ТОП 10:

Look at chart 1 below. Read the description and label the chart.



The pie chart shows the breakdown of US labor force. The majority of the labour force’s occupations are managerial, professional or technical in nature, which form 37.3% of the total. This is followed by sales or office jobs, which make up 24.2 percent. 20.3 percent are in either manufacturing, extraction, transportation and crafts, while farming, forestry or fishing constitute 0.7 percent. Jobs in other services account for the remaining 17.5 percent.

 
 
Chart 1


Answer these questions.

1) What is the purpose of the first sentence in the description?

2) In what order does the description deal with the categories in the pie chart: from larger to smaller or clockwise round the pie chart?

3) How many other verbs can you find which mean ‘formed’?

4) Why are so many different verbs with the same meaning used?

Look at the chart 2 and complete the description below with up to six words in each space.

The chart shows the breakdown of 1__________. The largest amount of energy generated was from petroleum which 2________ of the total. This is followed by natural gas, which 3________. Coal 4________, while nuclear 5________. About 6_______of all energy consumed in the United States in 2014 ____ from renewable sources.

U.S. Energy Consumption in 2014
*renewable sources (відновлювальні, альтернативні джерела)  
Chart 2

Study chart 3 and write your own description.

The chart shows the main categories of US agricultural exports in 2014

The main categories of US agricultural exports in 2014
*Oilseeds - олійні культури *Feed- корм, фураж  
Chart 3

 

 

Look at the COUTRY PROFILE: THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (p.1) and make up your own pie chart. Describe it using the words from the previous exercises.

Text B

Manufacturing and Energy Sector.The United States of America leads all nations in the value of its yearly manufacturing output. Manufacturing employs about one-sixth of nation's workers and accounts for 17 percent of annual gross domestic product. Although manufacturing remains a key component of the US economy, the number of employees in manufacturing industry declined slightly while the total labor force grew.

The leading categories of the US manufactured goods are chemicals, industrial machinery, medical equipment, electronic equipment, electric apparatus, semiconductors, processed foods, and transportation equipment. Transportation equipment includes passenger cars, trucks, air planes, space vehicles, ships and boats, and railroad equipment. Industrial machinery includes engines, farm equipment, construction machinery, refrigeration equipment, and computers. Factories in the United States build millions of computers, and the country occupies second place in the world in the production of electronic components and exercises the world leadership in the development and production of computer software.

The US economy is famous for its highly developed iron and steel industry. Textile, clothing, leather goods, food processing, precision instruments, lumber, furniture, tobacco products and many others are well developed too.

The energy to power the nation's economy1 - providing fuels for its vehicles and electricity for its machinery and appliances - is derived primarily from petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Petroleum provides 37 percent, natural gas - 25 percent and coal – 21 percent of the total energy consumed in the USA.

Service and Commerce Sector. By far2the largest sector of the economy in terms ofoutput and employment is the service and commerce sector that employs 75 percent of the US workforce. The growth of the sector has resulted in creating many new jobs in financing, banking, education and health services requiring advanced education.

Transportation-related businesses are an important part of the service industry. The US transportation network spreads into all sections of the country, and serves the nation's largest urban, industrial, and population concentrations. Large and small airports across the nation have formed a network providing air transportation to individual travelers. The nation has more than 5 thousand public and more than 13 thousand private airports.

One of the largest service industries in the United States is travel and tourism. Domestic and foreign travelers visit theme parks3, natural wonders, and points of interest in the country’s major cities. Tourism is the mainstay of the economies of California, Florida, and Hawaii.

Such branches of the entertainment business as motion picture production, theatre, television also play a vital part in the nation's life.

Information and Technology Sector. One of the most far-reaching technological advances4 of the late 20th century took place in the field of computer science.

The Internet began in the 1960s as a small network of academic and government computers primarily involved in research for the US military. It quickly became a worldwide network providing users with information on a range of subjects and allowing them to pay bills, order airline tickets, purchase goods via computer over the Internet.

The communication systems in the United States of America are among the most developed in the world. The Internet, television, newspapers, and other publications, provide most of the country's news and entertainment. Although the economic output of the communications industry is relatively small, the industry has enormous importance to the political, social, and intellectual activity of the nation. Most communication media in the USA are privately owned and operated independently of government control.

Natural Resource Sector.The United States, more than most countries, enjoys a wide variety5of natural resources.

The USA has substantial mineral deposits within its borders. It leads the world in the production of phosphate, an important ingredient in fertilizers, and ranks second in gold, silver, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, natural gas, and coal. The United States has huge fields of natural gas and oil. Petroleum production is third in the world, after Russia and Saudi Arabia. Other natural resources include molybdenum, phosphates, uranium, bauxite, mercury, nickel, and tungsten. Although mining accounts for only a small share of the nation’s economic output, it was historically essential to US industrial development and remains important today. Coal and iron ore are the basis for the steel industry, which fabricates components for manufactured items such as automobiles, appliances, machinery, and other basic products. Petroleum is refined into gasoline, heating oil, and the petrochemicals used to make plastics, paint, pharmaceuticals, and synthetic fibers.

Agricultural output in the United States has historically been among the highest in the world. Despite its vast output, the agriculture accounts for only 2 percent of annual GDP and employs only 0.7 percent of the workforce. Even though the number of farms has been declining for the last decades, the overall production has increased because of applying mechanization, technology, efficient business practices6, and scientific advances in agricultural methods. Bigger farms, operated as large businesses, have increasingly replaced small family farms. Farmers in the United States not only produce enough food to feed the nation’s population, they also export more farm products than any other nation.

The United States has some of the best cropland in the world. Cultivated farmland constitutes 19 percent of the land area of the country and makes the United States the world's richest agricultural nation. In part because of the nation's favourable climate, soil, and water conditions, farmers produce huge quantities of agricultural commodities and a variety of crops and livestock.

The United States is the largest producer of corn, soybeans, and sorghum, sugar cane, potatoes, corn, peanuts, and sugar beets. It ranks second in the production of wheat, oats, citrus fruits and tobacco.

Cattle, hog, and chicken production are widespread throughout the United States. It ranks fourth in the world in cattle production and second in hogs.

Forestry accounts for less than 0.5 percent of the nation's gross domestic product. Nevertheless, forests represent an essential resource for US industry. Forest resources are used in producing housing, fuel, foodstuffs, and manufactured goods.

The United States leads the world in lumber production and is second in the production of wood for pulp and paper manufacture. However, all of the US demand for forest products is not satisfied, the United States has to import lumber, most of which comes from Canada.

COMMENTS

1. The energy to power the nation's economy - енергія, яка є рушійною силою економіки держави

2. By far - безперечно

3. theme parks – тематичні парки, парки з атракціонами та обладнанням і т.п., присвячені одній темі

4. far-reaching technological advances – технологічні досягнення, які мають довгострокові перспективи

5. enjoys a wide variety – використовує широке розмаїття;

6. business practice – практика ділових стосунків.

Words and phrases to be remembered:

1. entertainment business– індустрія розваг

2. tourism business– туристичний бізнес

3. a transportation-related business – підприємство, яке надає послуги пов’язані з перевезенням

4. communicationn – 1) спілкування, зв’язок; 2) сполучення, комунікація.

5. communication media –засоби масової комунікації

6. communication systems -системи зв’язку

7. communications industry –галузь зв’язку та комунікацій.

8. derive (from)v–добувати.

9. employv наймати, брати на службу, давати роботу, користуватися послугами.

10. employee,nробітник, службовець, найманий працівник

11. employment n1)праця, робота, служба;2)зайнятість.

12. equipmentn – устаткування, обладнання.

13. electronic/transportation/railroad/refrigeration/medical equipment–електронне транспортне/залізничне/холодильне/медичне обладнання/устаткування.

14. Food processing – виготовлення харчових продуктів

15. processed foods – бакалейні продукти, бакалея, напівфабрикати.

16. abranch of industry – галузь промисловості

17. food/food processing industry– харчова промисловість

18. iron and steel industry–чорнаметалургія

19. manufacturing industry– обробна промисловість

20. service industry–індустрія/сфера послуг

21. steel industry– сталеливарна промисловість

22. textile industry– текстильна промисловість.

23. in terms ofз точки зору.

24. leadv – займати перше місце; бути попереду; іти першим; випереджати; перевершувати; лідирувати.

25. economic output– обсяг виробництва

26. manufacturing output – обсяг випуску продукції обробної промисловості;

27. agricultural output – обсяг сільськогосподарського виробництва.

28. via prep – через

29. constitute v – складати.

30. cropland n –орна земля.

31. in partexp–частково.

32. fertilizer n – добриво.

33. fibre/fibern – волокно; synthetic fibres–синтетичні волокна.

34. oil n –1)олія, 2) нафта.

35. petrochemical n – нафтопродукт.

36. pharmaceutical n –фармацевтична продукція, фармацевтичний препарат, лікарські препарати.

37. overall production – загальний обсяг виробництва

38. cattle production–тваринництво,розведення великої рогатої худоби

39. hog production – свинарство

40. chicken production – птахівництво

41. lumber production – виробництво пиломатеріалів

42. petroleum production – нафтовидобуток.

43. rankv – займати (посідати) певне місце; to ranks first (second, fourth, etc)– посідати перше (друге, четверте тощо) місце.

44. refinev – очищувати, рафінувати, підвищувати якість; to refine oil – очищувати нафту.

45. sugar cane – цукрова тростина.

46. lumber n – лісоматеріали.

47. widespread adj – широко розповсюджений

 

Vocabulary practice







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