Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания:



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания:



1) significant advance;

2) a numerical wheel calculator;

3) limitation to addition;

4) mechanical multiplier;

5) system of gears and dials;

6) the age of mechanical com­putation;

7) the automation of computers;

8) to perform differential equations;

9) a modern general purpose computer;

10) computational errors.

 

3. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:

1) решать проблемы;

2) механические калькуляторы;

3) основные арифметические функции;

4) складывать, вычитать, умножать, делить;

5) более практичный подход естественная гармония;

6) производить вычисления;

7) компьютерный программист;

8) основные элементы;

9) вычислительная машина;

10) первый полностью электронный компьютер.

 

4. Найдите в тексте слова, имеющие общий корень с данными словами. Определите, к какой части речи они относятся, и переведите их на русский язык:


1) computer;

2) important;

3) to add;

4) arithmetics;

5) to invent;

6) to equip;

7) mechanic;

8) automation;

9) to repeat;

10) program.


 

5. Задайте к выделенному в тексте предложению все типы вопросов (общий, альтернативный, разделительный, специальный: а) к подлежащему; б) к второстепенному члену предложения).

 

6. Выполните анализ данных предложений, обратив внимание на следующие грамматические явления: времена группы Indefinite ( Present, Past, Future Active& Passive); глаголы to be, to have; конструкция there is, there are; все типы вопросов; степени сравнения прилагательных; модальные глаголы:

1. Early merchants used the abacus to keep trading transactions.

2.The drawback to the Pascaline, of course, was its limitation to addition.

3. With its enhanced versa­tility, the arithmometer was widely used up until the First World War.

4. Babbage's steam-powered Engine, although ultimately never con­structed, may seem primitive by today's standards.

5. His first task was to find a faster way to compute the U.S. census.

6. The machine could solve complex differ ential equations that had long left scientists and mathematicians baffled.

7. Their project, however, lost its funding and their work was overshadowed by similar developments by other scientists.

 

7. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:

1. What device may be considered the first computer?

2. When and where did it emerge?

3. When was a numerical wheel calculator invented?

4. Who invented it?

5. What was invented by Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz?

6. What did Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar invent?

7. Who was the first female computer programmer?

 

Составьте аннотацию к тексту (2 – 3 предложения).

Составьте реферат текста (10 – 15 предложений).

10. Составьте план текста и перескажите текст.

 

Вариант 19

1.Прочитайте и переведите текст:

 

Development of Computers

In the 19th century the need for rapid calculation expanded through­out the industrial world. Governments taxed and policed larger popula­tions than ever before. Commerce expanded so that there were more money transactions than ever before.

Armies of clerks were employed to calculate and record the mass of transactions conducted by business houses, banks and insurance compa­nies. Scientists and engineers required ever more extensive tables of figures.

To meet the demand, new designs of calculating machine were devised.

In the 20th century electricity was harnessed to drive a variety of calculating machines. But the first general-purpose computing machine that was fully electronic was ENIAC (Electronic Numeral Integrator and Calculator), completed at the University of Pennsylvania in 1945. It employed more than 18,000 thermionic valves, weighed 30 tons and oc­cupied 1,500 sq. ft of floor space.

In the post-war years more computers were built, generally in uni­versity research departments. The term 'electronic brain' was coined.

The first part of the economy in which computers became important was finance. In banks and finance houses information began to be re­corded directly in machine-readable form by operators at keyboard machines. At first numbers were recorded on punched paper tape or cards; later these were supplanted by magnetic tape and discs. The num­bers of clerical staff did not fall, but their productivity rose as the number of transactions they could process swelled. In the early 1980s, for in­stance, in Britain the National Westminster Bank processes some 2 mil­lion cheques and 650,000 credits in each working day.

Large companies computerised their payrolls. Shops and stores kept track of goods with the aid of computers and cut their reserve stocks; hence they could reduce their warehouse costs and free space for a wider variety of goods.

Complex industrial processes such as oil refining and steel-rolling were handed over to the control of the computer. Industrial design de­pended more and more on the computer. It would be impossible to de­sign a new car or jet airliner with a reasonable expenditure of time and money without computers to carry out the enormous number of calcula­tions involved.

The mammoth American company IBM dominated these develop­ments. When delivery of Univac II, announced by IBM's rival Reming­ton Rand in 1955, was delayed until 1957 by production difficulties, IBM captured the market in large computers.

IBM maintained its lead when the 'second generation' of computers appeared around 1960. These employed transistors in place of valves and were more powerful than their predecessors, yet more compact, re­liable and economical of energy. They could be housed in a few cabinets, rather than filling a large air-conditioned room.

The trend towards smallness and cheapness was enormously accel­erated when the 'third generation' of computers, based on the silicon chip, appeared around 1965. Electronic components, such as transistors, could now be made in large numbers on a thin square of silicon, typically 1/4 in. square. By 1971 the first microprocessor had appeared in Ameri­ca: the microprocessor was the heart of a computer - the part that does the actual calculating - on a single chip. Other chips could provide mem­ory stores.

When input/output devices, such as a keyboard and printing ma­chine, were added, a complete computing system was obtained that could fit on to a desktop. Such a unit can store about 2 1/2 million characters -letters or numbers - of information. Calculations are completed in sec­onds and the print-out is between 80-120 characters a second.

A visual display unit - a TV screen that could display text punched in by means of a keyboard, together with the computer's replies - per­mitted an operator to put instructions and questions to the computer and receive responses.

The computer, now smaller, cheaper and more accessible to ordi­nary people than ever before, has appeared in the office, on the factory floor and in the home. Computer terminals are seen at airline and thea­tre reservations desks, in stockbrokers' offices, in factory stockrooms, in power-station control rooms and in banks.

Even the toy departments in large stores sell computers: some create video games on home TV sets; others play chess and draughts - some­times with the machine speaking its moves. But me increasing power of the computer and its 'software' - its programming - has transformed daily life in ways that can pass unnoticed. Computer-fed weather fore­casts are more accurate and range further ahead. Greater volumes of road traffic are handled with less delay, by computerised traffic-light systems responding to information about the flow of vehicles from auto­matic sensors.

Some cars are now equipped with a microcomputer that continuously controls the fuel mixture and ignition timing, which optimises per formance and economises on fuel. There are also 'trip computers' which display details of average speed and fuel consumption since the beginning of the journey.

The defensive networks of the major powers are coordinated by computers. The dangers of present-day reliance on them were vividly illustrated in June 1980, when a single micro-chip in a North American Air Defence Command computer developed a fault. Twice in three days a false warning of enemy missile attack was flashed to US military forces around the world. On both occasions the American war machine was on full alert for three minutes.

The jobs of many skilled workers are threatened by the computer. For example, engineering draughtsmen and machine-tool operators can be bypassed in the production of mechanical components such as gear boxes or car engine blocks. A designer draws rough diagrams on a TV screen linked to a computer. The computer straightens the lines, smooths the curves, alters the diagram to show different views of the component, and revises it according to the designer's instructions. When the design is finished, the computer can produce magnetic tapes that will control a machine tool. The tool will shape the part with an accuracy superior to that of a human operator.

Libraries of information now exist in electronic form, and are called data banks. A typical magnetic disc can store a million words of text the equivalent often long novels. Computers retrieve information from them and analyse it in the same way in which they deal with numbers in calculations.

The extension and pooling of data banks pose a threat to the individ­ual's right to privacy. It could happen, for example, that information about a patient's episode of depression could be stored in a data bank serving a network of hospitals. Years later an officer in a government department considering that individual for employment might gain ac­cess to the information at the touch of a button and could hardly avoid being prejudiced by it.

Certain companies specialise in providing information about indi­viduals' credit-worthiness to finance and hire-purchase companies. These computerised files are now so comprehensive that a high proportion of the population is listed in at least one such data bank, without being aware of it. Inaccurate information can lead to a person being denied credit without his knowing why.

In the field of crime, the computer can be used in the recognition and npprehension of criminals. Detailed information about a suspect's back­ground may be obtained from a computer and sent by radio to a police­man on the spot - resulting in a speedy arrest. It can also bring together and analyse scattered items of information and so rapidly detect social patterns and trends.

 

 

2. Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания:

1) rapid calculation;

2) business houses;

3) uni­versity research departments;

4) magnetic tape and discs;

5) re­liable and economical of energy;

6) сomputer terminals;

7) computer-fed weather fore­casts;

8) data banks;

9) individ­ual's right to privacy;

10) mem­ory stores.

 

3. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:

1) установить лидерство;

2) второе поколение компьютеров;

3) широкий выбор товаров;

4) финансовые учреждения;

5) электронный мозг;

6) в послевоенные годы;

7) сложные промышленные процессы;

8) неточная информация;

9) зависеть от компьютера;

10) промышленный мир.

 

4. Найдите в тексте слова, имеющие общий корень с данными словами. Определите, к какой части речи они относятся, и переведите их на русский язык:


1) to notice;

2) to calculate;

3) play;

4) cheap;

5) to inform;

6) line;

7) to consume;

8) to instruct;

9) private;

10) to employ.


 

5. Задайте к выделенному в тексте предложению все типы вопросов (общий, альтернативный, разделительный, специальный: а) к подлежащему; б) к второстепенному члену предложения).

6. Выполните анализ данных предложений, обратив внимание на следующие грамматические явления: времена группы Indefinite ( Present, Past, Future Active& Passive); глаголы to be, to have; конструкция there is, there are; все типы вопросов; степени сравнения прилагательных; модальные глаголы:

1.Governments taxed and policed larger popula­tions than ever before.

2. Scientists and engineers required ever more extensive tables of figures.

3. To meet the demand, new designs of calculating machine were devised.

4. They could be housed in a few cabinets, rather than filling a large air-conditioned room.

5. Calculations are completed in sec­onds and the print-out is between 80-120 characters a second.

6. In the field of crime, the computer can be used in the recognition and apprehension of criminals.

7. The tool will shape the part with an accuracy superior to that of a human operator.

8. Libraries of information now exist in electronic form, and are called data banks.

9. The computer, now smaller, cheaper and more accessible to ordi­nary people than ever before, has appeared in the office, on the factory floor and in the home.

 

7. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:

1. What are the main reasons for the development of computers in the 19th and 20th centuries?

2. What are the main stages of the development of computers?

3. Where are computers used today?

4. Why are present day PCs greatly differ from the first calculating machines?

5. When did IBM maintain its lead?

6. Why are libraries of information called data banks?

7. When did the first microprocessor appear?

 



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