ТОП 10:

V. Write one word in each gap to complete the sentences



1.America had a huge head start thanks to its abundance of __________ __________. It has thousands of acres of fertile land and lots of fresh water.

2.The country is also a major source of _______________: American TV, Hollywood films, jazz, blues, rock and rap music are primary ingredients in global popular culture.

3.With an aging population of farmers, it's clear that _____________ needs to attract more young people. This is a global challenge: half the farmers in the United States are 55 years of age or older.

4.Mechanization and automation do away with thousands of office jobs, intensify production and increase labour productivity.

5.Agricultural ___________ are a strategically important export, at $136 billion. They are:soybeans ($23 billion), which are mainly used for feed and are genetically engineered; _______ and poultry ($19 billion), which are raised using antibiotics; wheat ($11 billion), which is also genetically engineered. (Source: U.S. Census, Exhibit 7. Exports by End-Use Category, 2013)

6.Most of the world's goods are produced by global multinationals, and the United States is very successful at exporting the supplies and ___________ they need.

7.________________ include diagnostics, prescription drugs, vaccines, vitamins, and over-the-counter drugs for human and veterinary applications. This subsector also includes biotechnology products.

8.__________ ______ is a fuel produced in the U.S. and Canada and is a major source of _________ for today and the future as it is cleaner burning than petroleum products.

9.It is not unusual to see today's __________driving tractors with air-conditioned cabs hitched to very expensive, fast-moving plows*, tillers**, and harvesters.

10.The USA is a highly industrialized country with various branches of heavy industry prevailing, namely _________, __________________, automobile and chemical industries as well as engineering.

 

* fast-moving plows – швидкісний плуг

**tiller - культи вар, підгортач

VI. Translate the words and word combinations in the brackets into English.

1. The USA has a lot of nature’s riches. These riches are called (природні ресурси) _______ or materials found in nature that are (корисні) ______ or (необхідні) _______ for human life.

2. Millions of people in America maketheir livingfrom the (ресурси) ________ of these lands.

3. The nation has highly productive (сільськогосподарські ресурси) ________ and is the (найбільший у світі виробник продуктів харчування) __________.

4. Unlike Australia and Canada, the U.S. has temperate climate combined with fertile (грунт) _________.

5. Because of the favourable rainfall, temperature many different kinds of (культур) ________ such as (пшениця) _________, (кукурудза) _________, (соєві боби) ________, (овес) _______, (цитрусові) ________ can be widely grown in the country.

6. (Залізо) _________, (мідь) _________, (свинець) ________, (срібло) _________, (золото) _________, and other (корисні копалини) _____are found in the earth.

7. (Кам’яне вугілля) _________ and (нафта) ________ are used for heating homes and running factories.

8. The forests of America supply the furniture-making factories, paper mills* with (лісоматеріал) _________.

*paper mills - целюлозно-паперові фабрики

VII. Translate the sentences into English.

1.Американська економіка працює ефективно, тому що більшість підприємств знаходяться у приватній власності і діють без контролю з боку уряду.

2.Незважаючи на те, що кількість робітників в обробній промисловості зменшилась, вона залишається головною складовою економіки США..

3.США мають такі високорозвинені галузі промисловості, як чорну металургію, хімічну та вугледобувну, харчову та текстильну, швацьку та виробництво шкіряних товарів.

4.Найбільший сектор економіки, сектор послуг та торгівлі, займає перше місце у створенні нових робочих місць.

5.До складу транспортної мережі США, розгалуженої по всій країні, входять комерційні авіалінії, залізничні дороги та велика кількість автобусних компаній

6.Досягнення у галузі комп’ю-терних технологій повністю змінили методи обробки інформації у таких сферах економіки, як банківські та фінансові послуги, засоби масової інформації та зв’язку, індустрії туризму та розваг.

7.Сполучені Штати лідирують у виробництві електронних комплектуючих виробів та програмного забезпечення для комп’ютерів.

8.Економіка Сполучених Штатів багатогалузева. Вона виробляє велике розмаїття товарів та послуг.

9.Сполучені Штати Америки мають величезні родовища природного газу та нафти.

10.Нафта переробляється на бензин, рідке паливо та хімічні продукти, які використовуються для виробництва пластмаси, фарби та синтетичних волокон.

11.Вугілля та залізна руда є основою сталеливарної промисловості, яка виробляє комплектуючі деталі для виробництва автомобілів, приладів, устаткування та іншої продукції.

12.Історично сільськогосподарська продукція Сполучених Штатів була серед найкращих у світі.

13.Фермери країни не тільки виробляють достатньо продуктів харчування для того, щоб прогодувати населення країни, але й експортують більше сільськогосподарської продукції, ніж інші країни світу.

14.У Сполучених Штатах Америки поширене розведення великої рогатої худоби, свинарство, птахівництво.

15.Південь країни – провідний постачальник овочів та фруктів.

 

VIII. Choose the appropriate term according to the definition.

сommunication systems, labor force, an employee, network, output, manufacturing industry, the Internet, entertainment, fuel

1. Individuals, 16 years of age or older, working or looking for work – __________.

2. A person employed for wages or salary – ______________________________

3. The amount of goods or work produced by a person, a machine, a factory – _____

4. A system of lines, tubes, wires, roads etc that cross each other and are connected to each other – __________________________________________

5. Things such as films television, performance etc that are intended to amuse or interest people – ________________________________________________

6. A material for burning as a source of heat, power, or nuclear energy –________

7. A computer system that allows millions of computer users around the world to exchange information – __________________________________________

8. An industry that changes raw materials into finished goods – _____________

9. Means of spreading information – _________________________________

Reading

ACTIVITY 1

  1. Read the following text. Choose the best word, A, B, C or D to fill each gap.

Civil Servants

In the USA there are literally about two million people who work for the national and (1)....... government. From the post office to the office of the President, civil servants keep the government’s (2)....... running.

Many people would like to go for a civil service (3)......., and for good reason. Government (4)....... usually enjoy a variety of (5)....... including health insurance, paid holiday leave and (6)....... funds. They have good annual (7) ......., are always paid extra for doing (8)....... and are sometimes even rewarded with bonuses for making useful (9).......!

Civil service jobs are usually permanent; rarely are workers (10)....... redundant. Applicants who apply for a (11)....... in the civil service must (12)....... in an application form and pass an examination before they can be selected and appointed to a job.

1. A topical B nearby C local D close

2. A officers B services C franchises D research

3. A commission B occupation C accommodation D career

4. A assistants B employees C applicants D bosses

5. A investments B benefits C debts D experiences

6. A pension B richness C wealth D fortune

7. A winnings B takings C salaries D gifts

8. A gigs B functions C overtime D work

9. A suggestions B profits C performances D ideas

10. A made B done C taken D forced

11. A movement B position C motion D location

12. A write B complete C sign D fill

ACTIVITY 2

Read the text and be ready to do the assignments.

Agriculture and the Economy

From the nation's earliest days, farming has held a crucial place in the American economy and culture. Farmers play an important role in any society, of course, since they feed people.

The American farmer has generally been quite successful at producing food. Indeed, sometimes his success has created his biggest problem: the agricultural sector has suffered periodic bouts of overproduction that have depressed prices. For long periods, government helped smooth out the worst of these episodes. But in recent years, such assistance has declined, reflecting government's desire to cut its own spending, as well as the farm sector's reduced political influence.

American farmers owe their ability to produce large yields to a number of factors. For one thing, they work under extremely favourable natural conditions. The American Midwest has some of the richest soil in the world. Rainfall is modest to abundant over most areas of the country; rivers and underground water permit extensive irrigation where it is not.
Large capital investments and increasing use of highly trained labour also have contributed to the success of American agriculture.

Biotechnology has led to the development of seeds that are disease and drought resistant. Fertilizers and pesticides are commonly used (too commonly, according to some environmentalists). Computers track farm operations, and even space technology is utilized to find the best places to plant and fertilize crops. What's more, researchers periodically introduce new food products and new methods for raising them, such as artificial ponds to raise fish.

By the late 1990s, the U.S. farm economy continued its own cycle of ups and downs, booming in 1996 and 1997, then entering another slump in the subsequent two years. But it was a different farm economy than had existed at the century's start. (288)

 

a) Exploiting vocabulary.

Look through the text again. Some words/ phrases are highlighted. What do you think they mean? Don’t just look at the words; look at the context and sentences surrounding them.

 

b) Understanding main points of the text.







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