Text 2. Further or Higher Education

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Text 2. Further or Higher Education

1. Read the text quickly and correct the plan below

1) Entrance to Universities, colleges

2) University degrees

3) Work and study at 16

4) Tutorial system

5) Money for education


At the age of sixteen people are free to leave school if they want to. Most school leavers do not find employment immediately and do not want to go to FE College. They may take part in training schemes (the Young Opportunities Scheme, YOPS) which involve on-the-job training combined with part-time college courses. Some young working people are given “day release” so they can follow a course to help them in their job.

The next stage is “further” education at university, college or Polytechnics. Polytechnics are similar to Universities, but the courses are more practically oriented. A number of Colleges of Further Education do vocational training courses for particular jobs and careers, for example in engineering, typing, cooking or hairdressing. There are 91 universities and 47 colleges of higher education. The availability of higher education and finding a university place is not easy. Universities, although financed by the government, have autonomy and each one has complete control over what to teach, how to teach it, and how to test the students. They make their own choices and accept only the better students on their courses. Universities normally select students on the basis of top grades in several A-level results and an interview, and competition for places is fierce.

The labour-intensive system of instruction known as tutorials has been polishing minds for 800 years. The strength of the tutorial system is that it’s almost impossible to be lazy under it. Within the first week the freshman meets the tutor to whom he is assigned and begins his work. Undergraduates, students who are studying for degrees, go to a large formal lectures, but most of the work takes place in tutorials, lessons in groups of ten or more when the students discuss their work with the lecturer.

The academic year in Britain’s universities is divided into three terms, which usually run from the beginning of October to the end of June or beginning of July. Universities offer three- and four-year degree courses. After three years of study a university graduate will leave with the Degree of Bachelor of Arts (B.A.), Science (B.Sc.), Engineering (B.Eng.), Medicine, etc. A degree is the qualification you get from the university when you pass your final exams. Later a university graduate may continue to take the Master’s Degree (M.A.) and then the Doctor’sDegree (PhD). Research is an important feature of university work.

Most British students choose to go to university a long way from their home town: university is seen as a time to be independent, to live away from home and develop new interests. Students need money to live away from home while they are studying. Some students whose parents do not earn a lot of money are given a grant (money) from the local educational authority. Some students borrow money from the bank which must be paid back after they leave university.

Not all students study full-time at university or college. Many people combine their studies with work. Some companies release their stuff for training one or two days a week or for two months a year. There is an interesting form of studies which is called the Open University, when people study in their own free time and “attend” lectures by watching television, listening radio, using Internet. They keep in touch with their tutors by phone, letter or on-line.


2. Read the text more carefully and complete the sentences.

a) If a school leaver doesn’t want to go to a college or cannot find a job he (she) can…….

b) Educational institutions of Further education include……… .

c) Polytechnics are…… .

d) The universities accept students on the…….

e) The university degrees are…….

f) There are several ways to get money for the education……….

g) Studying at the Open University students………….

3. Give full answers to these questions.

1) Why are some young working people given a “day release”?

2) What are the main characteristics of different higher educational institutions?

3) Are Universities controlled by the government?

4) Why is a tutorial system so efficient?

5) When do students get their first academic degree?

6) Why do most British students prefer to study away from their homes?

7) What should they do to get higher degrees?

8) Is a full-time study the only way to get higher education?

9*) What are advantages and disadvantages of studying at the Open University?

10*) What do you like and dislike about the British system of professional education?


4. Translate using the dictionary.

From “Oxford life”

(by Dacre Balsden)

Lectures start on the first Monday of term. Lecturers are sometimes in fashion; lectures as such are never in fashion.

Why take notes when you could as well read it all in a book? The question is unanswerable.

In some subjects the lecture-list is itself carefully organized by the Faculty, so that all the necessary lectures are given and given in the terms in which undergraduates need them. In other faculties the freedom of the lecturer is not so rigidly curtailed. Let a lecturer lecture on whatever subject he chosen. If he hopes for an audience, he will choose a subject useful to undergraduates, and he will lecture on it twice a week. If he does not care about the size of his audience and prefers to lecture on some small field of learning on which he is researching or writing a learned paper, he will lecture one hour a week.

Dons in general hate lectures as much as undergraduates. That is why they lecture so badly. Nobody has ever taught them how to lecture well.

On the first Monday the lecturer has his largest audience for the term. Where there are a hundred young men and women today, there will, in eight weeks times, be no more than five or six. Where there is an audience of two today, there will perhaps be one next week and, after that, no audience at all.

A professor’s lecture is sometimes like the “pas seul ” * of a prima ballerina. He appears; he lectures; he retires. And then after an interval, he lectures again. But the College tutor’s public lecture is an interruption in a week otherwise devoted to teaching pupils in his rooms, listening to their essays and talking about them. These are “private hours” – “tutes”, as the undergraduates call them, or tutorials. Sometimes a student comes alone, sometimes in a pair, sometimes with two or three others.

Young tutors find the hour too long, old tutors find it too short. Undergraduates find it very long indeed and if there is no clock in the room, they find it even longer. When you reach a tutor’s age, it is less easy to listen than to talk, and observant undergraduates quickly realize that their tutors criticize in detail the final sentences of their essays but give little evidence of having observed the rest.


* pas seul [ֽpα: 'sə:l] (фр) сольный танец

5*. Read the advertisement of Sheffield University from “Railway Gazette” and translate it into Russian:


6. Write the facts about English higher education that interested you most of all.

(4-5 sentences).

7. What questions could you ask to get these answers?

  1. No, they have to finance their own studies.
  2. There isn’t much difference; it’s just that the courses are more practical in a polytechnic instead of being very academic.
  3. It’s sixteen, but a lot of kids stay on until eighteen.
  4. Because you can get higher education and earn some money.


2.3 Speaking.


1. Number these reasons why people enter universities in their order of importance from 1(most important reason) to 12 (least important reason).

to acquire general knowledge

to prepare for job

to meet with young people

to train one’s memory

to learn something about subjects

to find out what one is really interested in

to give one’s parents some peace and quiet

to test one’s intelligence

to learn how to study and work with books

to have a good time

to be independent

to learn discipline and order

2. Discuss with your partner.

a) Advantages and disadvantages of studying far from home.

b) Higher education is necessary to every young man.

c) No entrance exams. Think of pros and cons.

d) In British universities students are not obliged to attend all lectures. Is it good?

3. Here are some decisions that British students have to make:

at 16 – stay on at school?

- look for a job?

- apply for a place on a Young Opportunity Scheme?

- go to the Sixth Form College?

at 18 – go to University or a college?

- get a job?

- start a training course?

- do voluntary work?

- travel and work abroad?

- move away from home?

Make a list of decisions that students have to make in your educational system.

4. Render these texts in English* or in Russian.


This is how a student spends his day. His working hours are from 9 to 1. At 9 o’clock he will see the tutor or go to the library, or to the lecture. From 2 to 5 he is engaged in sport and all kinds of exercise to prove himself on river or field. From 5 to 7 he usually either works in the library or in the laboratory. 7 o’clock is the dinner-hour when the undergraduates and dons are gathered in the hall. After dinner the students have club activities, debating societies, etc. At 10 o’clock the student must be in the college and sit down to work for about 2 hours.



Oxford and Cambridge are the oldest and the most prestigious universities in Great Britain. They are often called collectively Oxbridge to denote the best of its kind education. Both universities are independent.

The tutorial is the basic mode of instruction at Oxford and Cambridge, with lectures as optional extras. The normal length of the degree course is three years. Some courses, such as language or medicine, may be one or two years longer.

Oxford and Cambridge universities consist of a number of colleges. Each college is different, but in many ways they are alike. Each college has its name. Each college is governed by a Master. The largest ones have more than 400 members, the smallest colleges have less than 30. Each college offers teaching in a wide range of subjects.

The universities were only for men until 1871. There are now 24 colleges for men in Oxford, five for women and another five which have both men and women members, many from overseas studying for higher degrees. At Cambridge almost all colleges are now mixed.

The universities have over a hundred societies and clubs. Sport is part of student’s life at Cambridge. The most popular sport is rowing.

5. Render the text in English.

Поступить в университет или другое высшее учебное заведение можно, предъявив сертификат о сдаче экзаменов по двум или трем предметам учебного курса средней школы продвинутого уровня. При выпуске вы получите диплом о профессиональной квалификации и ученую степень. Очевидным достоинством образовательной системы Великобритании является ее исключительная гибкость. Среди множества разнообразных учебных курсов всегда найдется тот, что наиболее вам подходит. И в школе и в университете есть возможность по своему усмотрению выбирать дисциплины и специализацию. Более того, при желании выбранные предметы и направление можно поменять. Независимо от возраста и национальности учиться в учебных заведениях Великобритании может любой.

Если вы хотите учиться в Великобритании, то вполне вероятно, что британские колледжи и университеты признают свидетельство об образовании, полученное вами в России. Если у вас уже есть российский диплом об окончании высшего учебного заведения, имейте в виду, что, как академическая квалификация, он занимает промежуточное положение между “A-levels” и степенью бакалавра. Однако, в разных учебных заведениях вступительные требования столь различны, что с таким дипломом можно поступить и на второй, и даже на постдипломный курс на соискание степени магистра. Самый простой способ выяснить «стоимость» вашего диплома – связаться с учебным заведением.

Методика преподавания в Великобритании такова, что ответственность за успех обучения во многом возлагается на студентов, вся работа выполняется самостоятельно, и, следовательно, нужно много работать.

(Useful expressions: to enter the university, to graduate from the university, high flexibility, to suit smb , to choose specialization, irrespective of smth, to accept the certificate, to be somewhere between, to find out the value of the diploma, mode of teaching, responsibility for results, to contact the educational institution, to work all by yourself).

6. Using the chart from Part 1give a detailed description of vocational training in America.


2.4 Jokes

At a college examination a professor said: “Does the question embarrass you?”

“Not at all, sir,” replied the student, “not at all. It is the answer that bothers me”.

Professor: A fool can ask more questions than a wise man can answer.

Student: No wonder so many of us failed our exams!

In one of college classes the professor was unable to stay for the class, so he placed a sign on the door which read as follows: “Professor Blank will be unable to meet his classes today”.

Some college lad, seeing his chance to display his sense of humour after reading the notice, walked up and erased the “c” in the word “classes”. The professor noticing the laughter wheeled around, walked back, looked at the student, then at the sign with “c” erased – calmly walked up and erased the “l” in “lasses,” looked at the stunned student and proceeded on his way.

(lass – a young woman, ass – a stupid person or animal)

Pam: Hasn’t Harvey ever married?

Beryl: No, and I don’t think he intends to, because he’s studying for a bachelor’s degree.

(Bachelor – 1) холостяк 2) бакалавр)

A son at college wrote his father:

“No mon, no fun, your son.”

The father answered:

“How sad, too bad, your dad.”

(mon – abbr. money)


UNIT 2Education in Russia

Warm up.

1. Do you think that Russian educational system is a good one?

2. What did you like and dislike at school?


Part 1 Structure of Public Education in Russia

1.1 Vocabulary

Give Russian equivalents to these word combinations

to develop useful knowledge and skills

creative person

native language

equal right


free tuition

Education Standard Requirements

standard curriculum

supplementary programme

Unified State Exam

1.2 Reading

Text 1. Schools in Russia

1. Skim the text to understand the main points.


Educational policy in Russian Federation focuses on how to help people develop useful knowledge and skills. The idea is to develop the critical, adaptable, multi-skilled and creative person. Education is given in many languages, and according to their parents’ wish children may attend Russian schools or national schools where they are taught in their native language.

There have been many changes in the system of Public Education in Russia but the basic principles have remained unchanged. Characteristic features of our public education are:

  1. the equal right to education for all citizens is guaranteed by the Constitution;
  2. full-time education is compulsory up to the middle teenage years;
  3. co-education, no separate men’s or women’s schools;
  4. free tuition throughout the state system;
  5. non-state and private educational establishments must meet the Education Standard Requirements.

The unified system of public education in Russian Federation consists of several stages.

Compulsory general secondary educationis provided by municipal educational establishments, state general secondary schools, lycees, gymnasiums, non-state schools. The educational reform at school has been through a period of constant change. Today children start going to school at 7. But they are expected to start schooling at the age of 6 from 2006. The first three or four years at school are the primary school. While the standard curriculum is the same for all students, the supplementary programme varies from school to school, covering anything from computer science to marketing. Supplementary classes are becoming more popular for parents who are ready to pay for them. Parents worry that their children might otherwise be denied a proper education. Pupils may leave school after the 9th form and continue their secondary education in evening or shift school for working youth. Those who complete the course of the 10th and 11th Forms take Final Exams or the Unified State Exams in several subjects and receive the Certificate of Secondary Education.

Vocational training is provided by technical colleges,institutes, academies, classic universities, polytechnics, specialized universities, technical universities.

2. Read Text 1 more carefully and say if these statements are true or false.

1. Education in Russian Federation is given in Russian language.

2. Primary education lasts three or four years.

3. State and non-state schools have the same standard curriculum.

4. Supplementary classes are compulsory for all schools and are financed by the government.

5. There are no exams for school leavers.


3. Give detailed answers to the questions

1. Is general secondary education compulsory in Russia?

2. What age do children start school at in Russia?

3. What do we call the primary school?

4. What kind of school is a national school?

5. What’s the school-leaving age in Russia?

6. Where may pupils, who leave school, continue their education?

7. When do school-leavers take examinations?

8. What subjects did you take examinations in?



1.3 Speaking

1. Discuss the following problems with your partner.

a) Where is it better to study: in state or non-state school? Why?

b) What is the main goal of school: to give knowledge or to bring up?

c) School uniform.

2. Make a project for an ideal school of the future. Write a short essay and make a report.

3*. Speak on the main problems of Russian schools.

4. Read the following quotations and comment on them.

a) Raising a child is very much like building a skyscraper. If the first two stories are out of line, no one will notice. But when the building is 18 or 20 stories high, everyone will see that it tilts.

b) Any man can be a good teacher.

c) Teaching machines and computers can be substitutes for any teacher.

5. Render the text in English.

Негосударственная образовательная сеть в России начала развиваться с 1991 года. Появление частных школ – ответ на возникший спрос. Получив возможность учить чадо в более приемлемых условиях, многие родители облегченно вздохнули.

В частном секторе условия гораздо лучше: классы маленькие, от 5-12 учеников, трех – четырехразовое питание, нормальный отдых, современное оборудование. Минимум заботы родителям: утром ребенка заберет школьный автобус, вечером привезет обратно. Более того, здесь целый штат психологов, врачей.

Кто преподает в элитных учебных заведениях? Да те же школьные учителя, только высокого профессионального уровня. Там платят несколько другие деньги. Такое образование недешево стоит.

Признавая, что частные учебные заведения являются одним из проявлений социального неравенства, негосударственная сеть считается хорошим дополнением к государственной.


(Useful expressions: a network of private educational establishments, ideal conditions, to have four meals a day, a staff of psychologists, elite educational establishment, social inequality, a good supplement to smth.)



Part 2 Higher Education in Russia

2.1 Vocabulary

1. Give Russian equivalents to these expressions

competitive examination with merit and credit applicants take notes borrow books from the university library computer-assisted learning materials to present a graduation thesis to be transferred to the next course sciences and humanities well grounded in a specific field of engineering optional courses obligatory subjects self-study to be engaged in research Post-graduate education under the guidance and supervision highly qualified specialists strength of materials to read for credit tests and exams housing construction


2. Practice using the following vocabulary


What do we call: We call him (her):
1) a person who takes an examination in order to enter a University? a candidate or an applicant.
2) a first year student? a freshman or a fresher.
3) a person who studies at a higher educational Institution? an undergraduate.
4) a student in his final year of studies? a graduate.
5) a student who lives (doesn’t live) in the hostel? a resident student; a day student.
6) a student who combines (doesn’t combine) work with study? a part-time student; a full-time student.
7) a graduate who continues his studies to receive a degree? a postgraduate.
8) a student (graduate) who had been given his first degree? a Bachelor of Arts.
9) a student who studies at the Extramural Department? an external student.
What do we call a room: We call it:
1) where meetings, conferences and parties are held? an assembly-hall.
2) which is used for gymnastics? a gymnasium (gym).
3) which is used by the teaching-staff for work and rest during the breaks? a staff common room.
4) which is used as a place of business where students’ progress, attendance and testing of knowledge are given day-by-day guidance? the Dean’s office.



3. Practice using prepositions




I went in for I sat for I took I had     my examination in Mathematics in Physics in Economics in History in English     in spring.
I did well at (in) the English examination  
I did well in Physics  
I passed my examination I got through in Mathematics - with merit. with credit. satisfactory.
I failed - in History in (at) my examination in English. miserably.

Read the same in the Future Simple. Begin your sentences with I think, I hope, I don’t think,

No doubt, according to the sense.




At to have a subject … one’s fingers’ ends to be back … the University - в
For to be late … the lecture to have a gift (a bent) … research work to sit (to go in) … an examination to get a mark … a composition (essay) на к - за
From to graduate … the University to be excused … Physical Training - от
In to get a mark … a subject to be well grounded … a subject to be weak … a subject (English) to be … the first (last) year of one’s studies по по по на
Of to have a good command … the language -
On to ask questions … the text по
To to be late … the University в
through to look … a book -

After having studied the above table, read the same covering the left-hand column. Use these word combinations in the sentences and various questions of your own.


2.2 Reading

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