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Member names reserved for properties



For a property P (§10.7) of type T, the following signatures are reserved:

T get_P();
void set_P(T value);

Both signatures are reserved, even if the property is read-only or write-only.

In the example

using System;

class A
{
public int P {
get { return 123; }
}
}

class B: A
{
new public int get_P() {
return 456;
}

new public void set_P(int value) {
}
}

class Test
{
static void Main() {
B b = new B();
A a = b;
Console.WriteLine(a.P);
Console.WriteLine(b.P);
Console.WriteLine(b.get_P());
}
}

a class A defines a read-only property P, thus reserving signatures for get_P and set_P methods. A class B derives from A and hides both of these reserved signatures. The example produces the output:

123
123
456

Member names reserved for events

For an event E (§10.8) of delegate type T, the following signatures are reserved:

void add_E(T handler);
void remove_E(T handler);

Member names reserved for indexers

For an indexer (§10.9) of type T with parameter-list L, the following signatures are reserved:

T get_Item(L);
void set_Item(L, T value);

Both signatures are reserved, even if the indexer is read-only or write-only.

Furthermore the member name Item is reserved.

Member names reserved for destructors

For a class containing a destructor (§10.13), the following signature is reserved:

void Finalize();

Constants

A constant is a class member that represents a constant value: a value that can be computed at compile-time. A constant-declaration introduces one or more constants of a given type.

constant-declaration:
attributesopt constant-modifiersopt const type constant-declarators ;

constant-modifiers:
constant-modifier
constant-modifiers constant-modifier

constant-modifier:
new
public
protected
internal
private

constant-declarators:
constant-declarator
constant-declarators , constant-declarator

constant-declarator:
identifier = constant-expression

A constant-declaration may include a set of attributes (§17), a new modifier (§10.3.4), and a valid combination of the four access modifiers (§10.3.5). The attributes and modifiers apply to all of the members declared by the constant-declaration. Even though constants are considered static members, a constant-declaration neither requires nor allows a static modifier. It is an error for the same modifier to appear multiple times in a constant declaration.

The type of a constant-declaration specifies the type of the members introduced by the declaration. The type is followed by a list of constant-declarators, each of which introduces a new member. A constant-declarator consists of an identifier that names the member, followed by an “=” token, followed by a constant-expression (§7.19) that gives the value of the member.

The type specified in a constant declaration must be sbyte, byte, short, ushort, int, uint, long, ulong, char, float, double, decimal, bool, string, an enum-type, or a reference-type. Each constant-expression must yield a value of the target type or of a type that can be converted to the target type by an implicit conversion (§6.1).

The type of a constant must be at least as accessible as the constant itself (§3.5.4).

The value of a constant is obtained in an expression using a simple-name (§7.6.2) or a member-access (§7.6.4).

A constant can itself participate in a constant-expression. Thus, a constant may be used in any construct that requires a constant-expression. Examples of such constructs include case labels, goto case statements, enum member declarations, attributes, and other constant declarations.

As described in §7.19, a constant-expression is an expression that can be fully evaluated at compile-time. Since the only way to create a non-null value of a reference-type other than string is to apply the new operator, and since the new operator is not permitted in a constant-expression, the only possible value for constants of reference-types other than string is null.

When a symbolic name for a constant value is desired, but when the type of that value is not permitted in a constant declaration, or when the value cannot be computed at compile-time by a constant-expression, a readonly field (§10.5.2) may be used instead.

A constant declaration that declares multiple constants is equivalent to multiple declarations of single constants with the same attributes, modifiers, and type. For example

class A
{
public const double X = 1.0, Y = 2.0, Z = 3.0;
}

is equivalent to

class A
{
public const double X = 1.0;
public const double Y = 2.0;
public const double Z = 3.0;
}

Constants are permitted to depend on other constants within the same program as long as the dependencies are not of a circular nature. The compiler automatically arranges to evaluate the constant declarations in the appropriate order. In the example

class A
{
public const int X = B.Z + 1;
public const int Y = 10;
}

class B
{
public const int Z = A.Y + 1;
}

the compiler first evaluates A.Y, then evaluates B.Z, and finally evaluates A.X, producing the values 10, 11, and 12. Constant declarations may depend on constants from other programs, but such dependencies are only possible in one direction. Referring to the example above, if A and B were declared in separate programs, it would be possible for A.X to depend on B.Z, but B.Z could then not simultaneously depend on A.Y.

Fields

A field is a member that represents a variable associated with an object or class. A field-declaration introduces one or more fields of a given type.

field-declaration:
attributesopt field-modifiersopt type variable-declarators ;

field-modifiers:
field-modifier
field-modifiers field-modifier

field-modifier:
new
public
protected
internal
private
static
readonly
volatile

variable-declarators:
variable-declarator
variable-declarators , variable-declarator

variable-declarator:
identifier
identifier = variable-initializer

variable-initializer:
expression
array-initializer

A field-declaration may include a set of attributes (§17), a new modifier (§10.3.4), a valid combination of the four access modifiers (§10.3.5), and a static modifier (§10.5.1). In addition, a field-declaration may include a readonly modifier (§10.5.2) or a volatile modifier (§10.5.3) but not both. The attributes and modifiers apply to all of the members declared by the field-declaration. It is an error for the same modifier to appear multiple times in a field declaration.

The type of a field-declaration specifies the type of the members introduced by the declaration. The type is followed by a list of variable-declarators, each of which introduces a new member. A variable-declarator consists of an identifier that names that member, optionally followed by an “=” token and a variable-initializer (§10.5.5) that gives the initial value of that member.

The type of a field must be at least as accessible as the field itself (§3.5.4).

The value of a field is obtained in an expression using a simple-name (§7.6.2) or a member-access (§7.6.4). The value of a non-readonly field is modified using an assignment (§7.17). The value of a non-readonly field can be both obtained and modified using postfix increment and decrement operators (§7.6.9) and prefix increment and decrement operators (§7.7.5).

A field declaration that declares multiple fields is equivalent to multiple declarations of single fields with the same attributes, modifiers, and type. For example

class A
{
public static int X = 1, Y, Z = 100;
}

is equivalent to

class A
{
public static int X = 1;
public static int Y;
public static int Z = 100;
}

Static and instance fields

When a field declaration includes a static modifier, the fields introduced by the declaration are static fields. When no static modifier is present, the fields introduced by the declaration are instance fields. Static fields and instance fields are two of the several kinds of variables (§5) supported by C#, and at times they are referred to as static variables and instance variables, respectively.

A static field is not part of a specific instance; instead, it is shared amongst all instances of a closed type (§4.4.2). No matter how many instances of a closed class type are created, there is only ever one copy of a static field for the associated application domain.

For example:

class C<V>
{
static int count = 0;

public C() {
count++;
}

public static int Count {
get { return count; }
}
}

 

class Application
{
static void Main() {
C<int> x1 = new C<int>();
Console.WriteLine(C<int>.Count); // Prints 1

C<double> x2 = new C<double>();
Console.WriteLine(C<int>.Count); // Prints 1

C<int> x3 = new C<int>();
Console.WriteLine(C<int>.Count); // Prints 2
}
}

An instance field belongs to an instance. Specifically, every instance of a class contains a separate set of all the instance fields of that class.

When a field is referenced in a member-access (§7.6.4) of the form E.M, if M is a static field, E must denote a type containing M, and if M is an instance field, E must denote an instance of a type containing M.

The differences between static and instance members are discussed further in §10.3.7.

Readonly fields

When a field-declaration includes a readonly modifier, the fields introduced by the declaration are readonly fields. Direct assignments to readonly fields can only occur as part of that declaration or in an instance constructor or static constructor in the same class. (A readonly field can be assigned to multiple times in these contexts.) Specifically, direct assignments to a readonly field are permitted only in the following contexts:

· In the variable-declarator that introduces the field (by including a variable-initializer in the declaration).

· For an instance field, in the instance constructors of the class that contains the field declaration; for a static field, in the static constructor of the class that contains the field declaration. These are also the only contexts in which it is valid to pass a readonly field as an out or ref parameter.

Attempting to assign to a readonly field or pass it as an out or ref parameter in any other context is a compile-time error.





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