ТОП 10:

Для формування ПК у учнів старшої школи



Writing tip

Letters asking for or giving advice can be formal, informal or semi-formal depending on the situation. A letter asking for advice can be sent to a friend, a consultant or an advice column in a magazine. Details of the problem should be mentioned. A letter giving advice should contain suggestions introduced with appropriate language.

Informal (friendly) letters are normally written to relatives, friends or other people we know very well. A good informal letter should be divided into paragraphs. Each paragraph should deal with one aspect of the subject and start with a topic sentence which gives the main idea of the paragraph.

Useful language: Opening remarks - Thank you for your letter, and of course I’d be happy to help. - I’m sorry to hear about… but I think I can help you. Giving advice - If I were you/ In your position, I’d/ I would(n’t)… - You should/shouldn’t… - It would(n’t)/ might be a good idea (for you) to… - (I think) the best thing would be (for you) to… - Why don’t you…? - Have you thought of/ about… (+ing)? - Another good idea is to… Expected result - This will/ would mean that… - This/ that way… - If you do this, you will … so that you can/ will… Closing remarks - I hope that this/ my advice helps. - I/ Let’s hope that things get better/ that everything turns out all right. - Let me know what happens.  


Practice

1) Before writing a letter, play a game. Choose from the situations below and give advice using phrases from the list above.

What advice would you give sb who wants to:

· lose weight?

· meet new friends?

· buy a car?

· learn English?

· save money?

· make money?

· pass an exam?

· get a job?

· help the environment?

· get fit?

Example: (sb wants to lose weight): You should avoid eating sweets. You shouldn’t eat junk food.

 

2) Read the letter and label the paragraphs with headings below:

ü closings remarks

ü second piece of advice and reason

ü opening remarks

ü third piece of advice and reason

ü express sympathy

ü first piece of advice

ü offer help

 

 

Introduction Dear John, Thank you very much for your letter! It sounds as if things are going well for you at university. I can understand how nervous you are about your first exam, and I’m happy to provide you with some study tips that helped me. First of all, the most important thing is not to wait until the last minute to study. You might want to consider making a study timetable with regular breaks. If you do this, you will avoid exhaustion and panic before your exam. Another good idea is not to forget to have a rest during long hours of preparation. Easy physical exercises such as nodding your head, shaking your hands or stamping your feet will definitely help you. And of course, the best thing would be to get a good night’s rest before your exam and to eat a good breakfast in the morning. Leave plenty of time to get to the examination place, so you won’t be in a hurry. I hope some of this advice helps. You have always been a good student and I know nothing has changed now that you’re at university. Don’t worry too much and don’t give up! Write and let me know the results! Lots of love, Ann       Para 1 ………………... ………………….. ………………….     Para 2 ………………….. ………………….. …………………..     Para 3 ………………… …………………. …………………     Para 4 …………………. ………………….. ………………….     Para 5 …………………. ………………… …………………
Main body
Conclusion

 

 

3) Read the letter again and answer the questions:

1. What is Ann’s advice?

2. What reasons does she give to support each piece of advice?

3. How does Ann list her points?

4. Which of these sentences can you use to start/ end a letter of advice? Put S (start) and E (end) opposite each phrase:

· How’s it going?

· I must go now.

· I’d better go now.

· Thanks for your letter.

· Hope to see you soon.

· How’s everything with you?

5. Which words does Ann use to express her sympathy for John?

Read the rubric and match the advice (1-5) to the pictures and to the results (a-e). Use phrases from the Useful Language box to make sentences as in the example.

Your English pen friend John has written a letter asking for advice on how to get into shape. Write an email offering advice.

AB

1 ……. join a gym aprevents hunger build up

2 ……. avoid eating sweets b get in shape – tone muscles

3 ……. eat small meals c will motivate you to stay in shape

4 ……. find a fitness partner d get easy daily exercise – save money 5 ……. walk as much as possible on transport

e won’t gain weight


 

 


Complete the chart

Part Purpose Notes Useful expressions
First line Greet your pen friend Dear…  
Introduction (Para 1) Thank pen friend for letter, express sympathy and offer help     Hi! Thanks for your last letter. I was sorry to hear about…/ to be honest…/ If you ask me…/ I tend to think that…
Main body (Para 2) Make your 1st suggestion and give reason / example     If I were you…/ In your position I’d (wouldn’t)…/ How about…?/ I’d suggest…/ Perhaps you should/could…./ Why don’t you…? Another good idea is to…/ The best thing you can do is to… Have you ever thought about/of...?   This would mean that… / That way,…/ If you do this, …/ As a result,…/ For example,…  
(Para 3) Make your 2ndsuggestion and give reason / example      
(Para 4) Make your 3rd suggestion and give reason / example    
Conclusion (Para 5) Give a reason for ending the letter   (Well) I really hope my advice will help you. I have to go now as… Write soon!/ Take care and hope to hear from you soon/ See you soon
Closing expressions (2) Express love   Love,/ Lots of love,/ Good luck / All the best
Final line Say who are you (first name only)    

 

6) Now, use the plan below and write your letter of advice to John.

Plan

Dear John,

Introduction

(Para 1) opening remarks, express sympathy, offer help

Main body

(Para 2) first piece of advice & reason

(Para 3) second piece of advice & reason

Conclusion

(Para 4) closing remarks

Love from / Best wishes / etc (+ your first name)

Situations for the letter of advice:

1. Your best friend wants to go to a pop concert but his parents won’t let him go.

2. Your brother Tom likes a girl in his class but is scared to tell her.

3. Your sister thinks that her best friend might have lied to her.

4. Your pen friend wants a new i-Phone 6S for his birthday but his parents are saving money for a new car.

5. Your cousin is thinking of leaving school at sixteen and getting a job.

6. A friend of yours who is fourteen years old, really wants to get a tattoo.

 

Writing tip

There are various types of letters such as: letters of complaint, letters asking for/ giving information, letters of request, letters asking for/ giving advice, letters of invitation, letters accepting/ refusing an invitation, letters expressing congratulations/ thanks/ regret, sympathy, letters giving news, letters of apology, letters of application for a job and letters to the editor providing solutions/ suggestions.

A good letter should consist of:

a) an appropriate greeting (Dear Peter, Dear Mr Ford, Dear Sir/ Madam);

b) an introduction clearly stating the reason you are writing;

c) a main body in which the subject is developed. Begin a new paragraph for each main point;

d) a final paragraph in which you sum up the topic or express your wish for something to be done;

e) an appropriate ending (Yours/ Best wishes + first name, Yours sincerely/ Yours faithfully + full name).

 

Style in Letters

The characteristics of formal style in letters are:

§ the greeting (Dear Mrs Lee, Dear Sir)

§ frequent use of the passive

§ formal language (complex sentences, non-colloquial English)

§ no abbreviated forms

§ the ending (Yours sincerely/ Yours faithfully, Jason McNeil)

The characteristics of informal style in letters are:

§ the greeting (Dear Alex, Dear Dad)

§ informal language and style (idioms, colloquial English)

§ abbreviated forms, pronouns omitted

§ the ending (Yours/ Love? Best wishes/ Regards, Anthony)

 

Letters of Complaint

§ Letters of complaint are normally written in a formal style.

§ Mild or strong language can be used depending on the feelings of the writer or the seriousness of the complaint, but abusive language must never be used.

e.g. Mild Complaint: I am writing to complain about a damaged videotape I bought at your shop. I hope you will deal with this matter/ resolve this matter quickly.

Strong Complaint: I am writing to express my disgust at the appalling treatment I received while staying at your hotel. I insist upon full compensation or I will be forced to take this matter further.

§ Start a new paragraph for each different aspect of the topic.

§ You should state the reason for the complaint in the first paragraph.

§ Any complaints you make should be supported with a justification.

§ Complaints and justification can be linked together as follows.

I still haven’t received the goods I ordered in spite of / despite the fact that I sent you a cheque three weeks ago.

Although / Even though I have only used the automatic tin-opener once, it no longer works, I have written to you twice but you have not taken any action. I have already written to you twice. Nevertheless / However, you have not taken any action.

Useful Language for Letters of Complaint Opening Remarks: (Mild) I am writing to complain about / regarding / on account of / because of / on the subject of…/ I am writing to draw your attention to…/ I am writing to you in connection with… etc. (Strong) I was appalled at / I want to express my strong dissatisfaction with / I feel I must protest / complain about, etc. Closing Remarks: (Mild)I hope/ assume you will replace/ I trust the situation will improve/ I hope the matter will be resolved/ I hope we can sort this matter out amicably, etc. (Strong) I insist you replace the item at once/ I demand a full refund/ I hope that I will not be forced to take further action, etc.  


Practice







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