ТОП 10:

Translation of words of emotive meaning



 

As has been pointed out some words contain an element of emotive evaluation. The element of emotive meaning may be regarded as another seme, and is an integral element of their semantic structure, e.g. love, hate, to cry, to suffer, etc.

Morphological factors may heighten the emotive meaning already contained in the semantic structure of a word. For instance, the emotive meaning inherent in the word “vexation” is intensified by the use of this word in the plural.

Despite the limitation on its jurisdiction, the International Court of Justice manages to smooth a considerable number of petty frictions, and keep them from becoming serious vexations. (P.Lyon).

Незважаючи на таке обмеження своєї юрисдикції, Міжнародному Суду вдається згладжувати значну кількість дрібних чвар і не давати їм переростати в серйозні конфлікти.

The emotive meaning is created by connotations which may be positive or negative. In the following example “the endless resolutions received by the National Peace Committee” has positive connotations. Its correlated word нескінченні cannot be used in the translation of this phrase as it will evoke negative connotations: boring, dull. The right word to choose in this context is чисельні резолюції, отримані Національним Комітетом Миру.

The meaning of the English noun “blow” is neutral but when it is used with the preposition “for” or “against” it acquires positive or negative connotations respectively (help, oppose – The COD) whereas the Ukrainiannoun always evokes negative connotations.

The peaceful policy of the Soviet Union is a tremendous blow for peace.

Мирна політика Радянського Союзу є величезним внеском у справу забезпечення миру.

The Ukrainian verb осяяти conveys positive connotations, e.g. її обличчя осяяла посмішка, whereas itsreferential equivalent in English is evidently neutral.

Horror dawned in her face. (Victoria Holt)

На її обличчі з’явився вираз жаху.

These connotations may form part of the same semantic structure of a word but they may also be due to its collocations with certain words and become permanent, compare: чорна меланхолія, чорна заздрість, чорна невдячність; рожеві надії, рожеві окуляри, в рожевому світлі.

Emotive meaning varies in different word classes. In some of them, for example, in interjections, the emotive element prevails. On the other hand, in conjunctions the emotive meaning is practically non-existent. In other classes of words which possess emotive meaning it forms, as has already been said, part of their semantic structure.

Emotive meaning should be rendered in translation. Words of wide semantic structure, of vague and indefinite semantic boundaries are difficult for translation due to their semantic ambiguity and the possibility of subjective interpretation. The adjective fierce, for example, is a good illustration of that kind of emotive meaning. The dominant seme inherent in all its lexical-semantic variants is the seme of “vehemence” which acquires different semantic modifications in these variants. The dictionary gives the following meanings: fierce – 1. лютий, жорстокий; 2. шалений, палкий, сильний; 3. невтримний, гарячий; 4. бадьорий, енергійний; 5. амер.жарг. нестерпний, огидний.

There was no answer, only the tapping on the window, once more repeated, fierce and sharp. (I.Murdoch).

Ніхто не відповів, тільки повторився стук у вікно, сильний і різкий.

 

At night passers would see the fierce dead glare of the patent lamp.

(W.Falkner)

Вночі перехожі бачили нестерпно-яскраве мертвотне світло неприкритого щитом вуличного ліхтаря.

 

The Spaniards ruled Sardinia for four centuries and gave Sardinians their aura of grave courtliness and their fierce pride.

Іспанці правили Сардинією чотири століття і прищепили сардинцям сувору чемність і неприборкану гордість.

The element of vehemence is distinctly felt in all these uses of the word “fierce” corresponding to all its dictionary lexical-semantic variants. But in the following example the reference of the adjective “fierce” is suppressed by its emotive meaning and it is practically used as an expletive. Its vague referential meaning is commented upon by the writer.

In a fury of haste he dragged a bottle-green sweater over the dark red one he wore. “Gosh”, he exclaimed, “this is fierce”. What he designated as fiercecan only be guessed, but probably referred to the furious speed with which life was moving. (M. de la Roche).

У шаленому поспіху він натягнув темно-зелений светр поверх темно-червоного, який на ньому був. „Чорт забирай”, – вигукнув він – „здорово”. Що він хотів сказати цим, можна лише здогадуватись, можливо, він мав на увазі ту божевільну швидкість, з якою летіло життя.

There are cases when fierce deprived of all reference becomes a mere intensifier/ the translation in such cases is purely contextual? E.g. fierce black hair, fierce red moustache – чорне як смоль волосся, вогняно-руді вуса.

Sometimes different usage of different valency does not allow the use of the correlated Ukrainian word with the same reference.

In the general strike, the fight against the depression, the antifascist struggle, and against Hitlerism the British Communist party played a proud role.

Під час загального страйку в боротьбі проти кризи, в антифашистській боротьбі в самій Англії та у боротьбі проти гітлеризму комуністична партія Великої Британії відігравала видатну роль.

Proud” and «видатний» “have the same degree of intensity and may be regarded as emotive equivalents.

As has already been pointed out the emotive meaning of some adjectives and adverbs is pronounced that it suppresses their referential meaning and they come to be used merely as intensifiers. Their translation is achieved by Ukrainian intensifiers irrespective of their reference.

Even judged by Tory standards, the level of the debate on the devaluation of the pound yesterday was abysmally low.

Навіть з точки зору консерваторів, дебати в Палаті Общин вчора з питання девальвації фунту відбувалися на надзвичайно низькому рівні.

 







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