ТОП 10:

Bronchial mucosa inflammation



2. +++pleura irritation

Bronchospasm

Lung tissue inflammatory infiltration

Lungs dilatation

11. Inspiratory dyspnea is:

1. +++complicated inhalation

2. complicated exhalation

3. complicated inhalation and exhalation

4. tachypnea

5. bradypnoea

 

12. In expiratory dyspnea will be observed

1. complicated inhalation

2. +++complicated exhalation

3. complicated inhalation and exhalation

4. bradypnoea

5. disturbed breathing rhythm

 

13. Pathologically quickened breathing is called:

1. bradypnoea

2. apnea

3. +++tachypnea

4. tachycardia

5. bradycardia

 

14. Downshift of lower lung borders will be determined at:

1. obturator atelectasis

2. +++lungs emphysema

3. presence of air in pleural cavity

4. inflammatory pulmonary infiltration

5. bronchial dilatation

 

15. Performing the lungs percussion in the interscapular region, the finger plessimeter will be put:

1. +++vertically

2. horizontally

3. aslant

4. on intercostal region

5. on the backbone

 

16. In norm the height of apexes of lungs behind will be determined:

1. 1 – 2 cm above the spine of scapula

2. 2 – 3 cm above the spine of scapula

3. +++on the level of spinous processes of VII cervical vertebra

4. on the level of spinous processes of VI cervical vertebra

5. on the level of spinous processes of I thoracic vertebra

 

17. The goal of topographic percussion of lungs is:

1. determination of thorax elasticity

2. determination of vocal tremor

3. +++determination of lower borders of lungs

4. determination of tenderness

5. thorax form determination

 

18. Pathologic dullness of percutory sound over lungs is conditioned by:

1. +++decreased air content in the part of lung

2. presence of large smooth-wall cavity

3. filling of pleural cavity by air

4. increased airiness of lung tissue

5. bronchospasm

 

19. Best patient position for lungs auscultation:

1. right lateral position

2. left lateral position

3. supine position

4. prone position

5. +++sitting with hands lying on knees

 

20. Places of best lungs auscultation:

1. VI intercostal space at right

2. III – IV intercostal space at left

3. +++at front, under II intercostal space

4. over the shoulder blade

5. apex of lung

 

21. Cause of moist rales occurrence is:

1. fibrin deposition on leafs of pleura

2. narrowing of bronchial lumen as a result of mucosal edema

3. pulmonary collapse

4. spasm of bronchioles

5. +++accumulation of liquid sputum in the bronchial lumen

 

22. Vesicular breathing is occurring as a result of:

1. air passage through the glottis

2. +++oscillations of alveoli walls in the inhalation phase

3. accumulation of sputum in the bronchial lumen

4. spasm of large bronchi

5. spasm of small bronchi

 

23. Bronchial breathing is occurring as a result of:

1. bronchospasm

2. +++air passage through the glottis

3. oscillation of elastic components of alveoli walls in the inhalation phase

4. accumulation of a small amount of liquid secretion in the alveolar lumen

5. accumulation of sputum in the bronchial lumen

 

24. Condition of crepitation formation is:

1. air passage through the glottis

2. oscillation of elastic components of alveoli walls in the inhalation phase

3. +++accumulation of inflammatory secretion in the alveolar lumen

4. bronchospasm

5. accumulation of sputum in the bronchial lumen

 

25. Condition of pleural friction rub formation is:

1. air passage through the vocal cords

2. oscillation of elastic components of alveoli walls in the inhalation phase

3. accumulation of sputum in the bronchial lumen

4. +++fibrin deposition on pleura during inflammation

5. bronchospasm

 

26. Amphoric breath sounds is occurring as a result of:

1. small bronchi spasm

2. air passage through the glottis

3. oscillation of alveoli walls in the inhalation phase

4. +++presence of a large smooth-walls cavity, communicating with a large bronchus

5. large bronchi spasm

 

27. Distinctive signs of rales is that in auscultation they are:

1. heard only in the inhalation phase

2. heard only in the exhalation phase

3. +++heard both in the inhalation and the exhalation phase

4. strengthened when pressing on the thorax with stethoscope

5. amount of rales is not changed after cough

 

28. Auscultative sign of pleural friction rub is that it is:

1. heard only in the inhalation phase

2. heard only in the exhalation phase

3. +++strengthened when pressing on the thorax with stethoscope

4. strengthened after cough

5. disappears after cough

 

29. Typical sign of crepitation is:

1. it is heard only in the exhalation phase

2. +++it is heard only at inhalation height

3. strengthened when pressing on the thorax with stethoscope

4. strengthened after cough

5. disappears after cough

 

30. Cause of strengthened bronchophony is:

1. bronchospasm

2. lungs dilatation

3. +++pulmonary tissue thickening

4. liquid secretion accumulation in bronchi

5. presence of air in the pleural cavity

 

31. Main complaint in the syndrome of presence of liquid in the pleural cavity is:

1. hemoptysis

2. cough with purulent sputum

3. +++dyspnea

4. fever

5. retrosternal pains

 

32. In which of under-mentioned syndromes in the sputum will be excreted elastic fibers:

1. inflammatory infiltration of pulmonary tissue

2. +++ presence of a cavity in lungs

3. presence of liquid in the pleural cavity

4. disturbed bronchial patency

5. presence of air in the pleural cavity

 

33. In which syndrome during respiratory organs pathology in the sputum, Kurshman’s spirals will be detected:

1. increased lungs airiness

2. inflammatory lungs infiltration

3. +++bronchospasm

4. presence of liquid in pleural cavity

5. bronchiectasis

 

34. Patient K. 47 y.o. Complaints: dyspnoe, heavily separated viscous sputum. In the examination – barrel chest, in the respiration act participate additional muscles. Percussion – bandbox resonance. Auscultation – strengthened vesicular breathing with prolonged exhalation, dry whistling rales. For which syndrome is typical this clinical finding:

1. infiltrative pulmonary tissue inflammation

2. atelectasis

3. liquid accumulation in pleural cavity

4. bronchiectasis

5. +++bronchospasm

 

35. During sputum examination following was found: amount of sputum is insignificant, it has viscous consistency. At microscopy eosinophils, Kurshman’s spirals and Sharko-Leyden’s crystals were found. For which syndrome these signs are typical:

1. bronchiectasis

2. inflammatory pulmonary infiltration

3. +++bronchospasm

4. presence of a cavity in lung

5. presence of liquid in pleural cavity

 

36. During the patient’s examination, chest asymmetry due to increase of its right half, lag of the right half in the act of breathing and percutory dull sound will be determined. For which syndrome it is typical:

1. dilatation of bronchi (bronchiectasis)

2. inflammatory infiltration of lungs

3. presence of a cavity in lung

4. +++presence of liquid in pleural cavity

5. bronchospasm

 

37. Auscultative data at liquid accumulation in pleural cavity:

1. dry rales

2. amphoric breathing

3. clear vesicular breathing

4. +++breathing is absent

5. bronchial breathing

 

38. Which auscultative data are typical for syndrome of lung tissue inflammatory infiltration:

1. clear, vesicular breathing

2. +++weakened vesicular breathing

3. strengthened vesicular breathing

4. amphoric breathing

5. dry whistling rales

 

39. Which complaint is typical to the syndrome of presence of a cavity in lung:

1. dry cough

2. +++cough with excretion of purulent, stinking sputum

3. cough with heavily separable viscous sputum

4. forced exhalation

5. feeling of heaviness in the chest

 

40. In syndrome of inflammatory infiltration of the lung tissue in the sputum will be found:

1. +++macrophages

2. Kurshman’s spirals

3. Sharko-Leyden’s spirals

4. elastic fibers

5. eosinophils in large amounts

 

41. Which auscultative data are typical in the syndrome of presence of a cavity in lung:

1. clear vesicular breathing

2. +++amphoric breathing

3. dry whistling rales

4. crepitation

5. pleural friction rub

 

42. Changes of bronchophony in unilateral liquid accumulation in pleural cavity:

1. strengthening at both sides

2. strengthening at affected side

3. strengthening at opposite side

4. bronchophony is not changed

5. +++at affected side bronchophony will be not detected

 

43. At X-ray examination, for the syndrome of air presence in the lung is typical:

1. non-homogenous darkening

2. round enlightenment with the level of liquid

3. intense darkening with slant upper border

4. intense darkening with horizontal upper border

5. +++absence of lung pattern and shadow from collapsed lung at the root

 

44. In a patient, cough with “rusty” sputum, fever, dyspnea, pain in the right half of thorax, at the same place the strengthening of vocal tremor and bronchophony as well as bronchial breathing will be found. For which syndrome these signs are typical:

1. presence of liquid in pleural cavity

2. bronchospasm

3. +++inflammatory infiltration of lungs

4. bronchiectasis

5. lung emphysema

 

45. In a patient with dyspnea, dry cough, thoracic pains at the examination will be determined thorax asymmetry with extrusion of intercostal spaces at the left, lag of the left part of thorax in the act of breathing, percutory dull sound. At the same place breathing is not heard. At X-ray imaging of chest organs at the left, homogenous darkening with slant position of higher border is detected. For which syndrome this clinical pattern is typical:

1. bronchospasm

2. presence of air in pleural cavity

3. +++presence of liquid in pleural cavity

4. inflammatory infiltration of lungs

5. bronchi dilatation

 

46. Auscultative data in syndrome of air presence in pleural cavity:

1. clear vesicular breathing

2. strengthened vesicular breathing

3. +++sharply weakened vesicular breathing

4. amphoric breathing

5. dry rales

 

47. In a patient with pathology of respiratory organs, in the morning, the sputum with unpleasant odor is secreted, which after standing separates in three layers. For which syndrome this clinical pattern is typical:

1. +++bronchi dilatation

2. bronchospasm

3. lung tissue inflammatory infiltration

4. lungs dilatation

5. atelectasis

 

48. A patient has complaints of complicated exhalation. At the examination, barrel chest with dilated intercostal spaces was found, participation of auxiliary muscles in the act of respiration; at auscultation – evenly weakened vesicular breathing. For which syndrome in respiratory organs pathology this clinical pattern is typical:

1. bronchictasia

2. lung tissue thickening

3. +++lung emphysema

4. lungs shrinkage

5. pleura thickening

 

49. For differential diagnostic by exudate and transsudate the most informative method is:

1. chest organs radioscopy

2. chest organs X-ray imaging

3. +++laboratory examination

4. bronchoscopy

5. US

 

50. Stinking odor of freshly secreted sputum is typical for a syndrome:

1. lung tissue inflammatory infiltration

2. presence of air in pleural cavity

3. presence of liquid in pleural cavity

4. lungs dilatation (emphysema)

5. +++bronchial dilatation (bronchiectasis)

 

51. In which syndrome the largest diagnostic importance has the sputum examination:

1. +++presence of cavity in lung

2. presence of air in pleural cavity

3. presence of liquid in pleural cavity

4. compression atelectasis

5. lungs dilatation

 

52. Which examination method has diagnostic significance to detect the syndrome of the presence of liquid in pleural cavity:

1. sputum examination

2. bronchoscopy

3. +++X-ray analysis

4. blood gases determination

5. peak flowmetry

 

53. Patient on X-ray examination was diagnosed with “lung abscess”. Which changes can be found in the sputum analysis?

1. Kurshman’s spirals

2. macrophages

3. eosinophils

4. Sharko-Leyden’s crystals

5. +++elastic fibers

 

54. Complaints in syndrome of inflammatory infiltration of lungs:

1. +++cough with “rusty” sputum

2. dry cough

3. purulent stinking sputum

4. dyspnea with complicated expiration

5. viscous heavily separable sputum

 

55. Patient N., 24 y.o. He went to a doctor with complaints of fever, cough with sputum, with blood streaks. In anamnesis – after suffered overcooling he felt acute pain in his right flank and high temperature. During palpation – at the corner of right shoulder blade on the level of 6-7 i/c the vocal tremor is strengthened; percussion – also here – dull lung sound. Which auscultative changes will be present?

1. on the expiration, buzzing rales

2. large bubbling rales

3. +++crepitation

4. dry whistling rales

5. respiration is absent

 

56. Patient Z.,54 y.o., went to a doctor with complaints of morning cough with mucous and purulent, with blood streaks, sputum, excreted by the “full mouth”, and periodic fever. In anamnesis – he is ill for few years, in overcooling the disease exacerbates. At examination – sallow complexion; “drum-stick” fingers, “watch glass” nails. Left half of chest lags behind in the act of respiration, Percussion – at left shoulder-blade line on the level of 7 – 8 i/c – dull lung sound with tympanic note. Which is auscultative symptomatology?

1. amphoric breathing

2. bronchial breathing

3. crepitations

4. large bubble rales

5. +++small or medium bubble rales

 

57. Vocal tremor in inflammatory infiltration of lungs is:

1. weakened

2. +++strengthened

3. not modified

4. not detectable

5. not evaluable

 

58. Patient D., 17 y.o. with complaints of dry cough, marked dyspnoe, increased body temperature, pains in the right half of chest went to family doctor. In anamnesis – he is ill for 2 weeks, attributes this to overcooling. At the examination, doctor found enlargement of the right half of his chest and smoothing of intercostal spaces; in auscultation – the respiration is acutely weakened. Which changes will be present at percussion?

1. tympanic sound

2. box sound

3. +++dull sound

4. dull tympanic sound

5. clear lung sound

 

59. Patient S., 37 y.o. called for first aid due to severe dyspnoe, pain in the left half of the chest and insignificantly increased body temperature. From anamnesis – yesterday morning during the physical exercise he felt sudden pain in the left half of his chest, in the evening dyspnoe occurred, and pain became more severe. At the examination – patient is sitting, marked dyspnoe, cyanotic complexion, left half of his chest is enlarged. Vocal tremor here will be not determined. Percussion – tympanic sound. Which syndrome should a doctor think about?

1. accumulated liquid in pleural cavity

2. +++accumulated air in pleural cavity

3. thickened lung tissue

4. dilated lung

5. bronchiectasis

 

60. In the sputum of patient were found: amount – 500 ml, color – yellow-green, stinking unpleasant odor. Microscopy – elastic fibers in large quantities, single erythrocytes. In which syndrome these symptoms are present?

1. +++presence of a cavity in lung

2. atelectasis

3. lung tissue inflammatory infiltration

4. liquid accumulation in pleural cavity

5. bronchospasm

 

61. Patient E., 27 y.o., went to a doctor with complaints of cough with heavily separable, in small amount, glassy sputum and dyspnoe with complicated exhalation. In anamnesis – the disease is present from childhood, exacerbations more often occur after influenza. Examination – chest is dilated in lower half, intercostal muscles participate in the act of respiration. Percussion – box sound. Determine possible auscultative data?

1. bronchial respiration

2. crepitation

3. respiration with metal sound

4. large bubbling rales

5. +++dry whistling rales

 

62. In patient’s sputum Kurshman’s spirals and Sharko-Leyden’s crystals were found. Which syndrome you should think about?

1. air accumulation in pleural cavity

2. inflammatory thickening of lung tissue

3. +++bronchial asthma

4. liquid accumulation in pleural cavity

5. bronchi dilatation

 

63. In patient Р., 47 y.o., there are complaints of attack-like dyspnea, mucous sputum, secreted at the end of prolonged cough. From anamnesis – this disease is bothering for last 5 years, first occurrence after honey intake. At examination a physician determined emphysematous modidied chesd, forced breathing. How percutory data will change?

1. dull tympanic sound

2. tympanic sound

3. clear pulmonary sound

4. +++box sound

5. dull sound

 

64. Causes of rough respiration:

1. presence of a large cavity in lung

2. lung tissue thickening

3. exudate accumulation in alveoli

4. +++narrowing of small bronchi and bronchioles

5. appearance of a small cavity in lung

 

65. In a patient at X-ray examination, inflammatory infiltration of lung tissue was found. How auscultative symptomatology can change?

1. dry rales

2. +++bronchial breathing

3. strengthened vesicular breathing

4. large bubbling rales

5. amphoric breathing

 

66. In a patient, breathing with metal note occurred. What can be a cause?

1. +++open pneumothorax

2. bronchi dilatation

3. lungs dilatation

4. narrowed bronchi

5. thickened lung tissue

 

67. Patient Е., 44 y.o., complaints about cough with heavily separable viscous sputum and dyspnoe. At examination: additional muscles are participating in the act of breathing; chest is emphysematous. Percussion – box sound; auscultation – dry rales. Determine a syndrome in patient:

1. inflammatory infiltration

2. +++bronchospasm

3. atelectasis

4. liquid accumulation in pleural cavity

5. bronchiectasis

 

68. Main symptom in bronchial asthma:

1. inspiratory dyspnoe

2. +++expiratory dyspnoe

3. moist rales

4. rough respiration

5. “full mouth” of sputum

 

69. Causes of “dripping water” sound occurrence

1. adhesion of alveoli

2. +++large cavity with the level of liquid

3. atelectasis

4. bronchospasm

5. bronchi dilatation

 

70. Causes of pathologic bronchial respiration:

1. bronchospasm

2. +++inflammatory thickening of lung tissue

3. liquid accumulation in pleural cavity

4. development of bronchiectasis

5. air accumulation in pleural cavity

 

71. A patient went to hospital admission room with complaints about complicated respiration. Examination – marked dyspnoe, cyanosis of lips, nasolabial triangle, fingertips, barrel chest with dilated intercostal spaces, participation of additional muscles in the act of breathing; percussion – box sound; auscultation – uniformly weakened vesicular respiration and single dry rales. For which pathology of organs this symptomathology is typical:

1. air accumulation in pleural cavity

2. bronchi dilatation

3. liquid accumulation in pleural cavity

4. +++lungs dilatation

5. bronchospasm

 

72. A patient is on treatment in hospital for 2 weeks due to inflammatory infiltration of lungs. Condition improved. But during the auscultation of lungs the physician detected additional respiratory noise. Which change was detected by physician?

1. buzzing rales

2. humming rales

3. large bubbling moist rales

4. +++“crepitatio redux”

5. dry whistling rales

 

73. At patient’s examination the physician detected cyanotic complexion and fingertips, as well as following chest changes: shoulders are elevated, its lower half is dilated, hollow intercostal spaces, horizontal position of ribs; percussion – box sound, auscultation – uniformly weakened vesicular respiration. Which complaints a patient could have?

1. cough with large amount of purulent sputum

2. hemoptysis

3. +++dyspnoe

4. mucoid sputum with blood streakes

5. chest pains

 

74. Auscultative symptomatology for bronchospasm attack:

1. crepitation

2. +++whistling rales at a distance

3. amphoric breathing

4. breathing with metal note

5. bronchial breathing

 

75. Dyspnoe is:

1. bradypnoё

2. +++dyspnoё

3. tussis

4. dolor

5. sputum

 

76. Cough is:

1. dyspnoё

2. dolor

3. sputum

4. habitus

5. +++tussis

 

77. To pathological forms of chest belongs:

1. +++boat-shaped

2. hypersthenic

3. asthenic

4. lordosis

5. scoliosis

 

78. Pathologically more frequent breathing is:

1. apnoe

2. bradipnoe

3. tachycardia

4. arrhythmia

5. +++tachipnoe

 

79. Which respiration is called periodical:

1. vesicular

2. +++Biot’s, Cheyne-Stokes

3. bronchial, laryngotracheal

4. superficial

5. abdominal

 

80. Normosthenic chest form is characterized by:

1. dull epigastric angle

2. right costal angle

3. +++shoulder blades are not tightly adjoin to the chest

4. angle of costal margins is narrow

5. bulging of supra- and subclavicular fossae

 

81. Kyphosis is:

1. spinal curvature in side directions

2. spinal curvature forward

3. +++pathological spinal curvature backwards

4. boat-shaped breast

5. chicken-breast

 

82. Vocal tremor increases in:

1. hydrothorax

2. pneumothorax

3. obturator atelectasis

4. +++lung tissue thickening

5. fibrothorax

 

83. Normal pulmonary percussion sound will be characterized as:

1. high-frequency, low amplitude

2. low amplitude, prolonged

3. quiet, prolonged

4. prolonged, low-frequency

5. +++loud, prolonged, low-frequency

 

84. Tympanic percussion sound over the lungs will be auscultated at:

1. increased airiness in lungs

2. +++presence of a cavity in lung

3. lung tissue thickening

4. hydrothorax

5. hemothorax

 

85. Percussion sound dullness over the lungs evidences for:

1. healthy lung

2. increased airiness of lungs

3. +++ lung tissue thickening

4. presence of a cavity in lung, connected to bronchus

5. presence of large cavity in lung

 

86. Vesicular respiration is:

1. laryngotracheal

2. +++alveolar

3. amphoric

4. bronchial

5. laryngitic

 

87. In patient N., 37 y.o., at examination, delay of the right half of the chest in the act of breathing, its extrusion is detected, at percussion – dull sound, at auscultation – sharply weakened vesicular respiration. No respiratory side noises. Detect a syndrome:

1. +++liquid accumulation in pleural cavity

2. cavity formation in lung

3. lung tissue thickening

4. bronchial obstruction

5. bronchial dilatation

 

88. Crepitation doesn’t change after:

1. deep inhalation

2. physical exercise

3. deep exhalation

4. +++expectoration

5. sputum discharge

 

89. Moist rales are heard:

1. at intensified cough

2. only at inhalation

3. at exhalation

4. at breath-holding

5. +++at inhalation and exhalation

 

90. Female patient Т., 45 years old, has complaints of increased temperature of 39°C, cough, chest pains at the left. She became ill after overcooling, went to a doctor at 2nd day of disease, when “rusty” sputum with admixed blood appeared. During auscultation, bronchial respiration in lower parts of left lung was found. Determine a syndrome:

1. syndrome of cavity presence in lung

2. +++syndrome of lung tissue thickening

3. liquid accumulation in pleural cavity

4. bronchial obstruction

5. gas accumulations in pleural cavity

 

91. At lungs auscultation a physician hears bronchial respiration. Which diagnostic features are typical for this respiration:

1. +++heard above the larynx, trachea

2. heard above lung tissue

3. alveolar

4. reminds letter ‘f’

5. heard at inhalation

 

92. During the lung auscultation a physician heard vesicular respiration. Indicate a place for best auscultation:

1. +++above lung tissue

2. above the larynx

3. in the area of trachea bifurcation

4. above VII cervical vertebra behind

5. between 2-4 thoracic vertebrae

 

93. In a patient in right lung, large cavity connected with large bronchus was found. During the lungs auscultation physician has detected:

1. +++amphoric breathing

2. bronchial breathing

3. weakened breathing

4. saccadic breathing

5. rough respiration

94. Main complaints of patients in syndrome of lung tissue inflammatory thickening:

1. hacking dry cough

2. stinking sputum

3. sputum discharge by “full mouth”

4. viscous, glassy sputum

5. +++“rusty” sputum

Digestion system tests

 

1. For hepatic and biliary pathology is typical:

1. presence of edemas

2. +skin icteritiousness

3. pronounced paleness

4. depigmentation

5. cyanotic skin color

 

2.Melena is:

1. +Black stool

2. Light-colored feces

3. Bloody feces

4. "Sheep's" stool

5. Foamy stinking stool

 

3. Signs of functional dysphagia include:

1. insidious onset

2. +abrupt onset

3. develops as a result of organic esophagus constrictions

4. constant

5. complicated gastric transit of solid food

 

4. Fear to take food is:

1. +citofobia

2. claustrophobia

3. cleptomania

4. cancerofobia

5. prurigo

 

5. Causes and mechanism of heartburn development:

1. pylorus atony

2. cardial sphincter spasm

3. duodenal reflux

4. +gastroesophageal reflux

5. hyposecretion

 

6. Signs of digestive organs pathology during the oral cavity examination include: с 325

1. clean, wet tongue

2. +dry, furred tongue

3. necrotic tonsillitis

4. flatness of lingual papillae

5. gingival hemorrhage

 

7. Signs of stomach and intestine pathology during abdomen examination:

1. epigastric pulsation

2. belly hangs down in lower part when in vertical position

3. +wooden belly, not participating in the act of breathing

4. oval-shaped belly, symmetrical

5. belly is participating in the act of breathing

 

8. Deep methodical gliding palpation will be performed in:

1. 2 stages

2. 3 stages

3. +4 stages

4. 1 stage

5. 5 stages

 

9. Sign of increased intestinal motor function:

1. +Colicky abdominal pains

2. Dull pains in the right hypochondrium

3. Arching pains in epigastrium

4. Rare urges to defecate

5. Constipations

 

10. Vomiting is:

1. eructatio

2. regurgitatio

3. +emesis

4. nausea

5. bulimia

 

11. Examination data in syndrome of disturbed absorption in the small intestine:

1. increased body mass

2. +cachexia

3. xanthelasmas

4. skin moisture

5. vascular spiders

 

12. Maldigestion is:

1. Gastric secretion disturbance

2. Insulin secretion disturbance

3. +Disturbed digestion in the small intestine

4. Disturbed absorption in the intestine

5. Decreased motor activity of intestine

 

13. Complaints of patients in intestinal carbohydrate dyspepsia:

1. Poor tolerance of meat products

2. Hunger pains in epigastrium

3. Poor tolerance of sour food

4. +Poor milk tolerance

5. Heartburn

 

14. A patient has the syndrome of increased gastric secretion. Which additional examination methods are necessary?

1. Irrigoscopy

2. Gastroscopy

3. +Gastric juice examination

4. Duodenal intubation

5. Gastrography

 

15. To occurrence of which complaint lead the decrease of cardial sphincter function?

1. pains in the right hypochondrium

2. constipations

3. complicated gastric transit

4. diarrheas

5. +heartburn

 

16. A patient has cramp-like pains in abdomen, abdominal distension, defecation with small portions of thick feces 1 – 2 times a day, feces with mucus. Which is the cause of these symptoms?

1. carbohydrate dyspepsia

2. intestinal bleeding

3. malabsorption in the small intestine

4. +spasm and increased motor function of large intestine

5. distension and decreased motor function of large intestine

 

17. Patient N., 40-years old, complaints against weight loss, frequent foaming yellow stool, milk intolerance, during palpation – tenderness in epigastric area. Which syndrome has developed in this patient?

1. +Maldigestion

2. Intestinal bleeding

3. Gastric dyspepsia

4. Strengthened motor function of large intestine

5. Decreased motor function of large intestine

 

18. A. patient, 34-years old, complaints against the loss of appetite, weakness, unpleasant taste in mouth, foul-smelling eructation, periodically – vomiting with admixtures of mucus and bile. Gastric juice pH is 7.2. Which syndrome is it?

1. Increased secretory function of stomach

2. +Decreased secretory function of stomach

3. Gastric hemorrhage

4. Malabsorption

5. Intestinal dyspepsia

 

19. A 35-years old patient has liquid stool 4 – 5 times a day, brown-colored with sour smell, weight loss, weakness, abdominal distension, gingival hemorrhage. Which syndrome is it?

1. decreased secretory function of stomach

2. gastric dyspepsia

3. decreased motor evacuation function of intestine

4. +malabsorption

5. gastric hemorrhage

 

20. A patient has yellow-colored foamy stool with sour smell, in microscopy – it contains starch residues. How the detected feces modification is called?

1. Steatorrhea

2. Melena

3. Acholia

4. Creatorrhea

5. +Amylorrhea

 

21. A patient has sour eructation, sour taste in mouth, pains in epigastrium, constipations. Detected: basal secretion – 150 ml, free HCl – 60 mmol/l. For which syndrome these findings are typical?

1. Increased motor function of stomach

2. +Increased secretory function of stomach

3. Decreased secretory function of stomach

4. Gastric hemorrhage

5. Malabsorption

 

22. Mechanism of pains in gastric diseases:

1. disturbed dietary pattern

2. receptors irritation by food

3. faulty food poisoning

4. +smooth musculature spasm

5. exercise stress

 

23. Cause of occurrence of greenish vomit masses having putrid smell and residues of food, swallowed the day before:

1. hypermotility

2. hypersecretion

3. stomach inflammation

4. +obstacle to food leaving the stomach

5. overeating

 

24. Find a cause of functional dysphagia:

1. esophageal tumor

2. esophageal strictures

3. esophageal ulcers

4. tumor of posterior mediastinum

5. +спазм гладкой мускулатуры пищевода

 

25. Signs of organic dysphagia:

1. develops suddenly, after emotional overloads

2. doesn't need surgical intervention

3. +complicated gastric transit of solid food

4. complicated gastric transit of liquid food

5. passes with intake of medicines

 

26. Cause of melena is bleeding from:

1. +lower third of esophagus

2. sigmoid colon

3. ascending part of colon

4. rectum

5. descending part of colon

 

27. Choose a sign, which characterizes functional dysphagia:

1. needs operative treatment

2. can occur in mediastinal tumors

3. passes after intake of antacides

4. develops gradually

5. +disturbed passage of liquid food

 

28. Choose a cause and mechanism of heartburn:

1. cardiac opening spasm

2. +insufficiency of cardiac opening

3. duodenogastric reflux

4. gastroduodenal reflux

5. pylorostenosis

 

29. Eructation development mechanism:

1. cardiac opening spasm

2. duodenogastric reflux

3. +spasm of pylorus

4. atony of pylorus

5. gastroduodenal reflux

 

30. What characterizes gastric hemorrhage:

1. +vomit masses remind of coffee-ground

2. occurs without nausea

3. vomit masses have alkaline medium

4. vomit masses with admixture of air bubbles

5. color of feces doesn't change

 

31. A patient complaints about seasonal occurrence of pains in epigastrium fasting or in the night, passing after food intake. In which pathology it happens?

1. chronic gastritis

2. gastric ulcerative disease

3. esophageal tumor

4. +ulcerative disease of duodenum

5. chronic cholecystitis

 

32. What characterizes esophageal vomiting:

1. vomit masses contain hydrochloric acid, partially digested food

2. +occurs without preceding nausea, in vomit mass – indigested food

3. vomit masses with admixture of air bubbles

4. brings relief

5. vomit masses remind of coffee-ground

 

33. Presence of indigested muscle fibers in feces analyses is called:

1. glycorrhea

2. amylorrhea

3. steatorrhea

4. +creatorrhea

5. lactorrhea

 

34. Presence of fat drops, residues in the form of soap in feces analyses is called:

1. amylorrhea

2. glycorrhea

3. +steatorrhea

4. liporrhea

5. creatorrhea

 

35. Presence of indigested cellulose, starch grains in feces analyses is called:

1. aliporrhea

2. glycorrhea

3. creatorrhea

4. +amylorrhea

5. steatorrhea

 

36. Which changes can be found during tongue examination in a ulcerative disease patient?

1. dry tongue (“brush-like”);

2. smooth, polished tongue with atrophy of papillae

3. clean, moist tongue

4. +furred tongue with white incrustation

5. red “lacquered” tongue

 

37. Explain, what is the positive Mendel's syndrome?

1. +acute tenderness during tapotement of epigastric area by a finger of right hand

2. acute pain strengthening at inhalation during gallbladder palpation by a finger;

3. tenderness during tapotement of costal margin at the inhalation height by the edge of hand;

4. tenderness at the right during the pressure by a fingers between legs of m. sternoсlaidomastoideus;

5. local tenderness during abdomen palpation at the left and above the navel.

 

38. Indicate typical signs of duodenal ulcerative lesion syndrome:

1. early pains

2. pains relief after defecation act

3. citophobia

4. pains when swallowing

5. +nocturnal "hunger" pains

 

39. Suddenly in a patient occurred bloody vomiting with admixture of food residues. How it is called in Latin?

1. haematoma

2. +haematomesis

3. maelena

4. eructatio

5. regurgitation

 

40. Superficial orientation palpation of abdomen allows to determine:

1. +tension degree of anterior abdominal wall muscles

2. form of studying organ

3. consistence of studying organ

4. dimensions of studying organ

5. organ borders

 

41. Complaints of patients with pancreas pathology:

1. pains along the esophagus during the food intake

2. pains in the right hypochondrium, attack-like

3. +belting pains in epigastrium

4. epigastric pains 30 minutes after the food intake

 

42. Examination and palpation findings in pancreas pathology:

1. jaundice, wave symptom

2. soft, painless abdomen

3. jaundice, Ortner's symptom

4. weight loss, antiperistalsis

5. +abdomen is bloated, tenderness in Desjardin's point

 

43. Gastric vomiting development mechanism:

1. opening of pylorus

2. chalasia of cardiac opening

3. +antiperistalsis of stomach

4. Oddi's sphincter muscles spasm

5. duodenal muscles spasm

 

44. Gastric dyspepsia symptoms:

1. +nausea, heartburn

2. abdominal distension

3. constipations

4. liquid stool

5. bitter taste in mouth

 

45. Choose signs of pains in gastric disease:

1. localized in the umbilical region

2. localized in the hypogastrium

3. irradiate into left half of loin and into groin

4. will be relieved by cold application

5. +localized in epigastrium

 

46. Signs of intestinal pathology during abdomen examination:

1. epigastric pulsation

2. belly hangs down in its lower part in vertical position

3. belly volume is enlarged, navel is drawn in

4. "Medusa head»

5. +disk-shaped belly, not participating in the act of breathing

 

47. A patient has pains in epigastric region at the left, irradiating into left nipple 30 min after food intake, disappearing after vomiting, fear to swallow food due to pains. For distortion of which part of the stomach these pains are typical?

1. +Forestomach

2. Lesser curvature of stomach

3. Larger curvature of stomach

4. Pylorus region

5. Body of stomach

 

48. A patient has acid eructation, acid taste in mouth, pains in epigastrium, constipations. During instrumental examination was found: basal secretion – 180 ml, free HCl – 80 mmol/l. Indicate a syndrome:

1. Decreased motor function of stomach

2. Decreased secretory function of stomach

3. Maldigestion syndrome

4. Malabsorption syndrome

5. +Increased secretory function of stomach

 

49. Signs of pains in intestinal diseases:

1. +localized around the navel, cramp-like

2. appear 30 – 40 minutes after food intake, to be relieved with heat

3. appear in 1.5 – 2 hours, in the night, fasting

4. appear in the right hypochondrium after intake of fatty food, cramp-like

5. appear during food intake, will be localized behind the breastbone

 

50. Signs of hypermotor intestinal dyskinesia:

1. +Cramp-like pains in the whole abdomen, frequent urges to defecate

2. Palpitation, dizziness

3. Cramp-like pains in the whole abdomen, constipations

4. Nausea, early pains in epigastrium

5. Constipation, sluggishness, edema, memory lowering

 

51. Complaint, typical for patients with diseases of liver and bile-excreting tracts:

1. +Dull pains in the right hypochondrium

2. Pains in the left hypochondrium

3. Heartburn

4. Increased appetite

5. Constipations

 

52. Which sign is typical for the presence of concrements in the gallbladder?

1. Cramp-like pains in the left hypochondrium

2. Cramp-like pains in the epigastrium

3. +Cramp-like pains in the right hypochondrium

4. Cramp-like pains in the left iliac region

5. Cramp-like pains around the navel

 

53. In the medical history of hepatic patients will be indicated:

1. Supercooling

2. +Suffered viral hepatitis В

3. Frequent anginas

4. Dysbacteriosis

5. Craniocerebral injury

 

54. Most probable cause of hepatic diseases (cirrhosis):

1. Hot climate

2. Alimentary factor

3. Supercooling

4. +Alcohol abuse

5. Hyperthyroidism

 

55. Cause of upper border of the liver shift upwards:

1. +liver cancer

2. liver inflammation

3. low diaphragm standing

4. nutmeg liver

5. lung emphysema

 

56. Causes of liver damage:

1. Psychoemotional stress

2. Hard physical labor

3. +Alimentary factor

4. Smoking

5. Supercooling

 

57. Dyspeptic syndrome in hepatic diseases is related to:

1. +Disturbed bile outflow

2. Disturbed inactivation of hepatic hormones

3. Disturbance of detoxifying function of liver

4. Disturbed bilirubin outflow

5. Disturbed protein metabolism

 

58. Causes of bitter taste in mouth:

1. Increased blood bilirubin

2. Increased gastric juice acidity

3. Gastric juice reflux into lower part of esophagus

4. +Cholestasis

5. Decreased cholesterol level

 

59. Cause of skin itch in hepatobiliary pathology:

1. Hyperbilirubinemia

2. +Cholemia

3. Hypoproteinemia

4. Hypercholesterolemia

5. Hyperproteinemia

 

60. Signs of dyspeptic syndrome:

1. +Abdominal distension, borborygmus

2. Acholic stool

3. Skin coverings itch

4. Crimson tongue

5. Weight loss

 

61. "Small" hepatic signs include:

1. Icteritiousness

2. Dilatation of haemorrhoidal veins

3. "Medusa head"

4. +Crimson tongue

5. Esophageal bleedings

 

62. Xanthelasmas are:

1. Accumulation of uric acid salts in skin

2. Disturbed protein metabolism

3. Disturbed pigment metabolism

4. +Disturbed lipid metabolism

5. Disturbed detoxifying function of liver

 

63. Palmar erythema is:

1. Xanthelasmas

2. Gynecomastia

3. Skin itch

4. +Reddening of thenar and hypothenar

5. Crimson tongue

 

64. Symptoms of "minor" hepatic failure syndrome:

1. Hyperbilirubinemia

2. Hypobilirubinemia

3. +Gynecomastia

4. Cholestasis

5. Disturbed bile outflow

 

65. Signs of portal hypertension syndrome:

1. +Ascites

2. Gynecomastia

3. Xanthelasmas

4. "Vascular spiders"

5. Traces of scratches on skin

 

66. Jaundice starts with:

1. +Scleras and soft palate

2. Palmar surface

3. +Frenulum of tongue

4. Skin on the anterior surface of chest

5. Abdominal skin

 

67. Symptoms of "minor" hepatic failure:

1. Icteritiousness

2. +"Drum-stick" fingers

3. "Medusa head"

4. Esophageal veins dilatation

5. Hemorrhoidal veins dilatation

 

68. Signs of cholestasis syndrome:

1. Pains in the right hypochondrium

2. Pains in the left hypochondrium

3. Ascites

4. +Skin itch

5. Acholic stool

 

69. Typical skin color in hemolytic jaundice:

1. +Lemon-yellow

2. Orange-yellow

3. Green-yellow

4. Off-yellow

5. "Meat slops" color

 

70. Typical color of cutaneous coverings in mechanic jaundice:

1. Lemon-yellow

2. Orange-yellow

3. +Green-yellow

4. Off-yellow

5. "Meat slops" color

 

71. Typical skin color in hepatocellular jaundice:

1. Lemon-yellow

2. +Red-yellow

3. Green-yellow

4. Off-yellow

5. "Meat slops" color

 

72. For ascites most typical is:

1. +Enlarged belly, protruding navel

2. In abdomen percussion, tympanic resonance will be determined

3. Protrusion in the left hypochondrium

4. Enlarged belly, navel without changes

5. Protrusion in the right hypochondrium region

 

73. Liver borders determination method:

1. Palpation

2. +Percussion

3. Ausculto-percussion

4. Ausculto-palpation

5. "Splashing sound"

 

74. Lower liver border shifts upwards in:

1. Liver cancer

2. +Fulminatory hepatitis

3. Lungs emphysema

4. Low diaphragm standing

5. Nutmeg liver

 

75. Cause of lower liver border shift downwards:

1. +Inflammation of the liver

2. Fulminatory hepatitis

3. Bloating

4. Hepatic echinococcus

5. Ascites

 

76. Hypersplenism syndrome is:

1. Liver and spleen enlargement

2. Spleen enlargement

3. Liver enlargement

4. Increased hepatic function

5. +Increased spleen function

 

77. Palpation pain in spleen enlargement will be determined:

1. In the right hypochondrium

2. +In the left hypochondrium

3. In the right iliac region

4. In the left iliac region

5. In epigastrium

 

78. Normal spleen dimensions:

1. +Longitudinal axis 6-8, diameter 4-6

2. Longitudinal axis 4-6, diameter 6-7

3. Longitudinal axis 5-7, diameter 6-8

4. Longitudinal axis 3-5, diameter 6-8

5. Longitudinal axis 7-9, diameter 5-4

 

79. Positive protein flocculation tests are observed in a jaundice:

1. +Hepatocellular

2. Hemolytic

3. Mechanic

4. Hemolytic and hepatocellular

5. Hemolytic and mechanic

 

80. In a large tuberosity of enlarged liver surface, the optimal examination method is:

1. Abdominal organs radiography

2. Cholangiography

3. +Puncture biopsy

4. Computer-aided tomography

5. Duodenal intubation

 

Urinary system tests

 

1. For renal colic is typical:

1. Dull, aching pains in lumbar region, at both sides

2. Sharp pains in lumbar region, at both sides







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