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XII. Make these sentences negative and interrogative
1. We shall be waiting for you at the cinema the whole day long. 2. He will be writing a text at 10 o’clock. 3. It will be raining all day. 4. He will be delivering a lecture from 5 to 6. 5. The students will be working in the laboratory at 12. 6. I shall be teaching her to skate from 6 to 7. 7. We shall be passing our examination tomorrow at 12.
XIII. Use the Future Continuous instead of the infinitive in brackets
1. You (to do) your homework at 5 o’clock. 2. Where the man (to sit) at that time? 3. What he (to do)? 4. The sun (to shine) at noon. 5. We (to translate) this text from 5 to 6. 6. What you (to do) tomorrow at 6? 7. We (to play) tennis the whole morning tomorrow.
XIV. Translate the following:
1. Коли ви прийдете до мене, я буду працювати в лабораторії. 2. Я буду відпочивати в цей час. 3. Він гратиме в шахи з 8 до 9. 4. Ми будемо чекати на вас весь вечір. 5. В неділю о п’ятій годині я допоможу вам.
XV. Use the Past Continuous or the Future Continuous instead of the Infinitives in brackets
1. When I got back they (to have) supper. 2. When I get back they (to have) supper. 3. At ten o’clock he still (to sleep), and we had to wake him. 4. Don’t come at ten, I’m sure he still (to sleep). 5. I was late for the meeting. When I entered they (to discuss) what slogans to make for the demonstration. 6. We (to wait) for you at the metro station . Don’t be late. 7. I always prepare my lessons in the morning; so tomorrow morning I (to do) the same. 8. Can you tell me what you (to do) at eight o’clock? I couldn’t get you on the tomorrow.
Topic: British economy
Grammar: The Perfect Tenses
I. Read the following words
Manufactured, employed, agriculture, mining, building, provide, natural, resources, richly, cultivation, sheep breeding, pig raising, soil, fertile, quality, expensive, characteristic, semi-finished, cheap, mostly, precision, equipment, chemicals, woollen, leather, synthetic, original, coal mining, iron steel, engineering, particularly, aircraft, automobile, atomic, reactor, emphasis.
II. Read and translate the following text:
The United Kingdom is one of the world’s largest exporters of manufactured goods per head of population. For every person employed in agriculture eleven people are employed in mining, manufacturing and building.
Apart from coal and iron ore Britain has very few natural resources. Its agriculture provides only half the food it needs. Most of if the raw materials such as oil and various metals (copper zinc, uranium ore and others) have to be imported. Britain also has to import timber, cotton, fruit and farm products.
Britain used to be richly forested, but most of the forests were cut down to make more room for cultivation. The greater part of land is used for cattle and sheep breeding, and pig raising. Among the crops grown on the farms are wheat, barley and oats. The fields are mainly in the eastern part of the country. Most of the farms are small. Farms tend to be bigger where the soil is less fertile.
Britain produces high quality expensive goods, which has always been characteristic of its industry. A shortage of raw materials, as well as the high cost of production makes it unprofitable for British industry to produce semi-finished goods or cheap articles. Britain mostly produces articles, requiring skilled labour, precision instruments, chemicals. Britain high quality consumer goods and articles made of various kinds of synthetic (man-made) materials.
The original basis of British industry was coal mining, and the early factories grew up not far from the main mining areas.
Glasgow and Newcastle became great centres of engineering and shipbuilding . Lancashire produced cotton goods and Yorkshire woollens , with Sheffield concentrating on iron and steel. Birmingham developed light engineering. There appeared a tendency for industry and population to move to the south, particularly to the London area. Britain’s industry is now widely dispersed. Great progress was made in the development of new industries, such as the aircraft, automobile, electronic industries and others. A number of atomic power reactors were made.
Great emphasis was made on the development of the war industry .
1. manufactured goods – промислові товари
2. per head of population – на душу населення
3. apart of smth. – крім чогось
4. used to be smth. – був кимось колись
5. used to do smth. – робив щось колись
6. to make room for smth. – звільняти простір (місце) для чогось
7. to breed smth. – розводити, вирощувати (тварин)
8. to tend to do smth. – мати тенденцію робити щось
9. article – виріб, товар, предмет виробництва
10. to require smth. (doing smth.) – вимагати, потребувати чогось (робити щось)
11. precision instruments – точні інструменти
12. to be widely dispersed – широко розповсюджуватись
13. to make emphasis on smth. – надавати чомусь особливого значення , приділяти комусь особливу увагу
III. Find the English in the right-hand column for the following
1. недостатня кількість сировини 1. raw materials
2. дорогі товари високої якості 2. various metals
3. свинарство 3. to be richly forested
4. вівчарство (розведення овець) 4. to import timber
5. ввозити деревину 5. to make room for smth.
6. бути багатим на ліси 6. sheep breeding
7. різноманітні метали 7. pig raising
8. сировина 8. high quality expensive goods
9. звільняти місце 9. shortage of raw materials
10. військова промисловість 10. semi-finished goods
11. синтетичні матеріали 11. precision instruments
12. точні інструменти 12. electronic equipment
13. атомний реактор 13. man-made materials
14. електронне обладнання 14. the original basis
15. напівфабрикати 15. atomic power reactor
16. початкова основа 16. war industry
IV. Complete the following sentences
1. Great Britain is rich in ... . 2. Britain has very few ... . 3. Britain also has to import ... . 4. Most of the forests were cut down to ... . 5. Among the crops grown on the farms are ... . 6. Britain produces high quality ... . 7. Britain mostly produces article requiring ... . 8. Britain produces and exports ... . 9. The original basis of British industry was ... . 10. Great emphasis was made on the development of the ... .
V. Say if it is right
1. The United Kingdom is the largest exporter of manufactured good. 2. Britain is rich in very few natural resources. 3. Britain has to import coal and iron ore. 4. The greater part of land is used for sheep breeding, pig raising and flower growing. 5. Britain produces high quality cheap goods. 6. Britain mostly produces articles requiring skilled labour, precision instruments and electronic equipment. 7. Britain exports cotton and woollen goods but not leather goods. 8. Coal mining was the original basis of British industry. 9. Aircraft, automobile and electronic industries are new Britain’s industries. 10. Glasgow is famous for engineering and shipbuilding.
VI. Fill in the blanks with prepositions
1. Britain produces goods and articles made ... various kinds of synthetic materials. 2. For every person employed ... agriculture, eleven people are employed ... mining, manufacturing and building. 3. Most ... the raw materials have to be imported. 4. The fields are mainly ... eastern part ... the country. 5. A shortage ... raw materials makes it unprofitable ... British industry to produce semi-finished goods or cheap articles. 6. Sheffield is concentrating ... iron and steel. 7. A present industry has a tendency to move ... the south, particularly ... the London area.
VII. Answer the following questions
1. What natural resources does Great Britain have?
2. What raw materials does Britain import?
3. Why does Britain have to import raw materials?
4. What does Britain export?
5. What is the characteristic feature of British industry?
6. Why is it unprofitable for Britain to produce semi-finished goods or cheap articles?
7. What are the main articles produced by British industry?
8. What are Britain’s traditional industries?
9. What are Britain’s main industries today?
10. What are the main industrial centres of Great Britain?
11. What are the main branches of British agriculture?
12. What is the greater part of land used for?
13. What crops are grown on the farms of Britain?
14. Why does Great Britain have to import farm products?
VIII. Speak on the text ”British Economy”
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