ТОП 10:

Historical development of local government in the UK (stages)



УЧЕБНО – МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ

ПОСОБИЕ ПО РАЗВИТИЮ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНО - ОРИЕНТИРОВАННОЙ КОММУНИКАТИВНОЙ КОМПЕТЕНЦИИ СТУДЕНТОВ НА ЗАНЯТИЯХ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

Для студентов факультета управления и социологии

(отделение ГМУ)

ТВЕРЬ 2012

Составитель кандидат филологических наук, ст. преподаватель

К.С. Ращупкина

 

 

Пособие предназначено в качестве дополнительного материала по домашнему чтению для студентов факультета управления и социологии (отделение «ГМУ»). Пособие включает в себя тексты из оригинальных источников (http://www.direct.gov.uk) и профессиональную лексику. Цель данного пособия – научить студентов работать с текстами по специальности, развить навыки чтения и перевода, расширить их лексический запас и закрепить грамматические навыки. Пособие содержит помимо непосредственно текстов ряд последовательных предтекстовых и послетекстовых упражнений, нацеленных на развитие речевых и аналитических навыков, и может быть использовано как для самостоятельной, так и для аудиторной работы по развитию навыков работы с литературой по специальности.

 

 

Печатается по решению кафедры иностранных языков гуманитарных факультетов (протокол № 1 от 19.09. 2012.).

Text 1

Historical development of local government in the UK (stages)

Vocabulary

charter – хартия, грамота

highway – шоссе, автомагистраль

drainage – сток, канализация

maze – путаница, лабиринт

urban – городской

rural – сельский

devolution – передача

Greater London Assembly – большое собрание Лондона

 

Reading Practice

Task 1. Read and translate the text.

Th Century

Royal charters, justices of the peace, parish bodies, commissions and benches of citizens. Single purpose bodies provided services like highways, drainage and charitable education.

Early 19th Century

Led to a maze of separate and varied bodies unable to cope with changes in society and the economy as a result of the Industrial Revolution.

19th century

In 1888 and 1894 legislation created county councils and urban and rural district councils.

Mid 1970s and 1990s

Two major reorganisations led to the creation of metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties and districts in 1974 in England, and the creation of unitary authorities in England, Scotland and Wales in the 1990s.

Devolution of powers to some regional territories. Legislation in 1998 established the Scottish Parliament, National Assembly for Wales and the Northern Ireland Assembly.

Greater London Authority Act created the Greater London Assembly and a directly elected mayor for London.

Elected Regional Assemblies. Regional Assemblies (Preparations) Act 2003. The first referendum was held in the North East of England on 4 November.

Comprehension

Task 2. Enumerate the stages of the historical development of local government in the U.K. Which of these steps do you consider the most important?

 

Text 2

Local government structure

Vocabulary

one-tier – одноуровневый

two-tier – двухуровневый

county council – орган местного самоуправления в графстве

district council – орган местного самоуправления в районе

leisure facilities – возможности для проведения досуга

recycling – переработка

trash – мусор

borough – округ

unitary authority – унитарный орган управления

to reduce – сокращать

to simplify – упрощать

parish – округ, приход

community – общность, община, сообщество

allotment – распределение, назначение

to split up – раскалывать

to maintain – поддерживать

 

Reading Practice

Task 1. Scan the text and try to presuppose its main idea.

Task 2. Read and translate the text.

Across the country, local governmental bodies are organised into a mixture of one-tier and two-tier systems. How your local system is arranged will depend upon where a person lives.

 

Unitary authorities

In most large towns and cities, and in some small counties, there will be just one level of local government responsible for all local services. These are called a 'unitary authority'. Depending where they are in the country, these may be called metropolitan district councils, borough councils, city councils, county councils, or district councils.

In London, each borough is a unitary authority, but the Greater London Authority (the Mayor and Assembly) provides London-wide government with responsibility for certain services like transport and police.

In April 2009, the government introduced unitary governments in seven regions in England; reducing 44 local authorities down to just nine. The idea was to simplify the system, as local residents were increasingly confused about which local authority was responsible for local services.

In Scotland there is a unitary system with one level of local government. In Northern Ireland, there are local councils, but most services are carried out by other organisations.

 

Town and parish councils

 

In some parts of England there are also town and parish councils, covering a smaller area. In Wales, they are called community councils.

They're responsible for services like allotments, public toilets, parks and ponds, war memorials, and local halls and community centres. They are sometimes described as the third tier of local government.

In Scotland there are community councils with fewer powers. There is no equivalent in Northern Ireland.

 

Joint services

 

Some local authorities share services covering a wider area, like police, fire services and public transport. This may be done to avoid splitting up services when council structures are changed, or because some councils are too small to run an effective service on their own.

Every part of the UK is covered by a local authority fire and rescue service. Each of the 59 fire authorities must by law provide a firefighting service and must maintain a brigade to meet all normal requirements. Each fire authority appoints a Chief Fire Officer, or Firemaster in Scotland, who has day-to-day control of operations.

 

Comprehension

Text 3

Vocabulary

to be funded-финансироваться, субсидироваться

laid down -установленный

far-reaching - далеко идущий

mandatory - обязательный, принудительный

discretionary - действующий по собственному усмотрению

to safeguard – гарантировать, предоставлять гарантию

to exceed - превышать

to be challenged to court - быть привлеченным к суду

set up - организован

devolved - переданный, автономный

rate - темп, степень, норма, ставка

grant - дотация, субсидия

excessive - чрезмерный, завышенный

non - domestic - не внутренний

revenue - доход

to pool - суммировать

to audit – проверять

 

Powers and duties

 

Local authorities work within the powers laid down under various Acts of Parliament. Their functions are far-reaching. Some are mandatory, which means that the authority must do what is required by law. Others are discretionary, allowing an authority to provide services if it wishes.

In certain cases, ministers have powers to ensure consistent standards to safeguard public health or to protect the rights of individual citizens. Where local authorities exceed their statutory powers, they are regarded as acting outside the law and can be challenged in court.

 

Grants

 

Central government (or the devolved government in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) provides specific and general grants to enable local authorities to deliver all the necessary services.

To divide up the funding, the government uses a system that takes into account the number and value of properties in each area, and how much it costs to provide services there.

 

Council Tax

 

Council Tax provides about a quarter of local funding. Local authorities set the total Council Tax they need to raise, based on their overall budget for the year. Each household pays an amount depending on the value of their home.

The government has powers to ensure that increases in local authority budgets and Council Tax are not excessive.

 

Business rates

 

Business rates are a property tax on businesses and other non-domestic properties. Their formal name is national non-domestic rates.

The national rates are set by central government. The revenue is collected by local authorities, pooled by central government, and then redistributed to local authorities.

 

Auditing of accounts

 

Local authorities' annual accounts must be audited by independent auditors appointed by the Audit Commission in England and Wales, or in Scotland by the Accounts Commission for Scotland. In Northern Ireland, the chief local government auditor carries out this role.

Local electors have a right to inspect the accounts to be audited. They may also ask questions and lodge objections with the auditor.

 

Comprehension

Text 4

Local councillors

Vocabulary

 

to run - руководить

councillor - советник

on behalf - от лица кого-то

charges - издержки, расходы

ward - административный район города, избирательный округ

allowance - довольствие, вознаграждение

expenses - затраты

via - через, путем

advice surgery - кабинет, где можно спросить совет

to make a complaint - жаловаться

overall - весь, всеобщий

to be subjected to scrutiny - быть подверженным внимательному осмотру

panel - комиссия, группа специалистов

to exclude - исключать

to withhold - удерживать, утаивать, скрывать

to abide - придерживаться, соблюдать

 

Representing the community

 

Councillors are elected by the local community and are there to represent its views. Each councillor represents an area called a ward, serving for four years. There are more than 20,000 elected councillors in England and Wales, representing their communities in 410 local authorities.

The work of a councillor includes holding surgeries to help local people, supporting local organisations, campaigning on local issues, and developing links with all parts of the community.

Councillors are not paid a salary or wages, but they are entitled to allowances and expenses to cover some of the costs of carrying out their public duties. They are not council employees. The elected councillors provide the policies, and then paid employees (council officers) put them into practice.

If you want to discuss any issues with your local councillor, you can contact them via your local authority or attend the councillor's advice surgery. Advice surgeries are available for local people to ask for help or advice, make a complaint or enquire about local authority services.

 

Council meetings

 

You can attend most meetings of the council, although usually you will not be able to speak at them. Every council must publish a 'forward work plan' listing the decisions that will be taken over the coming months. They also publish meeting papers at least five working days in advance, and afterwards they publish the minutes of the meeting, summarising the decisions made.

Local authorities may exclude the public from meetings and withhold papers only in limited circumstances.

 

Declaration of interest

 

All local councillors abide by a code of conduct, part of which requires them to declare any financial interests, gifts or hospitality that could influence any decisions they make.

All local authorities must publish these declarations, and you can usually access this information via the authority's website or at the town hall.

 

Comprehension

Text 5

Local government elections

Vocabulary

crown servant - слуга короны

service voter - избиратель, находящийся на государственной службе

overseas voter - иностранный избиратель

“first-past-the-post” voting system - система выборов, при которой побеждает кандидат, набравший наибольшее число голосов избирателей

“top up” basis - основа «дозаполнения»

to allocate - распределять, назначать

ballot - избирательный бюллетень

“single transferable vote” system - система голосования с указанием кандидата в порядке предпочтения

 

Who can vote

 

You can vote in local government elections if you have registered to vote and you are: a British citizen living in the UK, a Commonwealth citizen living in the UK, a citizen of the Irish Republic living in the UK, a European Union citizen living in the UK, registered to vote as a Crown Servant, registered to vote as a service voter.

You cannot vote in local government elections if you are: a British citizen living abroad and registered as an overseas voter.

 

When elections are held

 

Local elections take place at least every four years. There are several types of election, because local authorities are organised in different ways, depending on where a peson lives. Either: all of the councillors are elected every four years; half of the councillors are elected every two years; a third of the councillors are elected every year for three years, with no elections in the fourth year.

Comprehension

Text 6

Mayors

Vocabulary

mayor - мэр

chain - цепь

robe - мантия, одеяние

binding referendums - ограничительные обязательства

petition - прошение, просьба

to intervene - вмешиваться, происходить

provost - провост, мэр

 

Ceremonial mayors

 

Some districts have the ceremonial title of borough or city, granted by royal authority. Traditionally, their councillors choose a mayor (in Scotland a provost) to act as presiding officer and to perform civic ceremonial duties.

The mayor represents the district at ceremonial and social events, meets important visitors, and chairs council meetings. Their role is non-political and they cannot make decisions about council business. Mayors wear a gold chain of office and a red robe on special occasions.

In the City of London and certain other large cities, they are known as the Lord Mayor. In Scotland, the presiding officer of the council of the four longest established cities (Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh and Glasgow) is called the Lord Provost.

In local councils which don't have borough or city status, there is a chairman of the council instead of a mayor, who performs the same functions.

 

Elected mayors

 

New decision-taking structures for local authorities in England and Wales were introduced in the Local Government Act 2000, including the option of a directly elected mayor.

Elected mayors are responsible for the day-to-day running of local services. They are voted for by local people, and serve for four years. They provide political leadership to the council and the community, and carry out the local authority's policies.

The best known elected mayor is the Mayor of London, who heads the Greater London Authority - not to be confused with the Lord Mayor of London. However, the Mayor of London has wider, more strategic powers than other elected mayors.

 

Systems of leadership

 

In most local authorities the arrangements are based on one of three executive frameworks: a mayor and cabinet, a council leader and cabinet, a mayor and council manager.

Within these options, local authorities have flexibility to work under a constitution that reflects local circumstances. Most English and Welsh local authorities have opted for a style of executive where the leader of the cabinet is chosen by other councillors.

Small district councils with a population of less than 85,000 also had the choice of reforming their existing committee system.

 

Comprehension

Text 7

Political parties

Vocabulary

to evolve-развивать, превращать

to merge - сливать

to oppose - возражать

Chief Whips - «Главный кнут»

counterpart - двойник, аналог

forthcoming - предстоящий, грядущий

donation - дар, пожертвование

Plaid Cymry [‘plaid ‘kәmri] - партия валлийских националистов

Sinn Fein [ʃin ‘fein] - Ирландская республиканская партия

Ulster Unionist Party - Партия сохранения Северной Ирландии в составе Соединенного Королевства, юнионистская партия

Respect - политическая партия социалистов в Англии и Уэльсе

 

History of the party system

 

The system of political parties has existed since at least the 18th century. It evolved from the historical division of Whigs and Tories in the Stuart period. For the past 150 years, Britain has had a mainly two-party system, in which two parties dominate although there may be other parties.

Since 1945, either the Conservative Party or the Labour Party has held power. The Liberal Democrats, the third biggest party in the UK, were formed when the Liberal Party merged with the Social Democratic Party in 1988.

 

Chief Whips

The government Chief Whips in the Commons and the Lords, in consultation with their opposition counterparts, arrange the scheduling of government business. Collectively, the Chief Whips are often referred to as 'the usual channels' when the question of finding time for a particular item of business is being discussed.

The Chief Whips and their assistants, who are usually chosen by the party leaders, manage their parliamentary parties. Their duties include keeping members informed of forthcoming parliamentary business, maintaining the party's voting strength by ensuring that members attend important debates, and passing on to the party leadership the opinions of backbench members.

 

Party funding

 

The Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000 aims to make party funding more open. It specifies that:1) parties can only accept donations of over £500 from 'permissible donors', who are individuals on the UK electoral register, registered companies incorporated in the EU which do business in the UK, registered political parties, or trade unions; 2) all donations of over £7,500 to a political party's central organisation must be reported to the Electoral Commission on a quarterly basis, or weekly during a general election campaign; 3) organisations or individuals who campaign but don't stand for election (like trade unions) must register with the Electoral Commission if they spend more than specific limits on campaigns. In England, the limit is £10,000. In Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland the limit is £5,000; 4) all donations of over £1,500 to 'accounting units', like a constituency association, must be reported to the Electoral Commission.

 

Comprehension

Text 8

The European Union

Vocabulary

To promote – продвигать, содействовать

The main decision-making body – главный орган, ответственный за принятие решение

To rotate – перемещать, сменять

Unanimously – единодушно, единогласно

Overall – общий, полный

Agenda – повестка дня, программа

Priority – приоритет

To draft – составлять план, набрасывать, выделять

To put into effect – осуществлять, приводить в действие

To bring proceedings – предъявлять иск

To be bound – быть обязанным

Lobbying – лоббирование

Devolution – передача власти

 

Member states

 

The 27 countries in the EU are listed below, by the year they joined:

1958 - Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands

1973 - Denmark, Ireland, UK

1981 - Greece

1986 - Portugal, Spain

1995 - Austria, Finland, Sweden

2004 - Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia

2007 - Romania, Bulgaria

Croatia, Macedonia and Turkey are official candidates to join the EU.

Map of EU countries opens new window.

 

The European Council

The European Council is made up of the presidents or prime ministers of each member state, accompanied by their foreign ministers, and the President of the European Commission. They meet up to four times a year in 'European summits' to set the EU's overall agenda and priorities. The meetings are chaired by whichever country holds the EU Presidency.

 

The European Commission

 

The European Commission is the executive body, similar to the UK civil service. It implements the agenda set by the European Council, by drafting new laws and ensuring that member states put them into effect.

Every member country nominates one Commissioner, who is responsible for a specific policy area, for example, education, transport or agriculture. The Commissioners are entirely independent of their countries and serve the EU as a whole.

 

The European Parliament

The European Parliament is made up of MEPs (Members of the European Parliament) elected by the people of EU countries. It approves laws jointly with the Council of Ministers.

 

The European Courts

 

Each member state sends a judge to the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg. The court ensures that laws passed at a European level are applied and interpreted correctly. In certain circumstances, individuals can also bring proceedings against EU institutions.

The Court of Auditors also has one member from each member state. It reviews the accounts of the European Union, to verify that the funds are used legally, economically, efficiently and effectively, and for the intended purpose.

 

Comprehension

Text 9

The Commonwealth

Vocabulary

Voluntarily – добровольно

Faith – вера

Charter – устав

Unifying – объединяющий

To reinforce – усиливать, укреплять

Intergovernmental – межгосударственный

Ministerial – министерский, правительственный

 

Principles and aims

 

The Commonwealth promotes international peace and security, democracy, liberty and equal rights, as well as economic and social development. It opposes all forms of racial discrimination.

It represents nearly two billion people – almost a third of the world's population – from a wide range of faiths, races, cultures and traditions.

The Commonwealth does not have a formal charter or constitution. Its structure is based on unwritten and traditional procedures, but it is guided by a series of agreements on its principles and aims. These are Declarations or Statements which have been issued by Commonwealth Heads of Government at various summits.

 

Head of the Commonwealth

 

The Queen is Head of the Commonwealth. This is a symbolic and unifying role, which reinforces the links by which the Commonwealth joins people together from around the world.

The Queen and other members of the Royal Family regularly visit Commonwealth countries. The Queen also has regular meetings with Heads of Government from Commonwealth countries, and attends the Commonwealth Day celebrations in London every year, on the second Monday in March.

 

Commonwealth realms

 

The Queen is also Head of State in the UK and 15 other independent states, their overseas territories and dependencies. These countries, known as Commonwealth realms, are: Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, St Christopher and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu.

In each country where she is Head of State, The Queen is represented by a Governor-General, appointed by her on the advice of the ministers of the country concerned, and independent of the UK government.

In the overseas territories, the Queen is usually represented by governors responsible to the UK government for the administration of the countries in which they serve.

 

Commonwealth Secretariat

 

The Commonwealth Secretariat, based in London, is the main intergovernmental agency of the Commonwealth. It helps to organise the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM), which takes place every two years in a different Commonwealth country.

The Secretariat also helps to organise ministerial meetings and other conferences. It administers assistance programmes agreed at these meetings, including those of the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation, which provides expertise, advisory services and training to developing countries in the Commonwealth.

 

Commonwealth Games

 

The Commonwealth Games are a friendly, world class, multi-sports event, held every four years. They are open to eligible competitors from all Commonwealth nations.

Although the United Kingdom is a single Commonwealth country, England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, Guernsey, Jersey and the Isle of Man all compete in the Games as separate nations.

The 2002 Commonwealth Games were hosted in Manchester. This was the biggest sporting event ever held in the UK, with more than 5,000 athletes and team officials taking part in 17 sports. The 2006 Games were in Melbourne, Australia. The 2010 Games will be in Delhi, India, and the 2014 Games will be held in Glasgow, Scotland.

Comprehension

Text 10

Vocabulary

Commitment – обязательство

To maintain – поддерживать, сохранять

To threaten – угрожать

To mediate – быть посредником, содействовать

Ceasefire – прекращение огня, перемирие

Guidance – руководство

Renewable – возобновляемый

 

The General Assembly

 

All countries in the UN are represented in the General Assembly - a 'parliament of nations' which meets to consider the world's most pressing problems. Each member state has one vote. The type of issues that may be discussed include globalisation, AIDS, conflict in Africa and how to help new democracies.

Decisions on key areas such as peace and security, admitting new members and the UN budget need a two-thirds majority, while other matters only need a simple majority (the largest share of the votes).

 

The Security Council

 

The most powerful part of the United Nations is the Security Council, with responsibility for maintaining peace and international security. The Council can meet at any time, whenever peace is threatened.

There are 15 Council members. Five of these - the UK, China, France, Russia and the United States - are permanent members. The other 10 members are elected by the General Assembly for a two-year term.

Decisions made by the Council require nine 'yes' votes out of 15. A decision cannot pass if there is a 'no' vote or a veto from one of the five permanent members, such as the UK.

When the Council considers a threat to international peace, it first explores ways to settle the dispute peacefully. It may suggest a settlement, or try to mediate between the countries involved. In the event of fighting, the Council will try to secure a ceasefire. It may also send a peace-keeping mission to help maintain a truce and to keep opposing forces apart.

The UN can also take action to enforce its decisions. It can impose economic sanctions or order a ban on arms sales to specific countries. On rare occasions, the Council has authorised member states to use 'all necessary means', including military action, to see that decisions are carried out.

 

The Secretariat

 

When decisions are made by the General Assembly or the Security Council, the Secretariat is responsible for providing the support work necessary to carry out the decisions. It consists of departments and offices with a total of 14,000 staff (7,000 working temporarily on special projects), drawn from more than 170 countries.

At its head is the Secretary-General, who provides overall administrative guidance. Secretaries-General serve for renewable five-year terms; most have served two terms. The current Secretary-General is Ban Ki-moon of South Korea (pictured above), who took up the post in January 2007.

The UN headquarters are in New York, with other offices in Geneva, Vienna, Nairobi and other locations.

Comprehension

УЧЕБНО – МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ

ПОСОБИЕ ПО РАЗВИТИЮ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНО - ОРИЕНТИРОВАННОЙ КОММУНИКАТИВНОЙ КОМПЕТЕНЦИИ СТУДЕНТОВ НА ЗАНЯТИЯХ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

Для студентов факультета управления и социологии

(отделение ГМУ)

ТВЕРЬ 2012

Составитель кандидат филологических наук, ст. преподаватель

К.С. Ращупкина

 

 

Пособие предназначено в качестве дополнительного материала по домашнему чтению для студентов факультета управления и социологии (отделение «ГМУ»). Пособие включает в себя тексты из оригинальных источников (http://www.direct.gov.uk) и профессиональную лексику. Цель данного пособия – научить студентов работать с текстами по специальности, развить навыки чтения и перевода, расширить их лексический запас и закрепить грамматические навыки. Пособие содержит помимо непосредственно текстов ряд последовательных предтекстовых и послетекстовых упражнений, нацеленных на развитие речевых и аналитических навыков, и может быть использовано как для самостоятельной, так и для аудиторной работы по развитию навыков работы с литературой по специальности.

 

 

Печатается по решению кафедры иностранных языков гуманитарных факультетов (протокол № 1 от 19.09. 2012.).

Text 1

Historical development of local government in the UK (stages)

Vocabulary

charter – хартия, грамота

highway – шоссе, автомагистраль

drainage – сток, канализация

maze – путаница, лабиринт

urban – городской

rural – сельский

devolution – передача

Greater London Assembly – большое собрание Лондона

 

Reading Practice







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