Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
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Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Mean business, none of one’s business, go out of business, businesslike, be busy with, have no business to do, be in business, like nobody’s business, mind one’s own business
1. Mother has busied herself with our affairs for too long.
2. When traveling on business I take my tiny travel kit.
3. Let’s get down to business.
4. She had no business to publish his letters to her.
5. 50% of these stores were not in business five years ago.
6. They are working away like nobody’s business.
7. Umbrella sellers went out of business.
8. Stop teaching me! It’s none of your business.
9. Listen to me! I mean business!
10.The visit to Copenhagen was brisk and businesslike.
Ex 2. The words given below are the synonyms to the word organization. In what do they differ? Give your own definition to each of them.
Institution, council, body, entity, fund, trust, party, club, society, association, league, federation, union.
Ex.3. Match thewords listed below with the dictionary definitions which follow.
Accountability, effort, pattern, requirement, accomplish, existence, consumer, foster, affect, establish, benefit, involve
1. Create or set it up in a way that is intended to be permanent.
2. Help its development or growth by encouraging people to do or think about it.
3. Something that you must do or possess in order to be allowed to do some other thing.
4. The state of being real, alive, or actual.
5. Energy in the form of thought, action, time, or money that people use in their work.
6. It influences someone or something or causes them to change in some way.
7. Succeed in doing or finishing something.
8. Being responsible for and prepared to justify one’s actions.
9. A good result of something.
10. A person who buys things or uses services.
11. A particular, recognizable way in which something is done or organized.
12. To include somebody or something as a necessary part or use them in some way.
Ex.4.Here is the text about people in organization. Read it and say whether you can take the information seriously. Give a title to the text. Make an annotation.
When might you need to give blood for a personality test? The answer to that question may puzzle you more than the question itself: when you apply for a job. What’s more, your blood group could seriously influence your career prospects. Some people believe your blood group hides no secrets. It reveals the “real you” – a person who gets things done, a good salesman, a creative person or a problem-solver – that is why you could be asked to state your blood group when completing a job application form. This growing trend was first used in Japan and now management consultant firms in other parts of the world have joined in. Someone, somewhere has spent some time working out statistics regarding who’s who in the blood group system. The owners of certain group tend to be particularly good or bad at certain tasks. In fact, one major Japanese firm is so well informed about blood groups that the company is quite specific about its needs: “We must have 30per cent of blood group A and 15 per cent of AB, 25 per cent of blood group 0, and 30 per cent of blood group B among echelons of our management personnel”. Apparently, if you belong to blood group 0 you get things done and sell the goods. Blood group A are thinkers, while blood group B are highly creative. And if you got problems, ask the Abs to solve them.
Reading & Speaking
T E X T 1
Read the text and be ready to answer what theory you would follow as a manager. Give your reasons.
PEOPLE IN ORGANIZATION
If there is any one characteristic of people which is universally valid and important, it is that they differ. To say that all persons are created equal is a statement of human rights under the law. It communicates nothing at all about human nature. As a matter of fact, people differ greatly in intelligence, aptitudes, physical strength, manual dexterity, knowledge, skill, interests, personality traits, motivation, and many other attributes which potentially influence behavior and productivity.
We are rational—but only to a point. We plan, set goals, think, reason, and live by creeds and values. But we also become frustrated and behave in ways that can be perceived as rational only by someone who understands all our deeply embedded, sometimes conflicting needs, aspirations, and perceptions. In many situations our motivation is unconscious so that not even we understand our own actions.
The fact that one’s environment strongly influences behavior is indisputable. A number of prominent psychologists have assumed that human freedom is an illusion. Human choices are thought to be totally determined. This, of course, is an assumption. Many people do not subjectively perceive themselves in this way. It is significant that behavior and expectations are strongly influenced by what a person believes to be true. Individuals feel responsible for their actions. Also, people consciously believe that their choices are real, regardless of any awareness of philosophical arguments to the contrary. Organizations cannot function optimally without these pragmatic assumptions.
There are, of course, innumerable statements which one might make about human nature, but they would not all have a direct influence on how people should be dealt within the work environment. The late Douglas McGregor did an excellent job of conceptualizing some of the assumptions about human nature which are relevant to organizational behavior. He labeled these, Theory X, the classical or traditional view, and Theory Y, a progressive view upon which he believed a new model for human relations in organizations could be developed.
Theory X. This theory holds that the average person inherently dislikes work, is innately lazy, irresponsible, self-centered, and security oriented, and consequently is indifferent to the needs of the organization. Because of these characteristics, the average person must be threatened, and controlled. In fact, most people prefer to be directed and controlled. They seek security above all, prefer to avoid responsibility, and both want and need external control in the work situation. Because people are basically cunning and immature, management should experience little difficulty in using a highly directive and manipulative style of supervision.
Theory Y. Experience has shown that Theory X assumptions result in a great deal of difficulty for management although they remain popular with some managers. McGregor’s Theory Y makes the opposite assumptions. People do not inherently dislike work and are not inherently lazy. Rather they have learned to dislike work, to be lazy, and to be irresponsible because of the nature of their work and supervision. They have a high capacity for developing an intrinsic interest in their work, for committing themselves to organizational objectives, and for working productively with a minimum of external controls.
Two points should be made with reference to these theories. First, the Theory X characteristics are said to be inherent or innate. To be such, they would necessarily apply to everyone, which is obviously absurd. On the other hand, under Theory Y, people are said to have the potential or capacity for the responsible behavior and attitudes described. If anyone possesses these qualities, and a great many people do, then everyone has the potential for them. Second, McGregor speaks of assumptions about the average person, and one must ask, «Average on what dimensions?» Are we talking about intelligence? education? experience? Average is a statistical concept. The average person is nonexistent, hypothetical construct. When we make assumptions about the average person, at best we are referring to most people, and in doing so must recognize that there are exceptions.
Define the main idea of each paragraph. What are the key sentence(s) of each paragraph?
T E X T 2
Read the text. Define the main idea of each paragraph. What are the key sentence(s) of each paragraph?
Early in human existence people learned that their individual efforts often fell short of success. They found that they were unable to accomplish many tasks that require more than individual effort. The result was that only limited goals could be attained. Therefore the necessity of group activity was discovered relatively early in human existence.
Group activity could be aimed at some higher, more complex set of goals and could thus bring greater benefits to all concerned. This quality of group activity must be counted as one of the chief requirements for success. Cooperation is a prime element of a group of people who want to achieve more than they can acting individually. A system of group relationships built upon and fostering cooperation, then, is basically the meaning of an organization.
This system of cooperation consists of several parts: the human element, the physical element, the work element, and the coordination element. All of these elements, taken collectively, can be thought of as an organization. Today, this system of cooperation is much more complex than it was in the first attempts at organization.
Thus,organization is an open, dynamic, purposeful social system of cooperation designed to enhance individual effort aimed at goal accomplishment; consists of the human element, the physical element, the work element, and the coordination element; transforms resources into outputs for users.
It is important to examine the various parts or components of organization theory in order to outline its broad scope. These components are: goals, work, power and authority, delegation, structure.
It was stated earlier that organizations were established to enable an individual to accomplish more in a group than he could as an individual. In other words, organizations are devices for pooling talent and ability into an effective whole that can accomplish some desired objective. Every organization is initially built to accomplish some goal. The goal orpurposeis an unrealized state or condition that the members do not possess but which they deem desirable. It is imperative that organizational goals be clearly defined and communicated to all organization members who are to be affected by them. Goals are the starting point for the design and maintenance of the organization itself. At the same time, these goals must meet a need that society has defined as important. Thus, consumer needs play a crucial role in organization.
Once the goal of an organization is established, it is time for the members to decide on the type of work activity that will be necessary to accomplish these goals. Basically, any organization must perform two fundamental types of work: primary and secondary. The primary work(it also commonly referred to as line work) consists of production and distribution of goods and services that will satisfy consumer needs. The secondary work (it is often termed staff work) consists of all those activities that support and extend the operations of primary work. For example, in a manufacturing firm, the secondary work would include accounting, personnel and quality control.
No theory of organizations would be complete without a treatment of the roles that power and authority play in organizational activity. These two components of theory help explain the network of relationships that tie the other components of an organization together into some logical pattern.
Poweris the ability to influence others successfully. It comes from any single or combination of possible sources. For example, one can have power over others because of one’s intelligence, skill, or money. Regardless of its source, power enables its holder to exercise one’s will over others. Thus, in order to understand the total workings of an organization, one must have an appreciation of the role that power plays in these workings.
Authoritycan be defined as power that has been given official recognition bythe organization. Once an organization legally authorizes an individual to act on its behalf, that person is said to possess authority. Every member of the organization has some amount of authority to take action necessary to carry out his responsibility. The concern of the theorist is to understand how authority comes to be officially recognized by the organization and what considerations should be made regarding its use.
Organizations that enjoy any measure of success find it necessary to increase their membership and to assign duties to these additional members. The process that is used to add members to the organization will result in the necessity to divide the work of the organization into sub-units or groups. Each of these groups will be under the direction of a manager or managers. In order for these managers to perform their managerial duties properly, they must be granted appropriate responsibility and authority. The means for making these assignments is termed delegation.In general, delegation may be defined asthe process of transferring an obligation (responsibility) and anaccompanying right(authority) from a superior to a subordinate position in the organization. It is this basic process that enables an organization to grow. Without delegation, an organization simply cannot exist and prosper.
The patterns of work divisions and their hierarchical arrangements constitute the basic components of structure. Structure,then, is the hierarchical pattern of authority,responsibility, and accountability relationships designed to provide coordination of the work of the organization. It is basically a managerial tool that aids in guiding the organization towards its goals and can be considered the skeleton of the organizational body. The idea of hierarchy of authority, the division of organization by function, the differentiation of responsibility of the line (doers) and the staff (the advisors) are all inventions of the church and military leaders who were faced with the need to manage large aggregations of human, technical, and material resources. Organizations create an officially sanctioned structure known as the formal organization or de jure organization. This structure is often depicted by a chart as that seen in Fig. 1.
A formal organization is only half the story, for superimposed on these relationships is a whole series of informal or de facto relationships that are not sanctioned by the organization. These include informal work groupings of employees, informal leaders, informal channels of communication and informal power and status differentials. Usually the structure of an organization is rather permanent and stable but in some cases a temporary, ad hoc, organization may be created. The organization exists to reach a certain goal or set of goals and disbands once the goal is achieved.
1.What did people find early in human existence?
2.What is the meaning of the organization?
3.What is an organization?
4.What are the components of organization theory?
5.What role do power and authority play in building every organization?
6.What is the starting point for the design of an organization?
7.What is delegation and why is it necessary in today’s organization?
8.Which is more important: formal or informal structure?
9.Can you give any example of an ad hoc organization?
Foster – способствовать
to enhance – увеличивать, усиливать
accomplishment – выполнение
to accomplish -выполнять
T E X T 3
An interesting feature of the labour markets is that many organizations do not specify the type of person they require instead they will give the details of a job in a job specification. The Department of Employment has given the following definitions of a job description and job specification:
Job description: a broad statement of the purpose, scope, duties and responsibilities of a particular job.
Job specification: a detailed statement of the physical and mental activities involved in the job. The specification is usually expressed in terms of behaviour: what the worker does, what knowledge he uses in doing it, the judgments he makes and the factors he takes into account when making them.
The great variety of job specifications which exists in business illustrates the range of specification in occupation. The five categories given below do not cover this wide range, but can become a guide to the role of manpower in organization.
1. Unskilled. Many jobs do not require any training or previous experience, for example manual labour or assembly work. These occupations are often highly repetitive and boring, as well as being poorly paid.
2. Mechanical or motor skills. There are some tasks in business which are performed by machines which require an operator. The more complicated the machine, then generally the more the operator must be.
3. Intelligence and knowledge. Occupations which require a high level of motor skill sometimes also demand a high level of intelligence and aptitude. But there are jobs which do not need mechanical skills but make demand on people’s knowledge.
4. Administrative or managerial skills. The ability to organize other people is a rare skill. It not only requires knowledge and understanding of the functions within an organization, but also the ability to motivate people. In addition managers must be able to organize nonhuman resources using techniques of forecasting, planning, coordinating and controlling. These are techniques which require judgment as well as knowledge.
5. Decision-making skills and initiative. Decision-making is an everyday occurrence for everyone. We decide what to eat, what to wear, where to go, and so on. Similarly, decisions are part of an organization’s everyday activities. The higher one goes up the hierarchy, the more necessary is the skill of decision. The risks which all organizations face mean that that organizations have to be run by people who have the ability to diagnose and assess the risk, and the capacity to decide on the correct strategy. Business is constantly changing and organizations require people with enterprise and initiative in order to survive.
1. Give your own examples of a trade or profession illustrating each category of the job specification.
T E X T 4
Entrepreneur is a person who organizes and managers a business. This is a French word that has been accepted into the English language. Its popularity probably has something to do with its grand sound which befits anyone who has the initiative to create and run a business.
Entrepreneurs are a mystery to some people, especially those who are only comfortable with a nine-to-five existence and assured weekly paychecks and fringe benefits. The entrepreneur is a business person who prefers to take calculated risks in order to be his or her own boss.
Sometimes the entrepreneur is regarded as a business person who takes risks. This is not so. An entrepreneur is a business person who minimizes risks. He or she does this by advance planning, research, and meticulous consideration of all factors that could affect and possibly endanger her or his enterprise. When the entrepreneur forgets to do advance investigation and preparation, then he or she is a gambler at best, and a failure statistic at worst.
Speaking about entrepreneurship, Professor K. Vesper of the University of Washington says that “ Businesses continue to be launched by people who didn’t make it the first time around. A driving force in entrepreneurship… is addictiveness. Once people have a taste of freedom in a business of their own, they like it. They don’t want to go back to working for someone else.”
While the percentage of growth for men entering into business independence could be measured in the teens, women’s increase in a single decade was 69 percent. There is no mystery here. Women go into business for the same reason men do – to make money and to be their own bosses. The rise in female entrepreneurship is reminiscent of what the early-20th-century immigrants did – and the more recent waves of immigrants from different parts of the world. Entrepreneurship is regarded to be the first track to success. Rather than to take low-wage, big-industry job, people opt to use their wits and energy to climb the ladder of independence the entrepreneurial way.
The American magazine Venture attempted to dissect entrepreneurs and to see what makes them tick. They conducted a survey to which 2,740 readers responded. Here is what they had in common:
1) Typically they were firstborn children who had a positive relationship with their father.
(2) They held jobs before they were 15 and started their first businesses by the time they reached 20.
(3) They borrowed money to launch their enterprises and made themselves personally liable.
(4) Most of them are college graduates, consider themselves demanding of others, and start work early in the day (82 percent start work before 9 a.m.).
(5) Twenty percent described themselves as successful; another 53 percent claimed moderate success; 27 percent reported the expectation of success.
While these entrepreneurs are intrepid adventurers on the business sea, they still seek the approval of others—often after they have launched an action. Respondent Richard M. Ask, president of the 2000-member National Association of Entrepreneurs, wrote, "I go out and do what I damn well please, and then I look around for approval to reinforce the action."
1. Do you belong to the people who are comfortable with a nine-to-five existence? Are there many people of this type among your friends, relatives, colleagues?
2. “Calculated risk’—what is it?
3. Give your variant of an entrepreneur profile (age, traits of character, business, backgrounds, etc.)
T E X T 5
What is meant by «organizational climate»? Why is it important? What part does an organization’s culture play in the daily lives of its members?
Read the text and be ready to discuss each point of cultural values. Can you add any more?
Although the concept of organizational climate is somewhat nebulous, it is valuable in understanding several aspects of organizational behavior. Organizational climate is the overall favourability of member attitudes and perceptions with reference to specific activities and featuresof an organization.
Organizations tend to have their specific culture: a peculiar mix of values, attitudes, norms, habits, traditions, behaviors and rituals. Some organizations are well aware of their culture and regard it as a powerful strategic tool, used to orient all units and individuals toward common goals, mobilize employee initiative, ensure loyalty, and facilitate communication. They aim at creating a culture of their own and making sure that all employees understand it and adhere to it. The specific cultural values of an organization may concern, for example:
· the organization’s mission and image ( high technologies, innovative spirit, superior quality);
· seniority and authority (respect for seniority; seniority as a criterion of authority);
· the treatment of people ( concern for people and their needs, equitable treatment or favouritism, privileges, respect for individual rights, training and developing opportunities, how people are motivated);
· the importance of different management positions and functions (authority of personnel department; importance of different vice-presidents’ positions; respective role and authority of research and development);
· work organization and discipline (voluntary versus imposed discipline; punctuality; use of time clocks; flexibility in changing roles at work; use of new forms of work organization);
· decision making process (who decides; who has to be consulted; individual or collective decision making; need to reach consensus);
· circulation and sharing of information (employees amply or poorly informed; information readily shared or not);
· communication pattern (preference for oral or written communication; rigidity or flexibility in using established channels, use of meetings; who is invited to what meeting; established behaviour in the conduct of meeting);
· ways of handling the conflicts (desire to avoid conflict; preference for informal or formal ways; involvement of higher management);
· performance evaluation (confidential or public; by whom carried out; how results are used);
· socialization patterns (who socializes with whom during and after work; facilities such as separate dining rooms or reserved clubs);
· management and leadership style (paternalism; authoritative, consultative or participative style; flexibility and adaptability);
· identification with the organization (manager and stuff adherence to company objectives and policies; enjoying working with organization).
to match -- соответствовать, удовлетворять
to be aware – знать, быть в курсе
to conclude -- делать выводы
suspicious -- подозрительный
to convince -- убеждать
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