I: If you were choosing a job, would you do a career assessment test?

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I: If you were choosing a job, would you do a career assessment test?

CG: You can try some of the free career assessment tests. Career assessment test is one of the popular methods of giving you an idea of what you are good at and what you like to do when it comes to choosing a career. If you have the money, seek a careers coach or guide for ideas. These professionals are experts in career assessment. They are able to point you in the right careers direction after assessing key areas which you are good at. You can also get free advice from parents, teachers, friends or relatives. But remember that parents’ opinions are sometimes biased. Most of the time, parents would say the financial aspect is very important when it comes to choosing a career. As a result, the careers that they prefer might not be the one that fit you the best. Keep in mind that simply choosing a career because it pays well will not make you happy.

I: Are there any other options?

CG: You can apply for a summer job in a company that specializes in the area of your interest. This job may later become a temporary position which will give you added experience. And don’t forget to do the reality check. Do you really want to be a doctor, but don’t have enough skills in science? Do you have a strong interest in the arts, but your family members want you to follow in your father’s footsteps? It is important to face these problems and be realistic about whether you can solve them.

I: So, choosing a career is a hard task that a lot of people have difficulty in doing. It takes time to determine the career that matches your interest. Simply choosing a career that pays the most won’t keep you happy. Thank you, Jenny. I’m sure our listeners will follow your advice.

CG: You’re welcome. I wish I were able to help everyone to choose a right career, but a lot depends upon you as well. Listen to yourself and work hard to achieve your goals. Good luck!

Lesson 6, Ex.1

A teacher said to a student one day, “Smith, I wish I had twenty students like you.”

“Thank you, Sir, that’s nice to hear,” said Smith, “but I’m kind of surprised considering I never hand in my homework on time, I miss a lot of classes and I’m always late.”

The teacher said, ”I know, but I still wish I had twenty students like you. The problem is I have one hundred and forty!”
Lesson 6, Ex.2b)

28-year-old Ryan McAllister is an actuary for an insurance company in California.

"If I were ever unhappy with my employer, I could pick up the phone and find something else very quickly."

He joined the company after graduating in 2005 from the University of California, with a bachelor's degree in applied mathematics. In the survey of the best and worst jobs, of the best, actuary ranked number one. Of the worst, roustabout** was on the bottom. Actuaries, who assess the financial risks on an organization, are best because they work during standard business hours and in good working conditions—indoors and in places free of toxic fumes or loud noise—as opposed to those jobs toward the bottom of the list such as dairy farmer and the biggest loser from last year's study, lumberjack. They also aren't expected to do any heavy lifting, crawling or crouching—attributes associated with occupations like bricklayer, auto mechanic and roofer, also near the bottom of the list. Other jobs at the top of the study's list include software engineer, computer-systems analyst, biologist, historian and last year's winner, mathematician. Ms.Courter is a research mathematician and a maker of 3D-visualization software in San Francisco. Her job involves working as part of a virtual team that designs mathematically based computer programs, some of which have been used to make films such as "The Matrix". She telecommutes from her home and rarely works overtime or feels stressed out. Listen to what she says about her job.

"It's a lot more than just some boring subject that everybody has to take in school, it’s the science of problem-solving. Problem-solving involves a lot of thinking, I find that calming."

Meanwhile, musical-instrument repairer, No. 62 overall, was identified as the least-stressful job. But Sean McGarry, who fixes broken guitars and other stringed instruments in Chicago, says his job is often nerve-racking.

"Some instruments we work on cost between $50,000 and $100,000. Reparing instruments can also be hazardous”.

Of course, that isn't much compared with the kind of hazards in firefighting, the most stressful and physically demanding job identified in the study, and No. 188 overall. Matt Brett, a firefighter, says,

"It's more of a calling than a job. You can get killed any day you go to work. But the job is really rewarding."

On the opposite end of the career spectrum are lumberjacks, also known as timber cutters. The study shows these workers as having the worst job, because of the working hazards, poor employment prospects and low salary. In September Eric Nellans, a lumberjack will have been cutting timber for 15 years and will have cut down hundreds of trees. However, he is still passionate about his job. Mr. Nellans, 35, accidentally knocked down a dead tree and broke his right leg in the process four years ago. He says,

"I was back in the woods cutting timber in five weeks. It’s not a job everyone can do. It’s a very rewarding job, especially at the end of the day when you see the work you’ve done.”

Other jobs at the bottom of the study are: dairy farmer, taxi driver, seaman, emergency medical technician and roofer. Mike Riegel, a 43-year-old roofer in Flemington, says he likes working "outside in the fresh air." Since he runs his own business, which he inherited from his father, he can start and end his day early in hot weather or do the opposite when it's cold.

Lesson 7, Ex.1

"Sir, what is the secret of your success?" a reporter asked a bank president.
"Two words"
"And, Sir, what are they?"
"Right decisions."
"And how do you make right decisions?"
"One word."
"And, Sir, what is that?"
"And how do you get experience?"
"Two words"
"And, Sir, what are they?"
"Wrong decisions"

Lesson 8, Ex.1b)

The summer after college graduation, I was living at home, fishing in the daytime, spending nights with my friends-generally just hanging out. One afternoon my grandfather, who never went to college, stopped by.
Concerned with how I was spending my time, he asked about my future plans. I told him I was in no hurry to tie myself down to a career.
"Well," he replied, "you’d better start thinking about it. You'll be thirty before you know it."
"But I'm closer to twenty than to thirty," I protested. "I won't be thirty for ten more years."
"I see," he said, smiling. "And when will you be twenty again?"

Lesson 9, Ex.3


After William Saroyan

It is the opinion of my grandmother, God bless her, that all men should labour, and at the table, a moment ago she said to me: You must learn to do some good work, the making of some item useful to man, something out of clay, or out of wood, or metal, or cloth. It is not proper for a young man to be ignorant of an honourable craft. Is there anything you can make? Can you make a simple table, a chair, a plain dish, a coffee pot? Is there anything you can do?

And my grandmother looked at me with anger.

I know, she said, you are supposed to be a writer, and I suppose you are, but you must learn to make solid things, things that can be used, that can be seen and touched.

There was a king of the Persians, said my grandmother, and he had a son, and this son fell in love with a shepherd’s daughter. He went to his father and he said, My Lord, I love a shepherd’s daughter, I would have her for my wife. And the king said, I am king and you are my son, and when I die you shall be king, how can it be that you would marry the daughter of a shepherd? And the son said, My Lord, I do not know but I know that I love this girl and would have her for my queen.

The king saw that his son’s love for the girl was from the God, and he said, I will send a message to her. And he called a messenger to him and he said, Go to the shepherd’s daughter and say that my son loves her and would have her for his wife. And the messenger went to the girl and he said, The king’s son loves you and would have you for his wife. And the girl said, What labour does he do? And the messenger said, Why, he is the son of the king; he does no labour. And the messenger returned to the king and spoke the words of the shepherd’s daughter.

The king said to his son, The shepherd’s daughter wished you to learn some craft. Would you still have her for your wife? And the son said, Yes, I will learn to weave straw rugs. And the boy was taught to weave rugs of straw, in patterns and in colours and with ornamental designs, and at the end of three days he was making very fine straw rugs, and the messenger returned to the shepherd’s daughter, and he said, These rugs of straw are of the work of the king’s son.

And the girl went with the messenger to the king’s palace, and she became the wife of the king’s son.

One day, said my grandmother, the king’s son was walking through the streets of Baghdad, and he came upon an eating place which was so clean and cool that he entered it and sat at the table. This place, said my grandmother, was a place of thieves and murderers, and they took the king’s son and placed him in a large dungeon where many great man of the city were being held, and the thieves and murderers were killing the fattest of the men and feeding them to the leanest of them, and making a sport of it. The king‘s son was of the leanest of the men, and it was not known that he was the son of the king of the Persians, so his life was spared, and he said to the thieves and murderers, I am a weaver of straw rugs and these rugs have great value. And they brought him straw and asked him to weave and in three days he weaved three rugs, and he said, Carry these rugs to the palace of the king of the Persians, and for each rug he will give you a hundred gold pieces of money. And the rugs were carried to the palace of the king, and when the king saw the rugs, he was that they were the work of his son and he took the rugs to the shepherd’s daughter and he said, These rugs were brought to the palace and they are the work of my son who is lost. And the shepherd’s daughter took each rug and looked at it closely and in the design of each rug she saw in the written language of the Persians a message from her husband, and she related this message to the king.

And the king, said my grandmother, sent many soldiers to the place of the thieves and murderers, and the soldiers rescued all the captives and killed all the thieves and murderers, and the king’s son was returned safely to the palace of his father, and the company of his wife, the little shepherd’s daughter. And when the boy went into the palace and saw again his wife, he humbled himself before her and he embraced her feet, and he said, My love, it is because of you that I am alive, and the king was greatly pleased with the shepherd’s daughter.

Now, said my grandmother, do you see why every man should learn an honourable craft?

I see very clearly, I said, and as soon as I earn enough money to buy a saw and a hammer and a piece of lumber I shall do my best to make a simple chair or a shelf for books.


Lesson 1, Ex.2

- So, Mr. McKibben, you’re an environmentalist. What do you actually do?

- Our environment is our planet. Human activities have a big impact on the environment. People are becoming more aware that their activities can seriously damage the planet and the animals and plants on it. Environmentalists assess this damage and give advice on what can be done to help clean up and protect our planet.

- What environmental issues are most important today?

- There are many of them and they’re all interdependent. The most dramatic of them is, probably, climate change. It is the biggest environmental challenge facing the world today. Climate change refers to changes in the Earth’s temperature over the last 100 years. In Europe, for example, climate change results in hotter and drier summers; warmer and wetter winters; more storms and rainfall; other extreme weather conditions and rising sea-levels.

- That sounds really threatening. But is it only climate change that worries scientists?

- Not only, of course. There are different types of pollution: air pollution, water pollution, even noise pollution. Radioactive contamination is a form of pollution, too. So, nuclear plants are very hazardous. Take Chernobyl or Fucusima, for example.

- Nuclear waste is also a huge issue, isn’t it?

- All types of waste, actually. However, it is widely recognized that waste materials are a valuable resource, too. An English proverb says "One man's trash is another man's treasure." But let’s get back to the treasures of our planet. There’s the issue of resource depletion, as well. In the last decades people have been cutting down lots of trees, especially in tropical areas. Forests are being destroyed at the rate of 40 hectares a minute! Deforestation destroys the environmental balance and reduces biodiversity.

- Talking about biodiversity. More and more animals and plant species are becoming extinct.

- Biodiversity is a term which describes how rich the Earth is in the amount of species. So here we’re dealing with another environmental issue: conservation. Environmentalists and conservationists are trying to save the endangered species. But as an American astronaut said, “If you want to see an endangered species, get up and look in the mirror."

Lesson 3, Ex.2

Interviewer: There is no doubt that the Amazon rainforest is very important for the environment. But it is thought that an area bigger than France has been cut down since the 1970s, and recently trees are being cut down at an even more worrying rate.

Rosa Lemos de Sa: The Amazon rainforest is being given extra protection now, because the Brazilian government is worried about how quickly it is being destroyed. Politicians have decided they’ve got to do more to stop people illegally cutting down trees in the forest.

I: The Amazon forest is known as ‘the lungs of the world’. Why?

R: This is because the trees breathe in gases like carbon dioxide – which are harmful to us – and breathe out oxygen, cleaning the air for us. Deforestation in this area is likely to increase the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

I: Some experts say that forests depletion is also increasing ozone in the atmosphere and making people short of breath.

R: Fortunately, it’s a myth. Ozone depletion is happening due to chemicals (CFCs) released into the atmosphere by people. And deforestation is not making people short of breath as there is enough oxygen in the air to breathe.

I: 7.5 million hectares of rainforest are being cut down each year to make space for growing cattle and crops and for sale – that makes 20 football pitches every minute.

R: Human activities have made a terrible impact on the environment in the region. If people hadn’t cut down the trees to develop agriculture, the soil wouldn’t have become unable to produce good crops. Together with the trees, a huge number of species of plants and animals have disappeared, that could be useful to people in the future. If the habitat for wildlife hadn’t been lost, hunting wouldn’t have become more difficult for the local people and their cultures wouldn’t have been lost.

I: What can be done to protect rainforests?

R: You may think that it is just necessary to stop people cutting down trees. However, it’s not as simple as that. Most of the countries that have rainforests are poor and have high rates of population growth. They’re just trying to make some money.

I: So what do you think should have been done by the local authorities?

R: If a mixture of different crops and trees had been planted together, the soils would have stayed fertile. And if wildlife reserves had been set up, more money could have been made through tourism. It’s never too late to start making changes, though. The prices for rainforest products should be increased, sales of hard wood should be banned, damage caused by machinery should be reduced and traditions of the local people must be respected.

Lesson 5, Ex.2

A.It may be a global issue, but when scientists across the world are asked what the effects of climate change will look like, they quickly point to our country. Of all the wealthy countries, we’re probably in greatest danger.

Due to past carbon emissions the temperatures have risen, but what we do between now and 2050 is crucial for the climate change later this century and beyond. While government assessments predict over 250,000 homes may be at risk from rising sea levels, Greenpeace says climate change will affect us beyond our front doors. Despite knowing the problems faced by one of our best-loved tourist attractions, we’re still not doing enough to protect the Great Barrier Reef. Though chemicals are damaging the reef, climate change and global warming are the greatest dangers to it. A temperature rise between 2 and 3 degrees Celsius would result in 97% of the Great Barrier Reef being destroyed. Reducing greenhouse gases emissions must be of high priority, even if the full consequences of this are not yet understood.

We’re the biggest coal exporter in the world. We might like to think that our own global carbon emissions are small (2% of the global emissions), but they’re much, much greater than that due to our coal exports to the countries of our region like Japan, South Korea, China and even to the Netherlands. If we had developed alternative, renewable energy sources, we’d have fewer problems now. We should be replacing fossil fuels with renewable power. We can become world leaders in solar, wind, marine and geothermal energies.

B. With so many land-based species endangered, ‘the extinction crisis’ is agreed upon as a serious environmental challenge. We have already seen a fairly disturbing loss of our biodiversity. A number of introduced species have been added to the country’s native flora and fauna. The biodiversity of this large Pacific archipelago is one of the most unusual on Earth. The arrival of humans has presented a challenge for the native species, causing extinction of several. Over 50% of the local bird species are extinct, along with a species of bat and several frogs and a freshwater fish. This place is second only to Hawaii in terms of proportions of species lost. The animals are also in danger because of deforestation and – as a result – destruction of animal habitats.

C. In 2010 there was an oil spill which is considered the worst in the country’s history. It is estimated that over 205 million gallons (gallon = 3,79 l) of oil were released into the Gulf. If the spill had been stopped earlier, the damage wouldn’t have been so great. Many species could be lost as a result. The beaches of Florida were contaminated. The harmful chemicals caused health problems in people – especially those with heart and lung problems. The real impact on the seafood industry will have long-term consequences. BP (British Petroleum) has been suffering long-term damage as they have been known as the oil company with the most environmentally friendly image. D. It is estimated that more than 1 million tonnes of textiles only are thrown away every year in this country alone. The country consumes natural resources as a terrible rate and contributes unnecessarily to climate change. Each year the population generates approximately 280 million tonnes of waste, which causes environmental damage and costs businesses and consumers a lot of money. The government and the people are doing a lot to reduce the waste some of which is reused or recycled. According to RecycleNow, the country’s recycling policy saves more than 18 million tonnes of carbon dioxide a year – equivalent to taking 5 million cars off the road! If more waste was reduced, greenhouse emissions from landfills (places where rubbish is buried) could be reduced too. Moreover, landfills are a danger to local ground water supplies. Every time it rains, water drains through the rubbish, and picks up chemicals and hazardous materials. The water collects at the bottom of the landfill, often in large amounts and can become very toxic.

E.Polar bears may only be around for another 100 years because global warming is destroying their habitat. As the Earth gets hotter, sea ice melts, and this sea ice is a huge part of the polar bears' lives. They use it as a platform to stand on when they catch seals to eat, and also walk on sea ice to get to their homes - dens. Already some polar bears, in places like Hudson Bay, are beginning to struggle because of the effects of global warming.

The sea ice is melting at a speed of 9% a year, and when it's all gone the polar bears will have to find new ways of living before they become extinct. Other bears have learnt to change their habits, but polar bears need the fat from seals to get through the winter. Arctic animals like polar bears could be completely killed off because they are also eating poisonous chemicals made by humans. Scientists have found dangerous chemicals we make have reached the food chain of animals in the Arctic circle. Poisons from plastics and electrical goods can take years to break down and disappear. But they are carried along in water for hundreds of kilometres. Eventually they get into food and water eaten by smaller animals and fish. Inuit Eskimo communities are eating the food too, which could seriously damage them. Most countries have now banned the use of these chemicals in their plastics. But some - like Russia and the US - still use some dangerous chemicals.

F. On 26 April 1986 one of four reactors exploded after an experiment at the nuclear power plant northwest of the Ukrainian city of Chernobyl. As a result, a fire burnt for nine days and at least 100 times more radiation than the atom bombs dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima was released into the air. 25 years later, we still don’t know the real effects of the disaster. From 2006 to 2009 a group of scientists from different countries counted and examined wildlife including insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. The scientists say radioactive contamination in the Chernobyl exclusion zone has a serious impact on biodiversity in Ukraine and the neighbouring Belarus. According to their research, the number of mammals has decreased. Scientists in Ukraine criticized these conclusions. They say that because of the low level of human influence the biodiversity has increased. Many scientists recommend that the governments should turn this place into a wildlife haven – a natural laboratory where they can study the long-term consequences of this kind of accident. One of the scientists said, ”If people were more careful in general, the accident would never have happened. Let’s try and be more careful at least now and not jump to conclusions.”

Lesson 6, Ex.1

Mr. Nelson, the school's P.E. teacher, was on the way to his car when he saw Saxby, a first year boy, dropping a chewing gum wrapper.

"Saxby!! Come here!!" The boy knew he was in trouble.

"What do you think you're doing, boy?! Dropping rubbish like some hooligan, and a chewing gum wrapper too!!" "Sorry, sir."

"Don't apologise to me, Saxby, apologise to the environment!! It's idiots like you who are destroying the planet!! Now pick up your rubbish, spit out your gum and throw them away properly!!" The boy did as he was told.

Feeling very proud of himself, Mr. Nelson opened the door of his 6-seater, 4-wheel drive SUV and started the engine.

Lesson 7, Ex.3

"My name’s Leah and I’m sixteen. I want to become an environmentalist. I’m worried about some environmental issues. Water, for example, is a valuable natural resource. Current water shortages in the south-east of the country underline the fact that the UK, with its densely-settled population, has less water for each person than Spain and Portugal. We are facing shortage in some areas because demand has increased, while supply has not. The growth is the result of our higher standard of living, which has many watery links: personal health and hygiene, enjoyment of gardens and nicer cityscapes. We could be more efficient, of course.

Experts say that that to be kinder to the planet, it might help if we all reduce the amount of time we spend in the shower. Trying to do this has been pretty hard for me because I'm a fan of singing in the shower, even though it doesn't sound too good. But I've got a timer on my phone to remind me when I need to jump out.

I’ve also persuaded Mum to wait till we get a full load for our washing machine and the dishwasher. My next step will be to persuade Dad to use buckets of water, not the hosepipe for washing the car. I’m afraid he’s not ready for that yet.

Now I fill a cup with water to clean my teeth. This was something I picked up from the questionnaire on saving water we did at school. If only I’d started much earlier. If I’d started a couple of years ago, I would’ve saved tons of water.

Fortunately, none of our taps are dripping and Mum always uses rainwater for watering the plants in the garden, so we’re not wasting too much water.

I've found that I am thinking more about the decisions I make when it comes to washing vegetables or fruit. You’d say it’s just a drop in the ocean. I’d say it’s a small thing that can make a difference. It's also been great fun."

Lesson 9, Ex.1b)

Sound of Thunder (abridged)

After Ray Bradbury

The sign on the wall burned in the darkness:






“Does this safari guarantee I come back alive?”

“We guarantee nothing”, said the official, “except the dinosaurs.” He turned. “This is Mr. Travis, your Safari Guide in the Past. He’ll tell you what and where to shoot. If he says no shooting, no shooting. If you disobey instructions, there’s a stiff penalty of another ten thousand dollars plus possible government action on your return.”

“Hell and damn,” Eckels breathed, the light of the Machine on his thin face. “A real Time Machine.” He shook his head. “Makes you think. If the election had gone badly yesterday, I might be here now running away from the results. Thank God Keith won. He’ll make a fine President of the United States.”

“Yes,” said the man behind the desk. “We’re lucky. If Deutscher had gotten in, we’d have the worst kind of dictatorship. There’s an anti-everything man for you, a militarist, anti-Christ, anti-human, anti-intellectual. People called us up, you know, joking but not joking. Said if Deutscher became President, they wanted to go live in 1492. Of course, it’s not our business to conduct escapes, but to form Safaris. Anyway, Keith’s President now. All you got to worry about is …“

“Shooting the dinosaur,” Eckels finished for him.

“A Tyrannosaurus Rex. The Thunder lizard, the damnest monster in history. Sign this release. Anything happens to you, we’re not responsible. Those dinosaurs are hungry.

They moved silently across the room, taking their guns with them, toward the Machine.

First a day, then a night and then a day and then a night, then it was day-night-day-night-day. A week, a month, a year a decade! A.D. 2055. A.D.2019, 1999! 1957! Gone! The Machine roared.

The Machine slowed; its scream fell to a murmur. The Machine stopped.

The sun stopped in the sky.

“Christ isn’t born yet.” Said Travis. “Moses has not gone to the mountain to talk with God. The Pyramids are still in the earth, waiting to be cut out and put up. Remember that, Alexander, Caesar, Napoleon, Hitler – none of them exists. That” – Mr. Travis pointed – “is the jungle of sixty million two thousand and fifty-five years before President Keith.”

“And that,” he said, “is the Path, laid by Time Safari for your use. Its purpose is to keep you from touching this world of the past in any way. Stay on the Path. Don’t go off it. For any reason! If you fall, there’s a penalty. And don’t shoot any animal we don’t okay.”

“Why?” asked Eckels.

“We don’t want to change the Future. Not knowing it, we might kill an important animal, a small bird, a flower even, thus destroying an important link in a growing species. Say we accidentally kill one mouse here. That means all the future families of this mouse are destroyed, right? And all the families of the families of that one mouse! With a stamp of your foot, you annihilate first one, then a dozen, then a thousand, a million, a billion possible mice!”

“So what?”

“Well, what about the foxes that’ll need those mice to survive? For want of ten mice a fox dies. For want of ten foxes, a lion starves. Fifty-nine million years later, a cave man goes hunting sable-tooth tiger for food. But you, friend, have stepped on all the tigers in that region. By stepping on a single mouse. So the cave man starves. And the cave man is an entire future nation. Destroy this one man, and you destroy a race, a people, an entire history of life. Step on a mouse and you crush the Pyramids. So be careful. Stay on the Path. Never step off!”

“Of course maybe our theory is wrong. Maybe Time can’t be changed by us. Or maybe it can be changed only in little subtle ways.”

“How do we know which animal to shoot?” “They’re marked with red paint. We kill animals with no future that are never going to mate again. You see how careful we are?”

Out of the silence of the jungle, with a sound of thunder, Tyrannosaurus Rex appears. The Thunder Lizard is so huge and horrible that Eckels gets shocked and scared. He decides to return to the Machine. On his way back, without knowing it, he runs off the Path and walks on the grass. Finally, he finds his way to the Machine. The others kill the dinosaur and come back too.

Travis came walking, glanced at Eckels. “This son of a bitch nearly killed us. But it isn’t that so much. Hell, no. It’s his shoes! Look at them! He ran off the Path. God knows what he’s done to Time, to History!

1492.1776.1812. 1999. 2000. 2055.

The Machine stopped.

The room was there as they had left it. But not the same as they had left it. … There was a feel. What sort of world it was now, there was no telling.

But the immediate thing was the sign painted on the office wall, the same sign he had read earlier today on first entering.

Somehow, the sign had changed:






Eckels felt himself fall into a chair.

“Not a little thing like that! Not a butterfly!” cried Eckels. It fell to the floor, an exquisite thing, a small thing.

“Who - who won the presidential election yesterday?”

The man behind the desk laughed. “You joking? You know damn well. Deutscher, of course! Who else?

Eckels dropped to his knees. He scrabbled at the golden butterfly with shaking fingers.”Can’t we take it back, can’t we make it alive again? Can’t we start over? Can’t we …“

He did not move. He heard Travis shift his rifle.

There was a sound of thunder.

Lesson 9, Ex.2b)

For Want of a Nail

For want of a nail the shoe was lost.
For want of a shoe the horse was lost.
For want of a horse the rider was lost.
For want of a rider the battle was lost.
For want of a battle the kingdom was lost.
And all for the want of a horseshoe nail.

Lesson 9, Ex.4

It’s both town and country air
that we ultimately share.
So, polluting one, expect
to get a butterfly effect.

If the key to all our health
is to share in nature’s wealth,
then we’d best invest a plan
to save our wildlife while we can.


Lesson 1, Ex. 2 b


The Queen is Head of State of the UK and 15 other Commonwealth lands. She was born in 1926 and became Queen at the age of 25, and has reigned through more than 60 years of great social change and development. The Queen is married to Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and has four children and eight grandchildren. Surprisingly, The Queen of England despite all her present majesty and glory, is not allowed to enter the House of Commons simply because she is not its member!


The official religion in Britain is Christianity as practised by the Anglican Church. Its followers are known as protestants. Until the 16th century Britain was a Roman Catholic Country. King Henry VIII, who ruled at that time, wanted to have a son, but his first wife gave birth only to daughters. He decided to divorce her, but the Vatican didn’t allow him to do it. So he decided to found his own church - Church of England or Anglican Church, which up till today is country’s major religion.


Eurotunnel is the company responsible for building the twin railway tunnels under the English Channel connecting Britain and France. The Channel Tunnel is often called by the British simply as Chunnel. Eurotunnel runs its own shuttle service that carries passengers and their vehicles. Trains run 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.The shuttle has now been in operation for over 12 years and since its first commercial services 177 million people have travelled through the Channel Tunnel - that's 3 times the population of both France and England!


White buildings of whisky distilleries is a typical sight of the Scottish Highlands. The production of whisky started in 1494 and now there are over a hundred distilleries . No two whiskies can taste the same, and the taste can not be copied anywhere in the world, because the water is taken from local hills. And of course one can’t visit Scotland without trying to find Nessie at Loch Ness.


Wales is a small country with a colourful history and beautiful landscapes, including 3 National Parks. At only 170 miles from north to south and 60 miles east to west, it's no surprise that you're never far from a mountain or the sea. Welsh - the native language - is spoken by many people in Wales, and is one of the oldest languages in the world. Wales is also known as 'the land of castles', it is home to 641 famous fortresses - more castles per square mile than anywhere else in the world. Wales is also home to 6 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and although Cardiff, the capital city, dates back to Roman times, it's actually Britain's youngest city!

Lesson 3, Ex. 4

Speaker 1 - Soho

An energetic, young man, aged 24 speaks of Soho

I always visit this area when in London as the dining and bar scene is excellent and extremely diverse. Restaurant options cover pretty much every culture, taste and budget. There's vegetarian, italian, oriental, middle eastern, french and. Nightlife is just as varied and it's great if you're in a mixed crowd. And those street theatre performances in the evening .. There's always a really great 'buzz' in this area of London. I LOVE it!

Speaker 2 - Tower Hamlet

An immigrant from Bangladesh ( van be of any nationality), aged 20

I moved here with my parents some 7 years ago. I like the place. The area is not the best, of course, but we are satisfied… but my whole family is here with me, and that is important for me. At first we thought to live here for a while and then to move somewhere else, but now after so many years…. Well, we have the job here, and we get paid, we rent a flat, and it’s cheaper than in some other districts…I think we will stay here for some time more..

Speaker 3 - Wimbledon

Young woman, not fully satisfied, speaking of Wimbledon

it's nice ... but incredibly expensive. And parking can be a nightmare, especially when the tennis is on But on the whole, it's a very pleasant and useful place to live… well, it's got what you need. Apart from that it's nothing to write home about, nothing is happening here. And at half eleven on a Saturday night, don't even think about going out, there is nothing outside, like in a real village. Sometimes it doesn’t look like London at all! And of course you've got the annual sport of pointing lost tourists in the direction of the tennis.

Speaker 4 - Notting Hill

A very well-off, self-confident woman, a real londoner

I've lived here for 15 years and it's the best place I've ever lived. It is very convenient. It only takes about 10 minutes and you'll be in central London. And you have Portobello Market on your doorstep. Well, I can't think of a better location in London. Plenty of great bars and restaurants in the area and a great fruit and veg market. Ideal if you're doing any cooking at home. But.. the only thing is that not all can afford it, as it’s very expensive, exclusive so to say.

Lesson 4, Ex. 2.b

1) After his parents’ divorce and his mother's death, the relationship with the media was quite difficult, and I think that both William and Harry did blame the media. As they have got older, the princes accept they do need the media.

2) Nothing was known – the dress, the stag and hen night. We knew nothing until they wanted us to know.

3) Burton –the designer of the wedding dress - said the princess was one of the loveliest women she had ever met. The dress was made for her and has a lot of her personality in it.

4) The Queen gave a lunchtime Reception at Buckingham Palace for around 650 guests.

5) William is better grounded than his father. He says in the documentary that neither he nor Harry want the great wealth.

6) He likes to disagree with The Buckingham Palace, because many of the things they come up with are very old-fashioned and don't work nowadays or are just wrong. People have wrong views on what it's like to be in this family, for instance.

Lesson 6, Ex. 3.b)

Most British children wear school uniform to go to school. They have to. The school rules say that the children have to wear school uniform at school.
What sort of school uniform? Well, my younger children are both at secondary school. My daughter has to wear a dark green skirt or trousers, a white blouse, a dark green jumper, and black shoes and socks or tights. The Moslem girls at her school may wear a head-scarf, but it must be dark green or white or black. 
My son wears black trousers, a white shirt, a school tie and a dark blue jumper. 
At some schools, the pupils wear blazers – that is, a jacket in school colors with the school badge on the pocket. 

Generally, kids don’t mind wearing school uniform. After all, all their friends have to wear school uniform too. And many parents are happy, because there are no arguments with their children about what they may wear for school; and less pressure from their children to buy expensive new clothes because their school friends have them.
 But sometimes it is nice not to have to wear school uniform. About 2 or 3 times a year, many British schools have a “no uniform day” as a way of raising money for charity. The children come to school wearing their normal clothes, and give some money to the charity. Often the children themselves help to choose which charity they will support. I think it’s a wonderful idea, don’t you?


Lesson 2, Ex. 2 a)

Speaker 1 – It is a top tourist attraction. In 2004, over two million visitors traveled to the memorial. Mount Rushmore features 60-foot (18 m) sculptures of the heads of former United States presidents (in order from left to right) George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt and Abraham Lincoln. After securing federal funding, construction on the memorial began in 1927, and the presidents' faces were completed between 1934 and 1939. Although the initial concept called for each president to be depicted from head to waist, lack of funding forced construction to end in October 1941. It is just amazing to see. We should have stayed there longer.

Speaker 2 – Everyone who comes to Wachington, DC has to see it. It is probably the most famous political building in the world. Maybe because it is printed on the back of a 20 dollar bill. I should have taken more pictures of it.

Speaker 3 – It is major resort city for gambling, shopping, and fine dining in Nevada and the whole USA. It offers something for everyone. The city's tolerance for various forms of adult entertainment earned it the title of Sin City, and this image has made Las Vegas a popular setting for films and television programs. But it is such a money-pit, I might have lost a thousand there.

Speaker 4 – it is a place where imagination is the destination. For young and old, big and small — it's the happiest place on earth! It is cool to come there and build memories with your family that last a lifetime as you discover the wonder of this magical, fantastical world. I ought to have applied for a job there.

Speaker 5 – Well, some people may think of it as only one huge sigh, but it is not. There are so many things to see. Academy gallery and Grand Lobby Gallary, Chinese Theatre, Kodak Theatre, Forever Cemetery and many other places can keep you busy for several days that will pass by without your noticing. I could have taken pictures with him.

Speaker 6 –I should have never been scared to go there! I am so scared of heights! But it turned out to be my best trip ever! Nearly two billion years of the Earth's geological history have been exposed as the Colorado River. Before European immigration, the area was inhabited by Native Americans who built settlements within the canyon and its many caves. But since I am a geologist it was more interesting for me to witness what nature has been creating.

Lesson 7, Ex. 2

NEWs on the radio:

A. The residents of Quebec were scared to death by the morning accident. Three bears came outside the forest in search of some food. They started at the parking lot, but then moved closer to the amusement park in the city-center until caught by Animal Control.

B. Monreal Hockey Club is doing a charity project to raise money for a new Hockey Ice-scating Rink. All team members are knitting scarves that later will be sold during a friendly match with New York Rangers. All the admission fees will be donated to charity as well.

C. Toronto Airport is temporally closed for all flights. The workers went on strike as their pay has been cut 3 times already since the beginning of the year. They say it is a must that they get their money back!

D. The director of West Edmonton Mall in Alberta is fired. The rumors have it that he like to chew a gum and stick it onto benches in the Mall. The cameras caught him doing it last week and the board of directors fired “the gum-lover” immediately.

Lesson 8, Ex. 3 b)

The country’s full name is Canada.

Canada is the second largest country in the world after Russia. Its area is 9.9 million sq km (3.8 million sq miles).

The population of Canada is 33.8 million people. Nearly 90% of Canadians live within 200km of the border with the United States, which means that Canada has huge wild areas to the north. Life expectancy is 79 years for men, 84 years for women.

Major languages are English and French (both official).

Major religion is Christianity.

Immigration has helped to make Canada one of the world's richest nations.

As for the government, Canada is parliamentary democracy. It is a member of the Commonwealth with the head of the state Queen Elizabeth II, represented by a Governor-General.

Lesson 9, Ex. 3

Uuuu, New York

Uuuu, New York

Grew up in a town

That is famous as a place of movie scenes,

Noise is always loud

There are sirens all around,

And the streets are mean

If I can make it here,

I could make it anywhere,

That's what they say

Seeing my face in lights,

Or my name in marquees found down Broadway

Even if ain't all it seems

I got a pocket full of dreams


Baby I'm from New York!

Concrete jungle where dreams are made of,

There's nothing you can't do

Now you're in New York!

These streets will make you feel brand new,

Big lights will inspire you,

Hear it for New York!

(New York, New York, New York)

On the avenue,

There ain't never a curfew, ladies work so hard

Such a melting pot

On the corner selling rock

Preachers pray to God,

Hail a gipsy cab,

Takes me down from Harlem to the Brooklyn Bridge

Someone sleeps tonight

With a hunger for more then an empty fridge...

I'm going to make it by any means,

I got a pocket full of dreams,


One hand in the air for the big city,

Street lights, big dreams, all looking pretty

No place in the world that can compare

Put your lighters in the air,

Everybody say Yeah, Yeah, Yeah!



Lesson2, Ex. 2b and 2c


H. - Host

J. –Jacob

O. – Olivia

M. – Mia

H: Good afternoon! Here’s Frank False and our Wednesday show “Fantastic Facts” Today two girls and a boy from Orlando will tell you more about customs all around the world. Each of them will tell us about two traditions and you will try to guess if it’s a real tradition or FALSE! And we start with Jacob. Which countries have you been to, Jacob?

J: Well, the first country in my list is Japan! I went there just before Christmas, so my customs will be about celebrating and visiting people’s home on holidays. Well, you know in Japan it’s believed that RED colour is the colour of death. For example people get red notice cards if somebody dies in their family. So it’s risky to give your Japanese friend a RED Christmas card as a present because they can be very upset!

And another custom is that if you visit a Japanese house it’s rude to look in the kitchen. A lot of people don’t know about it and do it by mistake. And it’s really rude!!!!

And my second country would be Thailand. There it’s very offensive to come inside somebody’s house wearing your shoes. It’s necessary to take them off before entering.

H: Amazing!!! Thank you, Jacob. And we turn to our lovely Olivia now. Olivia, are you ready?

O: Yes, absolutely

H: Are you going to tell us about an Asian country too?

O: Nope! I’ve travelled to Europe and my story is about Norway. Norwegian legend says that on Christmas Eve witches and ghosts come out of their home. It’s believed that they are looking for brooms to ride. So all brooms in the house are hidden before Christmas!

H: Oh, do they hide their vacuum cleaners as well?!

O: Ha-ha! I’m not sure about that! Right! What do you know about Brazil?

H: Well, is it something about carnivals?

O: No way! I stayed at my grandma’s and visited a lot of my relatives there. First I was a bit worried because I thought that I had to buy loads of presents. But it all turned out to be ok. You see if you’ve been invited to somebody’s home in Brazil it’s unnecessary to take a present with you. But at the same time it’s normal to send a thank-you note the next day.

H: It’s great! I’ll come for a visit to Brazil too! We should say “Thank you” to Olivia. And finally I give the floor to Mia. Hello there!

M: I’ve been to Eastern Europe. And I’ve got some customs to tell you about too.

H: Well, they can’t be VERY different from ours.

M: Oh, they are! For example the origin of the second tradition is Ukrainian villages. In the Ukraine, it is customary to decorate a Christmas tree with an artificial spider and webs. It is believed that a spider web found on Christmas morning brings good luck.

H: Brrrrr! Spiders! I hate them! Any more pleasant customs?

M: Sure! How about flowers!

H: Yes! Flowers sound nice!

M: Do you know that in Russia it’s impolite to present an even number of flowers. It’s believed to be a symbol of death. So if you’d like to impress someone get them five, seven or nine roses, but not six!

H: Oh, my!!!!! Ok, I’ll remember that! Thank you everybody! You’ve done a great job! Hope our listeners have learned something useful today!!! It was Frank False and my “Fantastic Facts”! See you next Wednesday! Take care!

Lesson 5, Ex. 2 and 3

A –Aneka

S – Sophie

S: Hello, Aneka! How are you! I haven’t seen you for ages. You didn’t appear on line for such a long time. Where have you been?

A: Oh, hi Sophie! I was travelling for a week. Can you imagine, I visited seven castles of Europe.

S: Oh, my! But why did you go travelling in the middle of the school year?

A: You see, I took part in an international competition “Sight Hunters”.

S: “Sight Hunters”??? What is it all about?

A: Well, you have to look for an interesting sight in your country which you want to become well-known around the world. Then you have to make a poster about it which you send to the judges. They choose a hundred teenagers who have sent the most interesting posters and invite them to Germany to the Knights’ Days. There you present your sight and 5 winners who have been chosen by voting get a chance of visiting seven European castles. I got the second place!!! Can you imagine?

S: Congratulations! So the trip is a prize in a competition.

A: That’s right.

S: So, which castle did you like best?

A: Oh, I loved all of them. But the most exciting was Dover Castle.

S: Dover Castle?

A: Yes, well, in fact it’s not just a castle, it’s a fortress.

S: A fortress? What’s a fortress?

A: A fortress is a building which is constructed to protect a castle from enemies.

S: Got it!

A: So, our plan of staying in Dover Castle included visiting the dungeons and the watch towers. We also planned to go to the Great Hall for a concert. Besides we wanted to go round the castle to see the moat and the drawbridge.

S: Oh, wait a minute! What’s a moat first?

A: Oh, it’s a deep canal which was build around a castle to protect it. There usually was a drawbridge across it. It’s a special bridge that can be raised to block the entrance to the castle.

S: Oh, I see. And did you mention the dungeons??? Do you mean the underground rooms that were used to keep prisoners there?

A: Exactly!

S: It sounds really scary!

A: No, there’s a museum there now! And the watch towers, they are the towers that were used for observing the territory around the castle and signaling any possible danger. They are fantastic. You can see everything around you from up there.

S: So you went to the dungeons and the watch towers…

A: Yes, but, unfortunately, we didn’t have enough time to see the moat and the drawbridge because the concert was too long.

S: A concert? What kind of concert? Rock? Pop?

A: No, no. It was a concert of Medieval music. We listened to minstrels. They are musicians who traveled from place to place to sing and entertain people in the Middle Ages. Their show was unforgettable. They played and dances in the Great Hall of the castle. And after the concert there was a knight battle show. Do you know who the knights are?

S: Of course, I do! They are medieval soldiers who fought in tournaments. They always belonged to an order.

A: That’s right! So to cut a long story short my day in Dover Castle was fantastic! I’ll send you the pictures later.

S: Oh, I’d love to see them. Thanks. Now what about that….

Lesson 5, Ex. 2 and 3

- Oh, it’s amazing!

- What is it?

- I’ve just bought a magazine with an article about James Bond. I love these films. Here they say they’re going to start a new Bond film soon at MGM studio. Their previous “Casino Royal” was a big success.

-Yes, that’s true. Almost all films by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer are good. Remember “Legally Blond” or ..well “Tom and Jerry”.

- Right. Do you know what I’ve found out in this magazine? They say that Louis B. Mayer, the creator of MGM, was in fact from Belarus.

- Really?

- Yeah! He was born in Minsk, and later his parents moved to New York where he helped his father in a shop. They also say that his birthday was unknown, so he took up the 4th of July as his official date of birth. He always understood what people wanted to see at the cinema and that’s why his studio always had "more stars than there are in the heavens".

- That’s true. And it’s interesting that he was from Belarus. Then, logically, MGM should have invited Harrison Ford or Michael Douglas to play the part of James Bond.

- Why is that?

- Haven’t you seen the new programme with Lisa Kudrow? It’s name is…. “Who Do You Think You Are”. They invite famous people and travel with them around the world to learn the story of their ancestors.

- No. That’s the first time I hear about it.

- I see. Well, the first programme was with Michael Douglas. They showed the place in Belarus where according to the family story Michael’s ancestors had a farm.

-So, Douglas has Belarusian roots too?

-Yeah. His grandparents were quite rich, but in 1908 they decided to leave their motherland because of the war. What’s more they said that Michael Douglas has a cousin who lives in Mogilev.

- Cool! Are these grandparents on Michael’s mum side?

- No. They are parents of his father, Kirk Douglas, who was an actor as well. They say he didn’t want Michael to start acting as his own career was full of downs. But as you see Michael didn’t listen and became not only a successful actor and producer. He’s also a UN Messenger of Peace.

- I see. And did you mention Harrison Ford? Is he somehow Belarusian too?

- Surprise, surprise! Well, actually, he’s half German and half Belarusian. His mother’s parents lived in Minsk, but his father’s parents emigrated from Germany.

- Fantastic! So worldwide known Indiana Jones is half Belarusian…

- Well, he became Indiana Jones not at once. Harrison Ford has had difficult times. He even had to work as a carpenter to earn money because his acting career wasn’t very successful in the beginning.

- I really can’t believe it! Anyway, let’s go online and search the net. I’d like to know who else had ancestors from Belarus.

- I can tell you that Pavel Sukhoi, a famous military airplane constructor was born in Belarus, in Vitebsk region. He was a very talented young man and as his career started during World War II he put all his talents and skills to save his motherland. Probably that’s why his plane SU 27 is now considered to be one of the best in the world.

- And I’ve just found a website where they give the whole list of people with roots in Belarus. Louis B. Mayer, Harrison Ford, Michael Douglas, Pavel Sukhoi…. oh, guess who else is on this list!

- Who is it?

- Marc Chagall and Larry King, and Aizek Asimov.

- Is Marc Chagall an artist from Vitebsk? I think my mum has a poster with his picture on her computer.

- Yes, he is an artist. And he was born and lived in Belarus for a while. Oh, my… Can you imagine he had nine brothers and sisters and he was the oldest. I think it’s terrible! …Oh, and he died when he was 97. That’s a long life!

- I agree! And who’s Larry King?

- Larry King? He’s a famous radio and television host. He’s a real TV star and his nightly programme Larry King Live has been number one over the years! Larry King is a king of talk shows. His parents emigrated from Belarus and when Larry was nine his father died of a heart attack. Larry himself is now suffering from a serious heart disease that he probably inherited from his dad. He always told about his Belarusian ancestors and he wants to come to Belarus one day and make a programme here.

- I see. And you also said something about Aizek Asimov. I’m keen on his sci-fi novels and stories. Is he from Belarus as well?

- They say he is. Let me read it… Aha, he was born in a place on the border between Belarus and Russia. His ancestors were millers and in 1923 they left the Soviet Union and arrived in New York City. There his father had a very successful candy store. Aizek learned to read when he was five and …. they say he was not only a science fiction writer, but also a respected scientist. That’s it. Don’t know much more about him and never read any of his books.

- That’s not it! His books are fantastic! Do you remember the film “I, Robot” with Will Smith?

- Of course, I do.

- Is based on Asimov’s story!

- Really?

- And they say that his series of short stories influenced everything from “A Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy” to “Star Wars” and “Futurama”.

- Now I’d better read some of his stories? Are they long?

- Oh, come on! They are…


Lesson 1, Ex.2a

The principal, the vice principal, teachers and students, I bid you a pleasant good morning. I say to you that in spite of being a teenager, myself, I must agree with the statement “Teenagers are downright careless, lazy and irresponsible”. Teenagers need to be spoon-fed, they need someone to pick up after them, and they need bibs when they eat. This is ridiculous! What they really need is to realize that they are no longer babies.

Firstly, I say that teenagers are careless. I say that they are careless because they do not think before they act. They need to learn that to every action there is a reaction. We teenagers are forever engaging in activities we know that are wrong. We are careless when it comes to the placement of things. Misplacing our home- work, clothes, shoes, and books has become a hobby. We are careless when it comes to choosing our friends. We choose the peers who cause our downfall and not our success. Alcohol, drugs, sex, can we be any more careless than that? Adolescents believe that they are too old to do the things children do and not old enough to do the things adults do, so they do things nobody will do, which are most times careless things.

Secondly, I find that teenagers are way too lazy. What happened to the days when the whole family worked together on the weekend to do household chores? Nowadays teenagers do not even want to get off the couch to change the television channel. Clothes are always on the floor, wet towels are always on the bed, and their closet is a bin for everything they have ever owned. Cell phone dialing is the most exercise they do. They are aginst physical education and want it to be banned, they are even reluctant to walk, they refuse to do their home- work and they fall asleep in class. Teenagers are the type of people who let things happen instead of make things happen. Oh aren’t teenagers lazy? They are lazy, lazy, lazy!

Thirdly, teenagers are not only careless and lazy, but they are irresponsible too. We are aware that our curfew is at ten o’clock, yet we are out at midnight. Teenagers are irresponsible when it comes to their education. They skip class, they do not complete their home-work and they waste time during important lessons. They are irresponsible when it comes to their own health far less anything else. Teens need more direction; they make stupid decisions when it comes to sexual activity, drugs and other health choices. Adolescents are known to stay up late on school nights and parents often are left with the grief from needing a crane to wake them up on school mornings. These are clearly irresponsible actions.

Finally, Dr. Martin Luther King had a dream. I also have a dream that one-day teenagers will be responsible, caring and hardworking individuals. I have the hope that one day my dream will come true.

Lesson 2, Ex.2a

BBC News

The majority of teenagers would prefer to use their free time constructively rather than just "hang about", a new government survey has suggested.

The poll of about 3,700 teenagers found 72% would prefer to play football, visit the gym or attend a youth club.

However, four out of five said there is not enough for them to do in their local communities.

The government said the survey put paid to the negative portrayal of teenagers as lazy.

The nationwide Teen Talk poll of 16 to 19-year-olds was carried out using text message, and was conducted on behalf of the Department for Children Schools and Families (DCSF) by mobile network Blyk.

Football, dance, gym, music and swimming were among the most popular activities teenagers wanted to take part in, and they were also keen to volunteer for community work.

But 90% of those polled admitted spending too much time hanging out at home or with friends due to lack of opportunities in their local area.

Almost one in 10 already use part of their leisure time for part-time jobs, with a further 16% keen to do the same.

Kieron Richardson, who stars in the Channel 4 soap Hollyoaks and is backing the survey, said: "It's frustrating to see this country's young people getting such a bad press all the time.

"The majority of teens want to use their free time constructively and it's vital they are given the chance to do that."

The Teen Talk survey forms part of Aiming High for Young People, the DCS

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