pancreatitis can be observed especially

in more susceptible patients.

Drug interactions:

Therapeutic effect of Indomethacin decreases, if applied concurrently with salycilates. Probenecid

suppresses renal excretion of indomethacin. The effect of Indomethacin is enhanced if applied in

combination with glucocorticoids and pyrazolon derivatives.

Precautions:

If treatment lasts longer than ten days, follow carefully the patient‘s blood picture (leucocytes,

thrombocytes). If applied in combination with antibiotics, anticoagulants or antidiabetic drugs

ensure control of proper clinical and laboratory parameters.

Dosage and application:

Rub the affected joints or skin areas a few-centimetre-long tube squeeze of Indomethacin ointment,

2–3 times a day. Total daily amount should not exceed 15 cm for adults and 7.5 cm for children.

Package:

Ointment in aluminium tubes of 40 g.

Storage:

At moderate temperature (15–30oC) in light-protected areas.

Exp.term :

2 years (two years).

Produced by :

TROYAPHARM Co

UNIT I . DRUG NAMES

Прочитайте и переведите тест.

Drugs and Drug Names

Drugs are chemical or biological substances used in the prevention or treatment of disease or to alter bodily functions, such as mood, behaviour, or performance, in a beneficial way. Drugs can come from many different sources. Some drugs are obtained from parts of plants, such as the roots, leaves, and fruit. Examples of such drugs are digitalis (from the foxglove plant) and antibiotics such as penicillin and erythromycin. Drugs can also be obtained from animals; for example, certain hormones are secretions from the glands of animals. Drugs can be made as chemical substances that are synthesized in the laboratory. Anticancer drugs may be examples of laboratory-synthesized drugs. Some drugs are isolated from plant or animal sources and are contained in food substances. These drugs are called vitamins.

Drugs are prepared and dispensed by a pharmacist through a drugstore or pharmacy on written order from a physician or dentist.

A drug can have three different names. The chemical name is the chemical formula for the drug. This name, often long and complicated, is useful for the chemist because it shows the structure of the drug.

The generic, or official, name is a shorter, less complicated name that is recognized as identifying the drug for legal and scientific purposes. The generic name becomes public property after some years of use by original manufacturer, and any drug manufacturer may use it thereafter. There is only one generic name for each drug.

The brand (trade or proprietary) name is the private property of the individual drug

manufacturer, and no competitor (конкурент) may use it. A brand name often has the superscript ® after or before the name, indicating that it is a registered trade name. Drugs may have several brand names because each manufacturer producing a drug gives it a different name. When a specific brand name is ordered on a prescription by a physician, it must be dispensed by the pharmacist; no other brand name may be substituted. It is usual practice to capitalize the first letter or a brand name.

The following list shows the chemical, generic, and brand names of the antibiotic drug ampicillin; note that the drug can have several names but only one generic, or official, name:

Chemical Name

derivative of 6-aminopenicillanic acid

Generic Name ampicillin

Brand Name

Omnipen

Polycillin

Principen

Totacillin







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