ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Lilia, let’s start with some general information about your organization. What is SOS children’s village?



YEAR 11 TAPESCRIPTS

UNIT 1

Lesson 1, Ex.4
1. I'm an only child and don't get on with any of my extended family (grandparents, aunts, uncles) so my parents are all I have and they both mean the world to me. My dad's an angry, overworked man but I still love him because he's a fantastic dad. My mum is an absolute angel; she nags a lot, worries herself to death and showers me with attention just like any decent mum should.

2. I find most of my family incredibly annoying. That said, I still love them all dearly, and would do just about anything for them. Clearly it varies on a case-by-case basis, but I think it broadly depends on how tight-knit your family was as you grew up.

3. Family are people who you live and share with, I get on well with all my family, especially my sister and mother. My two brothers are alright but annoying sometimes (partly because they are early to mid teens) and my father's okay though he's kinda distant and we have some disagreements. I can already predict he's not going to like my plan to work in America next summer, but I'm doing it anyway if I can.

4. I hate my older brother. He is a bully and a terrible person. I love the rest of my family (mostly) and would do anything for them. They do get on my nerves and me and my sister really hated each other growing up but we're cool now.

5. To me, family is the safety net under the "Tightrope walking act" of trying to navigate life. No matter what you do, they will always love and support you, they will always be there to help you in hard times, and you can always go back there for comfort, advice and help.

Lesson 3, Ex. 1

Here is my song for my protection

A song of love, respect and security

Here I am - let’s get in action

Let´s live in peace and dignity

 

What’s behind a shining face?

How do you describe a smiling face?

What is wrong? What is right?

There is one answer: Love is the key!

 

Here I am - with a right for shelter, and a right for care

Here I am - I’ve got the right for shelter and the right for love

Here I am - do you know how I feel, and do you see what I see?

Here I am - and I want to take part - to make all of this real

Here I am - yes I am

Lesson 3, Ex.3b

Lilia, let’s start with some general information about your organization. What is SOS children’s village?

- First of all I’d like to thank you for your interest in SOS Children's Villages. We are an independent, non-governmental international charity organisation which has been working to meet the needs and protect the interests and rights of children since 1949. We work for children who are orphaned, abandoned or whose families are unable to care for them.

Please tell us about the beginning. How did it all start?

- Well, Medical student Hermann Gmeiner, a native Austrian, was a soldier in Russia during the Second World War. He had experienced the horrors of war himself, and then was confronted with the isolation and suffering of the many war orphans and homeless children after the end of the war. The young man, who grew up in a farming family and lost one of his parents at an early age, was shocked at how those children are pushed aside and kept “out of sight". He was certain that help can only be effective if every child can grow up in a family or in a family-like environment. With a small amount of money (about 40 $) Hermann Gmeiner established the SOS Children's Village Association in 1949.

What are your global achievements?

- Since its founding in 1949, SOS Children's Villages has expanded to 500 villages in 132 countries. We are currently raising over 80,000 children in our villages and through our many education, family strengthening, medical, and outreach programmes, we change the lives of over 1 million people each year.

Lesson 6, Ex. 4

1. Our families give us an identity. They provide us with a moral, social and economic support. Today, however – even in rural areas– the idea of the family itself is changing and is sometimes being replaced by other groups whose links are based on confidence, mutual support, common problems or interests. Religious groups, office colleagues and friends are now sometimes seen to operate as ‘family’. This new way of thinking about the family is radically different and is not based on correct biblical teaching.

There are also changes in values, economics and government policies. These changes are making unfaithfulness and divorce more common, marriage less serious, child rearing more confusing and stable relationships more difficult. These changes go against correct biblical teaching. We need to learn to control and cope with this rate of change.

2. The role of a family is in caring about its members. I believe today families have lost their knowledge, skills and resources in providing for the elderly. The common thing these days is to place them in a nursing home while we carry on with more important things. The communities also have lost the knowledge, skills and resources to look after the needs of disadvantaged people and rely on organisations instead. Today we see a rising population, which is getting older, government resources are being stretched etc. etc. In fact I really think that it's too late.
3. One of the primary functions of the family is to produce and reproduce persons, biologically and socially. However, producing children is not the only function of the family; the family is necessary for the formation of an economically productive household. Anthropologists have often supposed that the family in a traditional society forms the primary economic unit.

 

4. Well, the bottom line is the following: The family -- the glue that holds our communities, nation, and world together -- is weakening, and the moral foundation necessary for a civilized and well-functioning society is falling apart all around us.

A loving mother and father within a committed marriage is the very best foundation for the family, for the economy, and for the nation. Yet currently, divorce is a common issue, moreover, about forty percent of American children are born out of marriage. That fact affects everyone and all of American culture. When the family becomes nothing more than "any group of people living together," there is no moral authority in terms of standards of behavior. Children are left to hang around aimlessly. Family problems always hit our pockets -- hard!

5. Family is a natural way of protection because society is ever changing. Families automatically protect each other against the competitive and aggressive outside world.

6. I believe it depends on the society. I come from Eastern Europe, Poland. The family here is the centre of the social structure. One’s obligation is to the family first and foremost. Extended families are still the norm and really form an individual’s social network. We Poles draw a line between the inner circle and outsiders. Family members are naturally part of the inner circle along with close friends that are usually “family friends”. Poles will interact differently with their inner circle and outsiders. The inner circle forms the basis of a person's social and business network. The people from the inner circle can be relied upon to: offer advice, help find a job, cut through bureaucracy, or even rent an apartment.

Lesson 7, Ex. 2

Family traditions are things that families do together on a regular basis. These things can be patterns of behavior, enjoyable activities or a certain food that a family likes. They can be repeated daily, weekly, monthly or once a year. It is important for families to observe their traditions even as their children get older, here are five reasons why:

First of all, family traditions create good feelings and special moments to remember. They are fun things to do. These are the memories that will last a lifetime.

Family traditions give every member of the family a stronger sense of belonging. Being a part of a family is more than living in the same home or having the same last name. It is about relationships and family ties. Since family traditions are something you do together, they strengthen the ties you have between each other creating a stronger sense of belonging to the family.

Family traditions help children with their identity. It helps to know that you ‘belong’ when you are trying to figure out who you are, which is a main job of the teenager.

Family traditions help parents impart the family’s values to their children. To start, you get more time to model your family values to your teen. You will also find more opportunities to talk to your teen about serious issues and keep the conversations light.

Family traditions offer children a sense a security. Everyday a teen faces some very difficult issues. Knowing that he/she is secure and has a family to turn to is a powerful tool to use against negative peer pressure, drug use influences, etc.

There are more reasons for families to observe their traditions, but the five above are the most important for families to remember.

Lesson 8

My grandmother’s house has a very special place in my heart. I lived with my grandmother for many years when I was little. Her house always seemed to have something about it that set it apart from all the rest. As you walk into the front door of her house you notice a long, slender stairway that led up into the main hallway of the house. The strong smell of cigarette smoke is quite evident when you reach this point. Yes, my grandmother did smoke.
My grandmother's house was always full of laughter and many cheers. Our family used to call it Grand Central Station. There was always someone over her house visiting whether it be family or friends. My grandmother's doors were always open to everyone no matter what. When my grandmother had company she would tell us very seriously to act nicely in front of them or she would be very upset at us.
My grandmother always sat in the kitchen of her house. This is where she would drink her hot black coffee with no sugar and smoke her Virginia Slim cigarettes. She would sometimes sit in her kitchen for hours upon end and watch the ducks and the geese swimming by on the river and if it were warm enough outside she would crumble up some bread and feed it a little at a time to them.
In the summer time my grandmother and whoever happened to be at the house would sit out on the sundeck for hours and talk about anything and everything imaginable; she was known as the neighborhood gossip queen. The sundeck was a place for everyone to sit and relax in the warm sunny breeze. My grandmother was a very spontaneous person, she did what she wanted to at the drop of a hat and nobody ever stopped her. She was always very active in many things like Veterans Auxiliary, making crafts, cooking, cleaning, etc., but always had time for the ones she loved.
Living at my grandmother’s house was indeed a lot of fun because she was so easy going with me. She allowed me to do all the things that I wanted to do and dreamed about. She was always willing to lend me a hand in anything that I needed. She was a highly giving person to everyone around her and she never asked for anything in return. She always had an ear to ear smile that would brighten up anyone's day if it wasn't going to well.
My grandmother had a very soft-hearted voice that I remember sung us to sleep when we were little. She would wait with us until we fell deep asleep and in the morning she would wake us with the smell of hot freshly cooked breakfast on the table. Even as we got older she always tried to baby us when we were around her. My grandmother was the kind, gentle, loving, caring grandmother every child dreams about having.
My grandmother passed away two years ago and it has been a very rough two years trying to cope with such a big loss. After she died I moved out of her house because I was so overwhelmed by the thoughts of her not being there. It was almost like her kindred spirit still moved about inside the house. She always said that when she died she would always be around to watch over us and to take care of us and I think that is exactly what happened.
I find it very difficult to go to my grandmother’s house now that she has passed, but from time to time I will stop by. Even today, when I walk into the house I can still smell the Virginia Slim cigarettes she smoked and sometimes I swear I can hear her talking. When I walk into her kitchen I expect to see her sitting at the table drinking her coffee and smoking, but she is never there.
My grandmother was a very big influence on my life. She always instilled the best and finest qualities in me and always insisted that I be the best that I can be. She had a special knack for everything she did. She was always full of joy and tried to spread her happiness to everyone around her and I think that is what I miss most of all now that she is gone.

UNIT 2

Lesson 1, Ex.2

1. I wonder what purposeI have in life. I'm sitting around every summer...every season.. doing nothing but entertaining myself. I have to do something. I have to act. I really enjoy working in groups, but I hate when a team member will look down on me simply because I don't understand something. I prefer hands-on work to doing paperwork. I enjoy people, watching people, and interacting with people. My dream job perhaps is being happy surrounded by people and all sorts of things around me.

2. I want to be a dentist to help people with their teeth because I've had problems with my own

3. I've always loved learning NEW things but there is nothing specific I want to learn. To be honest I'm still trying to figure that out.

4. I am 17 years old. And I want to do something that will make children happy because of the horrible childhood I grew up in.

5. I want to be a celebrity. Some would say it’s an unachievable goal but I think it’s possible. I have a strong passion for dancing and singing and I've always focused on that.

6. I want to bring a smile to children and give them the best in life. I think I will be a doctor or teacher; what ever happens is for the best!

7. I can't decide if I want to be a vet, a teacher, a missionary or a nurse.

8. I’d like to follow in my father’s footsteps and become a lawyer. It’s a fascinating job and well-paid, too.

9. I want to be a model/actor because I know how to be all of that. I walk in high heels and I act in school sometimes and everyone says I'm good at it. Ever since I was little I've been acting and modelling and I’ve felt so proud of myself ever since I wanted to do this.

10. When I leave school I want to become a journalist or an actress. The thing is - how? How do I achieve my goals?

11. I would really like to start a business; either by owning an ice cream store or stimulating the economy with a lending and banking firm....

12. The thought of working with computers is amazing! I'd love to animate something, or make a video game. It just looks like so much fun! Plus graphic design can be pretty amazing.

 

13. I think I want to be photojournalist. Maybe National Geographic? That would be my biggest dream.

14. I'd like to be a hair stylist - I'm great at cutting and coloring.

15. I'd like to be a vet and spend my time working with gorillas in Africa.

16. I would become a primary school teacher. Nothing is better than spreading education.
It will help the poor ones to break themselves out of the chains of poverty. The surest way for them is only education and motivation!!

17. I wish I played for Barcelona. That would be a dream job!!!

Lesson 4, Ex.2

I: And here’s some advice to school students from a career guide. We’re now going to talk with Jenny Ogden, who works in the Career Advice Service. My first question to Jenny would be: How important is it to choose a right career?

CG: Choosing a career is probably one of the most difficult things in the world. You want to be doing something that you love for the rest of your life. If you choose the wrong career, you might probably end up in a dead end job which you hate and which results in a miserable life.

I: So, choosing a career is a hard task that a lot of people have difficulty in doing. It takes time to determine the career that matches your interest. Simply choosing a career that pays the most won’t keep you happy. Thank you, Jenny. I’m sure our listeners will follow your advice.

CG: You’re welcome. I wish I were able to help everyone to choose a right career, but a lot depends upon you as well. Listen to yourself and work hard to achieve your goals. Good luck!

Lesson 6, Ex.1

A teacher said to a student one day, “Smith, I wish I had twenty students like you.”

“Thank you, Sir, that’s nice to hear,” said Smith, “but I’m kind of surprised considering I never hand in my homework on time, I miss a lot of classes and I’m always late.”

The teacher said, ”I know, but I still wish I had twenty students like you. The problem is I have one hundred and forty!”
Lesson 6, Ex.2b)

28-year-old Ryan McAllister is an actuary for an insurance company in California.

"If I were ever unhappy with my employer, I could pick up the phone and find something else very quickly."

He joined the company after graduating in 2005 from the University of California, with a bachelor's degree in applied mathematics. In the survey of the best and worst jobs, of the best, actuary ranked number one. Of the worst, roustabout** was on the bottom. Actuaries, who assess the financial risks on an organization, are best because they work during standard business hours and in good working conditions—indoors and in places free of toxic fumes or loud noise—as opposed to those jobs toward the bottom of the list such as dairy farmer and the biggest loser from last year's study, lumberjack. They also aren't expected to do any heavy lifting, crawling or crouching—attributes associated with occupations like bricklayer, auto mechanic and roofer, also near the bottom of the list. Other jobs at the top of the study's list include software engineer, computer-systems analyst, biologist, historian and last year's winner, mathematician. Ms.Courter is a research mathematician and a maker of 3D-visualization software in San Francisco. Her job involves working as part of a virtual team that designs mathematically based computer programs, some of which have been used to make films such as "The Matrix". She telecommutes from her home and rarely works overtime or feels stressed out. Listen to what she says about her job.

"It's a lot more than just some boring subject that everybody has to take in school, it’s the science of problem-solving. Problem-solving involves a lot of thinking, I find that calming."

Meanwhile, musical-instrument repairer, No. 62 overall, was identified as the least-stressful job. But Sean McGarry, who fixes broken guitars and other stringed instruments in Chicago, says his job is often nerve-racking.

"Some instruments we work on cost between $50,000 and $100,000. Reparing instruments can also be hazardous”.

Of course, that isn't much compared with the kind of hazards in firefighting, the most stressful and physically demanding job identified in the study, and No. 188 overall. Matt Brett, a firefighter, says,

"It's more of a calling than a job. You can get killed any day you go to work. But the job is really rewarding."

On the opposite end of the career spectrum are lumberjacks, also known as timber cutters. The study shows these workers as having the worst job, because of the working hazards, poor employment prospects and low salary. In September Eric Nellans, a lumberjack will have been cutting timber for 15 years and will have cut down hundreds of trees. However, he is still passionate about his job. Mr. Nellans, 35, accidentally knocked down a dead tree and broke his right leg in the process four years ago. He says,

"I was back in the woods cutting timber in five weeks. It’s not a job everyone can do. It’s a very rewarding job, especially at the end of the day when you see the work you’ve done.”

Other jobs at the bottom of the study are: dairy farmer, taxi driver, seaman, emergency medical technician and roofer. Mike Riegel, a 43-year-old roofer in Flemington, says he likes working "outside in the fresh air." Since he runs his own business, which he inherited from his father, he can start and end his day early in hot weather or do the opposite when it's cold.

Lesson 7, Ex.1

"Sir, what is the secret of your success?" a reporter asked a bank president.
"Two words"
"And, Sir, what are they?"
"Right decisions."
"And how do you make right decisions?"
"One word."
"And, Sir, what is that?"
"Experience."
"And how do you get experience?"
"Two words"
"And, Sir, what are they?"
"Wrong decisions"

Lesson 8, Ex.1b)

The summer after college graduation, I was living at home, fishing in the daytime, spending nights with my friends-generally just hanging out. One afternoon my grandfather, who never went to college, stopped by.
Concerned with how I was spending my time, he asked about my future plans. I told him I was in no hurry to tie myself down to a career.
"Well," he replied, "you’d better start thinking about it. You'll be thirty before you know it."
"But I'm closer to twenty than to thirty," I protested. "I won't be thirty for ten more years."
"I see," he said, smiling. "And when will you be twenty again?"

Lesson 9, Ex.3

THE SHEPHERD’S DAUGHTER

After William Saroyan

It is the opinion of my grandmother, God bless her, that all men should labour, and at the table, a moment ago she said to me: You must learn to do some good work, the making of some item useful to man, something out of clay, or out of wood, or metal, or cloth. It is not proper for a young man to be ignorant of an honourable craft. Is there anything you can make? Can you make a simple table, a chair, a plain dish, a coffee pot? Is there anything you can do?

And my grandmother looked at me with anger.

I know, she said, you are supposed to be a writer, and I suppose you are, but you must learn to make solid things, things that can be used, that can be seen and touched.

There was a king of the Persians, said my grandmother, and he had a son, and this son fell in love with a shepherd’s daughter. He went to his father and he said, My Lord, I love a shepherd’s daughter, I would have her for my wife. And the king said, I am king and you are my son, and when I die you shall be king, how can it be that you would marry the daughter of a shepherd? And the son said, My Lord, I do not know but I know that I love this girl and would have her for my queen.

The king saw that his son’s love for the girl was from the God, and he said, I will send a message to her. And he called a messenger to him and he said, Go to the shepherd’s daughter and say that my son loves her and would have her for his wife. And the messenger went to the girl and he said, The king’s son loves you and would have you for his wife. And the girl said, What labour does he do? And the messenger said, Why, he is the son of the king; he does no labour. And the messenger returned to the king and spoke the words of the shepherd’s daughter.

The king said to his son, The shepherd’s daughter wished you to learn some craft. Would you still have her for your wife? And the son said, Yes, I will learn to weave straw rugs. And the boy was taught to weave rugs of straw, in patterns and in colours and with ornamental designs, and at the end of three days he was making very fine straw rugs, and the messenger returned to the shepherd’s daughter, and he said, These rugs of straw are of the work of the king’s son.

And the girl went with the messenger to the king’s palace, and she became the wife of the king’s son.

One day, said my grandmother, the king’s son was walking through the streets of Baghdad, and he came upon an eating place which was so clean and cool that he entered it and sat at the table. This place, said my grandmother, was a place of thieves and murderers, and they took the king’s son and placed him in a large dungeon where many great man of the city were being held, and the thieves and murderers were killing the fattest of the men and feeding them to the leanest of them, and making a sport of it. The king‘s son was of the leanest of the men, and it was not known that he was the son of the king of the Persians, so his life was spared, and he said to the thieves and murderers, I am a weaver of straw rugs and these rugs have great value. And they brought him straw and asked him to weave and in three days he weaved three rugs, and he said, Carry these rugs to the palace of the king of the Persians, and for each rug he will give you a hundred gold pieces of money. And the rugs were carried to the palace of the king, and when the king saw the rugs, he was that they were the work of his son and he took the rugs to the shepherd’s daughter and he said, These rugs were brought to the palace and they are the work of my son who is lost. And the shepherd’s daughter took each rug and looked at it closely and in the design of each rug she saw in the written language of the Persians a message from her husband, and she related this message to the king.

And the king, said my grandmother, sent many soldiers to the place of the thieves and murderers, and the soldiers rescued all the captives and killed all the thieves and murderers, and the king’s son was returned safely to the palace of his father, and the company of his wife, the little shepherd’s daughter. And when the boy went into the palace and saw again his wife, he humbled himself before her and he embraced her feet, and he said, My love, it is because of you that I am alive, and the king was greatly pleased with the shepherd’s daughter.

Now, said my grandmother, do you see why every man should learn an honourable craft?

I see very clearly, I said, and as soon as I earn enough money to buy a saw and a hammer and a piece of lumber I shall do my best to make a simple chair or a shelf for books.

UNIT 3

Lesson 1, Ex.2

- So, Mr. McKibben, you’re an environmentalist. What do you actually do?

- Our environment is our planet. Human activities have a big impact on the environment. People are becoming more aware that their activities can seriously damage the planet and the animals and plants on it. Environmentalists assess this damage and give advice on what can be done to help clean up and protect our planet.

- What environmental issues are most important today?

- There are many of them and they’re all interdependent. The most dramatic of them is, probably, climate change. It is the biggest environmental challenge facing the world today. Climate change refers to changes in the Earth’s temperature over the last 100 years. In Europe, for example, climate change results in hotter and drier summers; warmer and wetter winters; more storms and rainfall; other extreme weather conditions and rising sea-levels.

- That sounds really threatening. But is it only climate change that worries scientists?

- Not only, of course. There are different types of pollution: air pollution, water pollution, even noise pollution. Radioactive contamination is a form of pollution, too. So, nuclear plants are very hazardous. Take Chernobyl or Fucusima, for example.

- Nuclear waste is also a huge issue, isn’t it?

- All types of waste, actually. However, it is widely recognized that waste materials are a valuable resource, too. An English proverb says "One man's trash is another man's treasure." But let’s get back to the treasures of our planet. There’s the issue of resource depletion, as well. In the last decades people have been cutting down lots of trees, especially in tropical areas. Forests are being destroyed at the rate of 40 hectares a minute! Deforestation destroys the environmental balance and reduces biodiversity.

- Talking about biodiversity. More and more animals and plant species are becoming extinct.

- Biodiversity is a term which describes how rich the Earth is in the amount of species. So here we’re dealing with another environmental issue: conservation. Environmentalists and conservationists are trying to save the endangered species. But as an American astronaut said, “If you want to see an endangered species, get up and look in the mirror."

Lesson 3, Ex.2

Interviewer: There is no doubt that the Amazon rainforest is very important for the environment. But it is thought that an area bigger than France has been cut down since the 1970s, and recently trees are being cut down at an even more worrying rate.

Rosa Lemos de Sa: The Amazon rainforest is being given extra protection now, because the Brazilian government is worried about how quickly it is being destroyed. Politicians have decided they’ve got to do more to stop people illegally cutting down trees in the forest.

I: The Amazon forest is known as ‘the lungs of the world’. Why?

R: This is because the trees breathe in gases like carbon dioxide – which are harmful to us – and breathe out oxygen, cleaning the air for us. Deforestation in this area is likely to increase the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

I: Some experts say that forests depletion is also increasing ozone in the atmosphere and making people short of breath.

R: Fortunately, it’s a myth. Ozone depletion is happening due to chemicals (CFCs) released into the atmosphere by people. And deforestation is not making people short of breath as there is enough oxygen in the air to breathe.

I: 7.5 million hectares of rainforest are being cut down each year to make space for growing cattle and crops and for sale – that makes 20 football pitches every minute.

R: Human activities have made a terrible impact on the environment in the region. If people hadn’t cut down the trees to develop agriculture, the soil wouldn’t have become unable to produce good crops. Together with the trees, a huge number of species of plants and animals have disappeared, that could be useful to people in the future. If the habitat for wildlife hadn’t been lost, hunting wouldn’t have become more difficult for the local people and their cultures wouldn’t have been lost.

I: What can be done to protect rainforests?

R: You may think that it is just necessary to stop people cutting down trees. However, it’s not as simple as that. Most of the countries that have rainforests are poor and have high rates of population growth. They’re just trying to make some money.

I: So what do you think should have been done by the local authorities?

R: If a mixture of different crops and trees had been planted together, the soils would have stayed fertile. And if wildlife reserves had been set up, more money could have been made through tourism. It’s never too late to start making changes, though. The prices for rainforest products should be increased, sales of hard wood should be banned, damage caused by machinery should be reduced and traditions of the local people must be respected.

Lesson 5, Ex.2

A.It may be a global issue, but when scientists across the world are asked what the effects of climate change will look like, they quickly point to our country. Of all the wealthy countries, we’re probably in greatest danger.

Due to past carbon emissions the temperatures have risen, but what we do between now and 2050 is crucial for the climate change later this century and beyond. While government assessments predict over 250,000 homes may be at risk from rising sea levels, Greenpeace says climate change will affect us beyond our front doors. Despite knowing the problems faced by one of our best-loved tourist attractions, we’re still not doing enough to protect the Great Barrier Reef. Though chemicals are damaging the reef, climate change and global warming are the greatest dangers to it. A temperature rise between 2 and 3 degrees Celsius would result in 97% of the Great Barrier Reef being destroyed. Reducing greenhouse gases emissions must be of high priority, even if the full consequences of this are not yet understood.

We’re the biggest coal exporter in the world. We might like to think that our own global carbon emissions are small (2% of the global emissions), but they’re much, much greater than that due to our coal exports to the countries of our region like Japan, South Korea, China and even to the Netherlands. If we had developed alternative, renewable energy sources, we’d have fewer problems now. We should be replacing fossil fuels with renewable power. We can become world leaders in solar, wind, marine and geothermal energies.

B. With so many land-based species endangered, ‘the extinction crisis’ is agreed upon as a serious environmental challenge. We have already seen a fairly disturbing loss of our biodiversity. A number of introduced species have been added to the country’s native flora and fauna. The biodiversity of this large Pacific archipelago is one of the most unusual on Earth. The arrival of humans has presented a challenge for the native species, causing extinction of several. Over 50% of the local bird species are extinct, along with a species of bat and several frogs and a freshwater fish. This place is second only to Hawaii in terms of proportions of species lost. The animals are also in danger because of deforestation and – as a result – destruction of animal habitats.

C. In 2010 there was an oil spill which is considered the worst in the country’s history. It is estimated that over 205 million gallons (gallon = 3,79 l) of oil were released into the Gulf. If the spill had been stopped earlier, the damage wouldn’t have been so great. Many species could be lost as a result. The beaches of Florida were contaminated. The harmful chemicals caused health problems in people – especially those with heart and lung problems. The real impact on the seafood industry will have long-term consequences. BP (British Petroleum) has been suffering long-term damage as they have been known as the oil company with the most environmentally friendly image. D. It is estimated that more than 1 million tonnes of textiles only are thrown away every year in this country alone. The country consumes natural resources as a terrible rate and contributes unnecessarily to climate change. Each year the population generates approximately 280 million tonnes of waste, which causes environmental damage and costs businesses and consumers a lot of money. The government and the people are doing a lot to reduce the waste some of which is reused or recycled. According to RecycleNow, the country’s recycling policy saves more than 18 million tonnes of carbon dioxide a year – equivalent to taking 5 million cars off the road! If more waste was reduced, greenhouse emissions from landfills (places where rubbish is buried) could be reduced too. Moreover, landfills are a danger to local ground water supplies. Every time it rains, water drains through the rubbish, and picks up chemicals and hazardous materials. The water collects at the bottom of the landfill, often in large amounts and can become very toxic.

E.Polar bears may only be around for another 100 years because global warming is destroying their habitat. As the Earth gets hotter, sea ice melts, and this sea ice is a huge part of the polar bears' lives. They use it as a platform to stand on when they catch seals to eat, and also walk on sea ice to get to their homes - dens. Already some polar bears, in places like Hudson Bay, are beginning to struggle because of the effects of global warming.

The sea ice is melting at a speed of 9% a year, and when it's all gone the polar bears will have to find new ways of living before they become extinct. Other bears have learnt to change their habits, but polar bears need the fat from seals to get through the winter. Arctic animals like polar bears could be completely killed off because they are also eating poisonous chemicals made by humans. Scientists have found dangerous chemicals we make have reached the food chain of animals in the Arctic circle. Poisons from plastics and electrical goods can take years to break down and disappear. But they are carried along in water for hundreds of kilometres. Eventually they get into food and water eaten by smaller animals and fish. Inuit Eskimo communities are eating the food too, which could seriously damage them. Most countries have now banned the use of these chemicals in their plastics. But some - like Russia and the US - still use some dangerous chemicals.

F. On 26 April 1986 one of four reactors exploded after an experiment at the nuclear power plant northwest of the Ukrainian city of Chernobyl. As a result, a fire burnt for nine days and at least 100 times more radiation than the atom bombs dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima was released into the air. 25 years later, we still don’t know the real effects of the disaster. From 2006 to 2009 a group of scientists from different countries counted and examined wildlife including insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. The scientists say radioactive contamination in the Chernobyl exclusion zone has a serious impact on biodiversity in Ukraine and the neighbouring Belarus. According to their research, the number of mammals has decreased. Scientists in Ukraine criticized these conclusions. They say that because of the low level of human influence the biodiversity has increased. Many scientists recommend that the governments should turn this place into a wildlife haven – a natural laboratory where they can study the long-term consequences of this kind of accident. One of the scientists said, ”If people were more careful in general, the accident would never have happened. Let’s try and be more careful at least now and not jump to conclusions.”

Lesson 6, Ex.1

Mr. Nelson, the school's P.E. teacher, was on the way to his car when he saw Saxby, a first year boy, dropping a chewing gum wrapper.

"Saxby!! Come here!!" The boy knew he was in trouble.

"What do you think you're doing, boy?! Dropping rubbish like some hooligan, and a chewing gum wrapper too!!" "Sorry, sir."

"Don't apologise to me, Saxby, apologise to the environment!! It's idiots like you who are destroying the planet!! Now pick up your rubbish, spit out your gum and throw them away properly!!" The boy did as he was told.

Feeling very proud of himself, Mr. Nelson opened the door of his 6-seater, 4-wheel drive SUV and started the engine.

Lesson 7, Ex.3

"My name’s Leah and I’m sixteen. I want to become an environmentalist. I’m worried about some environmental issues. Water, for example, is a valuable natural resource. Current water shortages in the south-east of the country underline the fact that the UK, with its densely-settled population, has less water for each person than Spain and Portugal. We are facing shortage in some areas because demand has increased, while supply has not. The growth is the result of our higher standard of living, which has many watery links: personal health and hygiene, enjoyment of gardens and nicer cityscapes. We could be more efficient, of course.

Experts say that that to be kinder to the planet, it might help if we all reduce the amount of time we spend in the shower. Trying to do this has been pretty hard for me because I'm a fan of singing in the shower, even though it doesn't sound too good. But I've got a timer on my phone to remind me when I need to jump out.

I’ve also persuaded Mum to wait till we get a full load for our washing machine and the dishwasher. My next step will be to persuade Dad to use buckets of water, not the hosepipe for washing the car. I’m afraid he’s not ready for that yet.

Now I fill a cup with water to clean my teeth. This was something I picked up from the questionnaire on saving water we did at school. If only I’d started much earlier. If I’d started a couple of years ago, I would’ve saved tons of water.

Fortunately, none of our taps are dripping and Mum always uses rainwater for watering the plants in the garden, so we’re not wasting too much water.

I've found that I am thinking more about the decisions I make when it comes to washing vegetables or fruit. You’d say it’s just a drop in the ocean. I’d say it’s a small thing that can make a difference. It's also been great fun."

Lesson 9, Ex.1b)

Sound of Thunder (abridged)

After Ray Bradbury

The sign on the wall burned in the darkness:

TIME SAFARI, INC.

SAFARIS TO ANY YEAR IN THE PAST.

YOU NAME THE ANIMAL.

WE TAKE YOU THERE.

YOU SHOOT IT.

“Does this safari guarantee I come back alive?”

“We guarantee nothing”, said the official, “except the dinosaurs.” He turned. “This is Mr. Travis, your Safari Guide in the Past. He’ll tell you what and where to shoot. If he says no shooting, no shooting. If you disobey instructions, there’s a stiff penalty of another ten thousand dollars plus possible government action on your return.”

“Hell and damn,” Eckels breathed, the light of the Machine on his thin face. “A real Time Machine.” He shook his head. “Makes you think. If the election had gone badly yesterday, I might be here now running away from the results. Thank God Keith won. He’ll make a fine President of the United States.”

“Yes,” said the man behind the desk. “We’re lucky. If Deutscher had gotten in, we’d have the worst kind of dictatorship. There’s an anti-everything man for you, a militarist, anti-Christ, anti-human, anti-intellectual. People called us up, you know, joking but not joking. Said if Deutscher became President, they wanted to go live in 1492. Of course, it’s not our business to conduct escapes, but to form Safaris. Anyway, Keith’s President now. All you got to worry about is …“

“Shooting the dinosaur,” Eckels finished for him.

“A Tyrannosaurus Rex. The Thunder lizard, the damnest monster in history. Sign this release. Anything happens to you, we’re not responsible. Those dinosaurs are hungry.

They moved silently across the room, taking their guns with them, toward the Machine.

First a day, then a night and then a day and then a night, then it was day-night-day-night-day. A week, a month, a year a decade! A.D. 2055. A.D.2019, 1999! 1957! Gone! The Machine roared.

The Machine slowed; its scream fell to a murmur. The Machine stopped.

The sun stopped in the sky.

“Christ isn’t born yet.” Said Travis. “Moses has not gone to the mountain to talk with God. The Pyramids are still in the earth, waiting to be cut out and put up. Remember that, Alexander, Caesar, Napoleon, Hitler – none of them exists. That” – Mr. Travis pointed – “is the jungle of sixty million two thousand and fifty-five years before President Keith.”

“And that,” he said, “is the Path, laid by Time Safari for your use. Its purpose is to keep you from touching this world of the past in any way. Stay on the Path. Don’t go off it. For any reason! If you fall, there’s a penalty. And don’t shoot any animal we don’t okay.”

“Why?” asked Eckels.

“We don’t want to change the Future. Not knowing it, we might kill an important animal, a small bird, a flower even, thus destroying an important link in a growing species. Say we accidentally kill one mouse here. That means all the future families of this mouse are destroyed, right? And all the families of the families of that one mouse! With a stamp of your foot, you annihilate first one, then a dozen, then a thousand, a million, a billion possible mice!”

“So what?”

“Well, what about the foxes that’ll need those mice to survive? For want of ten mice a fox dies. For want of ten foxes, a lion starves. Fifty-nine million years later, a cave man goes hunting sable-tooth tiger for food. But you, friend, have stepped on all the tigers in that region. By stepping on a single mouse. So the cave man starves. And the cave man is an entire future nation. Destroy this one man, and you destroy a race, a people, an entire history of life. Step on a mouse and you crush the Pyramids. So be careful. Stay on the Path. Never step off!”

“Of course maybe our theory is wrong. Maybe Time can’t be changed by us. Or maybe it can be changed only in little subtle ways.”

“How do we know which animal to shoot?” “They’re marked with red paint. We kill animals with no future that are never going to mate again. You see how careful we are?”

Out of the silence of the jungle, with a sound of thunder, Tyrannosaurus Rex appears. The Thunder Lizard is so huge and horrible that Eckels gets shocked and scared. He decides to return to the Machine. On his way back, without knowing it, he runs off the Path and walks on the grass. Finally, he finds his way to the Machine. The others kill the dinosaur and come back too.

Travis came walking, glanced at Eckels. “This son of a bitch nearly killed us. But it isn’t that so much. Hell, no. It’s his shoes! Look at them! He ran off the Path. God knows what he’s done to Time, to History!

1492.1776.1812. 1999. 2000. 2055.

The Machine stopped.

The room was there as they had left it. But not the same as they had left it. … There was a feel. What sort of world it was now, there was no telling.

But the immediate thing was the sign painted on the office wall, the same sign he had read earlier today on first entering.

Somehow, the sign had changed:

TYME SEFARI INC.

SEFARIS TU ANY YEER EN THE PAST.

YU NAIM THE ANIMALL.

WEE TAEK YU THAIR.

YU SHOOT ITT.

Eckels felt himself fall into a chair.

“Not a little thing like that! Not a butterfly!” cried Eckels. It fell to the floor, an exquisite thing, a small thing.

“Who - who won the presidential election yesterday?”

The man behind the desk laughed. “You joking? You know damn well. Deutscher, of course! Who else?

Eckels dropped to his knees. He scrabbled at the golden butterfly with shaking fingers.”Can’t we take it back, can’t we make it alive again? Can’t we start over? Can’t we …“

He did not move. He heard Travis shift his rifle.

There was a sound of thunder.

Lesson 9, Ex.2b)

For Want of a Nail

For want of a nail the shoe was lost.
For want of a shoe the horse was lost.
For want of a horse the rider was lost.
For want of a rider the battle was lost.
For want of a battle the kingdom was lost.
And all for the want of a horseshoe nail.

Lesson 9, Ex.4

It’s both town and country air
that we ultimately share.
So, polluting one, expect
to get a butterfly effect.

If the key to all our health
is to share in nature’s wealth,
then we’d best invest a plan
to save our wildlife while we can.

UNIT 4

Lesson 1, Ex. 2 b

1)

The Queen is Head of State of the UK and 15 other Commonwealth lands. She was born in 1926 and became Queen at the age of 25, and has reigned through more than 60 years of great social change and development. The Queen is married to Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and has four children and eight grandchildren. Surprisingly, The Queen of England despite all her present majesty and glory, is not allowed to enter the House of Commons simply because she is not its member!

2)

The official religion in Britain is Christianity as practised by the Anglican Church. Its followers are known as protestants. Until the 16th century Britain was a Roman Catholic Country. King Henry VIII, who ruled at that time, wanted to have a son, but his first wife gave birth only to daughters. He decided to divorce her, but the Vatican didn’t allow him to do it. So he decided to found his own church - Church of England or Anglican Church, which up till today is country’s major religion.

3)

Eurotunnel is the company responsible for building the twin railway tunnels under the English Channel connecting Britain and France. The Channel Tunnel is often called by the British simply as Chunnel. Eurotunnel runs its own shuttle service that carries passengers and their vehicles. Trains run 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.The shuttle has now been in operation for over 12 years and since its first commercial services 177 million people have travelled through the Channel Tunnel - that's 3 times the population of both France and England!

4)

White buildings of whisky distilleries is a typical sight of the Scottish Highlands. The production of whisky started in 1494 and now there are over a hundred distilleries . No two whiskies can taste the same, and the taste can not be copied anywhere in the world, because the water is taken from local hills. And of course one can’t visit Scotland without trying to find Nessie at Loch Ness.

5)

Wales is a small country with a colourful history and beautiful landscapes, including 3 National Parks. At only 170 miles from north to south and 60 miles east to west, it's no surprise that you're never far from a mountain or the sea. Welsh - the native language - is spoken by many people in Wales, and is one of the oldest languages in the world. Wales is also known as 'the land of castles', it is home to 641 famous fortresses - more castles per square mile than anywhere else in the world. Wales is also home to 6 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and although Cardiff, the capital city, dates back to Roman times, it's actually Britain's youngest city!

Lesson 3, Ex. 4

Speaker 1 - Soho

An energetic, young man, aged 24 speaks of Soho

I always visit this area when in London as the dining and bar scene is excellent and extremely diverse. Restaurant options cover pretty much every culture, taste and budget. There's vegetarian, italian, oriental, middle eastern, french and. Nightlife is just as varied and it's great if you're in a mixed crowd. And those street theatre performances in the evening .. There's always a really great 'buzz' in this area of London. I LOVE it!

Speaker 2 - Tower Hamlet

An immigrant from Bangladesh ( van be of any nationality), aged 20

I moved here with my parents some 7 years ago. I like the place. The area is not the best, of course, but we are satisfied… but my whole family is here with me, and that is important for me. At first we thought to live here for a while and then to move somewhere else, but now after so many years…. Well, we have the job here, and we get paid, we rent a flat, and it’s cheaper than in some other districts…I think we will stay here for some time more..

Speaker 3 - Wimbledon

Young woman, not fully satisfied, speaking of Wimbledon

it's nice ... but incredibly expensive. And parking can be a nightmare, especially when the tennis is on But on the whole, it's a very pleasant and useful place to live… well, it's got what you need. Apart from that it's nothing to write home about, nothing is happening here. And at half eleven on a Saturday night, don't even think about going out, there is nothing outside, like in a real village. Sometimes it doesn’t look like London at all! And of course you've got the annual sport of pointing lost tourists in the direction of the tennis.

Speaker 4 - Notting Hill

A very well-off, self-confident woman, a real londoner

I've lived here for 15 years and it's the best place I've ever lived. It is very convenient. It only takes about 10 minutes and you'll be in central London. And you have Portobello Market on your doorstep. Well, I can't think of a better location in London. Plenty of great bars and restaurants in the area and a great fruit and veg market. Ideal if you're doing any cooking at home. But.. the only thing is that not all can afford it, as it’s very expensive, exclusive so to say.

Lesson 4, Ex. 2.b

1) After his parents’ divorce and his mother's death, the relationship with the media was quite difficult, and I think that both William and Harry did blame the media. As they have got older, the princes accept they do need the media.

2) Nothing was known – the dress, the stag and hen night. We knew nothing until they wanted us to know.

3) Burton –the designer of the wedding dress - said the princess was one of the loveliest women she had ever met. The dress was made for her and has a lot of her personality in it.

4) The Queen gave a lunchtime Reception at Buckingham Palace for around 650 guests.

5) William is better grounded than his father. He says in the documentary that neither he nor Harry want the great wealth.

6) He likes to disagree with The Buckingham Palace, because many of the things they come up with are very old-fashioned and don't work nowadays or are just wrong. People have wrong views on what it's like to be in this family, for instance.

Lesson 6, Ex. 3.b)

Most British children wear school uniform to go to school. They have to. The school rules say that the children have to wear school uniform at school.
What sort of school uniform? Well, my younger children are both at secondary school. My daughter has to wear a dark green skirt or trousers, a white blouse, a dark green jumper, and black shoes and socks or tights. The Moslem girls at her school may wear a head-scarf, but it must be dark green or white or black. 
My son wears black trousers, a white shirt, a school tie and a dark blue jumper. 
At some schools, the pupils wear blazers – that is, a jacket in school colors with the school badge on the pocket. 


Generally, kids don’t mind wearing school uniform. After all, all their friends have to wear school uniform too. And many parents are happy, because there are no arguments with their children about what they may wear for school; and less pressure from their children to buy expensive new clothes because their school friends have them.
 But sometimes it is nice not to have to wear school uniform. About 2 or 3 times a year, many British schools have a “no uniform day” as a way of raising money for charity. The children come to school wearing their normal clothes, and give some money to the charity. Often the children themselves help to choose which charity they will support. I think it’s a wonderful idea, don’t you?

UNIT 5

Lesson 2, Ex. 2 a)

Speaker 1 – It is a top tourist attraction. In 2004, over two million visitors traveled to the memorial. Mount Rushmore features 60-foot (18 m) sculptures of the heads of former United States presidents (in order from left to right) George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt and Abraham Lincoln. After securing federal funding, construction on the memorial began in 1927, and the presidents' faces were completed between 1934 and 1939. Although the initial concept called for each president to be depicted from head to waist, lack of funding forced construction to end in October 1941. It is just amazing to see. We should have stayed there longer.

Speaker 2 – Everyone who comes to Wachington, DC has to see it. It is probably the most famous political building in the world. Maybe because it is printed on the back of a 20 dollar bill. I should have taken more pictures of it.

Speaker 3 – It is major resort city for gambling, shopping, and fine dining in Nevada and the whole USA. It offers something for everyone. The city's tolerance for various forms of adult entertainment earned it the title of Sin City, and this image has made Las Vegas a popular setting for films and television programs. But it is such a money-pit, I might have lost a thousand there.

Speaker 4 – it is a place where imagination is the destination. For young and old, big and small — it's the happiest place on earth! It is cool to come there and build memories with your family that last a lifetime as you discover the wonder of this magical, fantastical world. I ought to have applied for a job there.

Speaker 5 – Well, some people may think of it as only one huge sigh, but it is not. There are so many things to see. Academy gallery and Grand Lobby Gallary, Chinese Theatre, Kodak Theatre, Forever Cemetery and many other places can keep you busy for several days that will pass by without your noticing. I could have taken pictures with him.

Speaker 6 –I should have never been scared to go there! I am so scared of heights! But it turned out to be my best trip ever! Nearly two billion years of the Earth's geological history have been exposed as the Colorado River. Before European immigration, the area was inhabited by Native Americans who built settlements within the canyon and its many caves. But since I am a geologist it was more interesting for me to witness what nature has been creating.

Lesson 7, Ex. 2

NEWs on the radio:

A. The residents of Quebec were scared to death by the morning accident. Three bears came outside the forest in search of some food. They started at the parking lot, but then moved closer to the amusement park in the city-center until caught by Animal Control.

B. Monreal Hockey Club is doing a charity project to raise money for a new Hockey Ice-scating Rink. All team members are knitting scarves that later will be sold during a friendly match with New York Rangers. All the admission fees will be donated to charity as well.

C. Toronto Airport is temporally closed for all flights. The workers went on strike as their pay has been cut 3 times already since the beginning of the year. They say it is a must that they get their money back!

D. The director of West Edmonton Mall in Alberta is fired. The rumors have it that he like to chew a gum and stick it onto benches in the Mall. The cameras caught him doing it last week and the board of directors fired “the gum-lover” immediately.

Lesson 8, Ex. 3 b)

The country’s full name is Canada.

Canada is the second largest country in the world after Russia. Its area is 9.9 million sq km (3.8 million sq miles).

The population of Canada is 33.8 million people. Nearly 90% of Canadians live within 200km of the border with the United States, which means that Canada has huge wild areas to the north. Life expectancy is 79 years for men, 84 years for women.

Major languages are English and French (both official).

Major religion is Christianity.

Immigration has helped to make Canada one of the world's richest nations.

As for the government, Canada is parliamentary democracy. It is a member of the Commonwealth with the head of the state Queen Elizabeth II, represented by a Governor-General.

Lesson 9, Ex. 3

Uuuu, New York

Uuuu, New York

Grew up in a town

That is famous as a place of movie scenes,

Noise is always loud

There are sirens all around,

And the streets are mean

If I can make it here,

I could make it anywhere,

That's what they say

Seeing my face in lights,

Or my name in marquees found down Broadway

Even if ain't all it seems

I got a pocket full of dreams

Refrain:

Baby I'm from New York!

Concrete jungle where dreams are made of,

There's nothing you can't do

Now you're in New York!

These streets will make you feel brand new,

Big lights will inspire you,

Hear it for New York!

(New York, New York, New York)

On the avenue,

There ain't never a curfew, ladies work so hard

Such a melting pot

On the corner selling rock

Preachers pray to God,

Hail a gipsy cab,

Takes me down from Harlem to the Brooklyn Bridge

Someone sleeps tonight

With a hunger for more then an empty fridge...

I'm going to make it by any means,

I got a pocket full of dreams,

Refrain:

One hand in the air for the big city,

Street lights, big dreams, all looking pretty

No place in the world that can compare

Put your lighters in the air,

Everybody say Yeah, Yeah, Yeah!

Refrain

UNIT 6

Lesson2, Ex. 2b and 2c

Tapescript:

H. - Host

J. –Jacob

O. – Olivia

M. – Mia

H: Good afternoon! Here’s Frank False and our Wednesday show “Fantastic Facts” Today two girls and a boy from Orlando will tell you more about customs all around the world. Each of them will tell us about two traditions and you will try to guess if it’s a real tradition or FALSE! And we start with Jacob. Which countries have you been to, Jacob?

J: Well, the first country in my list is Japan! I went there just before Christmas, so my customs will be about celebrating and visiting people’s home on holidays. Well, you know in Japan it’s believed that RED colour is the colour of death. For example people get red notice cards if somebody dies in their family. So it’s risky to give your Japanese friend a RED Christmas card as a present because they can be very upset!

And another custom is that if you visit a Japanese house it’s rude to look in the kitchen. A lot of people don’t know about it and do it by mistake. And it’s really rude!!!!

And my second country would be Thailand. There it’s very offensive to come inside somebody’s house wearing your shoes. It’s necessary to take them off before entering.

H: Amazing!!! Thank you, Jacob. And we turn to our lovely Olivia now. Olivia, are you ready?

O: Yes, absolutely

H: Are you going to tell us about an Asian country too?

O: Nope! I





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