ТОП 10:

Ex.1. Translate into Russian.



TEXT 5 PERSONALITY

Ex.1. Translate into Russian.

Embrace moods, feeling, and behaving, interaction with other people, behavioral characteristics, moist, people's relations to the environment, temperament, emotional stability, excess of blood, result in anger, apathetic, and undemonstrative.

TEXT

1. Personality is a characteristic way of thinking, feeling and behaving. Personality embraces moods, attitudes, and opinions and is most clearly expressed in interactions with other people. It includes behavioral characteristics, both inherent and acquired, that distinguish one person from another and that can be observed in people's relations to the environment and to the social group. Perhaps the oldest personality theory known is contained in the cosmological writings of the Greek philosopher and physiologist Empedocles and in related speculations of the physician Hippocrates. Empedocles' cosmic elements - air (with its associated qualities, warm and moist), earth (cold and dry), fire (warm and dry), and water (cold and moist) - were related to health and corresponded to Hippocrates' physical humours (humour is one of the four liquids that in the past were thought to be present in the body and to influence someone's character), which were associated with variations in temperament: blood (sanguine temperament), black bile (melancholic), yellow bile (choleric), and phlegm (phlegmatic). This theory, with its view that body chemistry determines temperament, has survived in some form for more than 2,500 years. 2.According to these early theorists, emotional stability as well as general health depends on an appropriate balance among the four bodily humours; an excess of one may produce a particular bodily illness or an exaggerated personality trait. Thus, a person with an excess of blood would be expected to have a sanguine temperament - that is, to be optimistic, enthusiastic, and excitable. Too much black bile (dark blood perhaps mixed with other secretions) was believed to produce a melancholic temperament -that is, to be very sad, low-spirited. An oversupply of yellow bile (secreted by the liver) would result in anger (choleric means easily and often made angry) and irritability. An abundance of phlegm (secreted in the respiratory passages) was alleged to make people stolid, apathetic, and undemonstrative.

Ex.6. Magazines often publish questionnaires which are supposed to analyze your character for you. Look at words below and then match them with the question which aims to decide whether a person is like that.

Reliable Extravagant Reserved Argumentative Assertive Impatient Sensitive Inquisitive Moody Sociable Ambitious Lazy

 

1. Do you prefer to be in the company of other people?

2. Do you always keep your promise?

3. Do you find it easy to tell your boss if you feel he or she has treated you badly?

4. Do you always look out of the window if you hear a car draw up?

5. Do you often buy your friends presents for no particular reason?

6. Do you frequently disagree with what other people say?

7. Do you lie awake at night if someone has said something unkind to you?

8. Is it important to you to succeed in your career?

9. Do you put off till tomorrow what you could do today?

10. Does your mood change often and suddenly for no reason?

11. Do you get annoyed if you have to wait for anyone or anything for a long time?

12. Do you keep your feelings and ideas to yourself?

Ex.7. Complete the chart. Make nouns from the character adjectives using the suffixes in the box. Use your dictionary if necessary.

-n, -ism, -ness, -ity  
Adjective Noun
Shy Optimistic Reliable Ambitious Lazy Pessimistic Generous Tidy Moody Sensitive ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________  
     

 

Ex. 6 Translate into Russian.

Spinal – спинной, позвоночный, спинальный

~ Bone, ~ column, ~ cord, ~ curvature, ~ roots, ~ anesthesia,

 

Ex.5. Find the definitions.

1.A person with an excess of blood would be expected to have … 2.Too much black bile was believed to produce … 3.An oversupply of yellow bile would result … 4.An abundance of phlegm was alleged to make … 5.Personality is a characteristic way of … 6.Personality embraces … 7.The oldest personality theory is contained in the cosmological writings of … 8.Humour is one of the four liquids… 9.Empedocles' cosmic elements … 10. Air is associated with qualities of… 11. Earth is associated with qualities of… 12. Fire is associated with qualities of… 13. Water is associated with qualities of…
  1. Air, earth, fire and water.
  2. cold and moist
  3. moods, attitudes, and opinions.
  4. that were thought to be present in the body and to influence someone's character.
  5. thinking, feeling, and behaving.
  6. in anger
  7. the Greek philosopher and physiologist Empedocles
  8. a sanguine temperament
  9. warm and moist
  10. a melancholic temperament
  11. warm and dry
  12. people stolid
  13. cold and dry

 

 

TEXT

Antisocial behavior can be generally characterized as an overall lack of adherence to the social mores and standards that allow members of a society to coexist peaceably. According to some studies, individuals with antisocial behavior disorders are responsible for about half of all crimes committed, though they make up only about five percent of the population. Most of those with antisocial behavior disorders are male. Of the females that account for a smaller portion, most are not physically violent.

Antisocial behavior can start out in childhood, adolescence or adulthood. In children it is referred to as a conduct disorder, in adults as antisocial personality disorder. Conduct disorders developed early in life, prior to puberty, are more likely to continue into adulthood and also more likely to be aggressive. Conversely, a child that develops antisocial behavior at or after puberty has a better chance of the disorder not continuing into adulthood.

Antisocial behavior as seen in children is a growing concern among educators. Escalating violence in schools is an outward manifestation of antisocial behavior. Researchers have linked certain factors to the childhood form, finding it is often passed down within the family, though the genetics of this are not well understood. There also seem to be other common factors. Children with conduct disorders are often victims of abuse or have been exposed to aversive or punitive environments. Parenting is often inconsistent, swinging from excessive leniency to excessive punishment.

Most of society's worst criminals showed clear signs of antisocial behavior as children. Today's parents are called upon to watch for signs so that the condition can be treated. Children or adolescents with conduct disorder will show three or more of the following signs consistently in his or her personality traits:

· Behaves impulsively, thoughtlessly jeopardizing the safety of himself and others.

· Is manipulative, lies or cons his way through situations.

· Will not follow rules, enjoys breaking the law.

· Borrows money without repaying it.

· Steals.

· Is overly aggressive, often picking fights.

· Is willing to hurt others emotionally or physically without remorse.

· Is arrogant and overly confident.

· Likes to set fires.

· Is cruel to animals.

A person with conduct disorder or antisocial behavior might appear very charming and outgoing at first. However, friendships are hard to maintain as it becomes clear that it is too difficult to be close to this person. What at first seems to be daring and fun activity soon becomes dangerous and thoughtless.

People exhibiting antisocial behavior are extremely selfish and self-centered. Adults that are affected by antisocial behavior that did not have conduct disorder as children might initially get involved with white collar crime or become abusive to a spouse or family member. The nature of the negative behavior can escalate with time. The worst cases of antisocial behaviors seen in adult criminals, such as murderers, can usually be traced back to earlier conduct disorders as children.

 

Antisocial behavior in adults is not easily treated by psychotherapy or medication, as there is little motivation for adults to change. If you suspect an adult with this disorder it is best to avoid him or her as much as possible to protect yourself and your family. Anyone who believes their child might be exhibiting signs of conduct disorder should seek professional help immediately. Ex2. Continue the following sentences. 1. Antisocial behavior can be generally characterized as … 2. Antisocial behavior can start out in … 3. A child that develops antisocial behavior at or after puberty has a better … 4. Escalating violence in schools is … 5. Children with conduct disorders are often … 6. Most of society's worst criminals showed clear signs of .. 7. A person with conduct disorder or antisocial behavior might … 8. People exhibiting antisocial behavior are … 9. The worst cases of antisocial behaviors seen … 10. Antisocial behavior in adults is not easily treated by … 11. Anyone who believes their child might be exhibiting … Ex.3. Find the right translation.
1. Deviance 2. Juvenile delinquency 3. A juvenile delinquent 4. Social behavior 5. A sociopath 6. Antisocial behavior a.Refers to antisocial or illegal behavior by children or adolescents b. Is a person who has antisocial personality disorder. c. In a sociological context describes actions or behaviors that violate cultural norms including formally enacted rules (crime) as well as informal violations of social norms (rejecting folkways and mores). It is the purview of sociologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, and criminologists to study how these norms are created, how they change over time and how they are enforced. d. Is a person who is typically under the age of 18 and commits an act that otherwise would have been charged as a crime if they were an adult. e. Can be generally characterized as an overall lack of adherence to the social mores and standards that allow members of a society to coexist peaceable. f. Is a term used to describe the general conduct exhibited by individuals within a society.

TEXT 7 “Social Groups.”

TEXT

1. There are different types of social groups. These groups have different functions in our lives. Basically, social groups are primary or secondary. Primary groups are small and their members relate personally and intimately. A couple, a family or a group of friends are examples of primary groups. Other characteristics of primary groups are face-to-face contact, loyalty and group identification. In social life, the main function of primary groups is to provide a secure refuge to be oneself without fear rejection or ridicule. Primary groups are different cultures. There are differences in the social meaning of friendship, for example. In Japan friendship means obligation and responsibility. This is the reason why Japanese people do not make friends easily. For Japanese people friendship is something more permanent and they are surprised at the amount of explicit conflict between friends in the Western world. So the status of friend exists in all cultures, but the social meaning of this primary group is quite variable.

2. Secondary groups are generally large and their members relate on the basis of specialization or work. Leisure places like social clubs, stores, offices and workplaces like hospitals or business organizations are all examples of secondary groups. Secondary social groups have an important function in society. They help us to achieve specified goals.

Other classifications of social groups include in-groups, out-groups and reference groups.

 

TEXT 5 PERSONALITY

Ex.1. Translate into Russian.

Embrace moods, feeling, and behaving, interaction with other people, behavioral characteristics, moist, people's relations to the environment, temperament, emotional stability, excess of blood, result in anger, apathetic, and undemonstrative.

TEXT

1. Personality is a characteristic way of thinking, feeling and behaving. Personality embraces moods, attitudes, and opinions and is most clearly expressed in interactions with other people. It includes behavioral characteristics, both inherent and acquired, that distinguish one person from another and that can be observed in people's relations to the environment and to the social group. Perhaps the oldest personality theory known is contained in the cosmological writings of the Greek philosopher and physiologist Empedocles and in related speculations of the physician Hippocrates. Empedocles' cosmic elements - air (with its associated qualities, warm and moist), earth (cold and dry), fire (warm and dry), and water (cold and moist) - were related to health and corresponded to Hippocrates' physical humours (humour is one of the four liquids that in the past were thought to be present in the body and to influence someone's character), which were associated with variations in temperament: blood (sanguine temperament), black bile (melancholic), yellow bile (choleric), and phlegm (phlegmatic). This theory, with its view that body chemistry determines temperament, has survived in some form for more than 2,500 years. 2.According to these early theorists, emotional stability as well as general health depends on an appropriate balance among the four bodily humours; an excess of one may produce a particular bodily illness or an exaggerated personality trait. Thus, a person with an excess of blood would be expected to have a sanguine temperament - that is, to be optimistic, enthusiastic, and excitable. Too much black bile (dark blood perhaps mixed with other secretions) was believed to produce a melancholic temperament -that is, to be very sad, low-spirited. An oversupply of yellow bile (secreted by the liver) would result in anger (choleric means easily and often made angry) and irritability. An abundance of phlegm (secreted in the respiratory passages) was alleged to make people stolid, apathetic, and undemonstrative.

Ex.6. Magazines often publish questionnaires which are supposed to analyze your character for you. Look at words below and then match them with the question which aims to decide whether a person is like that.

Reliable Extravagant Reserved Argumentative Assertive Impatient Sensitive Inquisitive Moody Sociable Ambitious Lazy

 

1. Do you prefer to be in the company of other people?

2. Do you always keep your promise?

3. Do you find it easy to tell your boss if you feel he or she has treated you badly?

4. Do you always look out of the window if you hear a car draw up?

5. Do you often buy your friends presents for no particular reason?

6. Do you frequently disagree with what other people say?

7. Do you lie awake at night if someone has said something unkind to you?

8. Is it important to you to succeed in your career?

9. Do you put off till tomorrow what you could do today?

10. Does your mood change often and suddenly for no reason?

11. Do you get annoyed if you have to wait for anyone or anything for a long time?

12. Do you keep your feelings and ideas to yourself?







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