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Составьте реферат текста (10 – 15 предложений).



10. Составьте план текста и перескажите текст.

 

 

Вариант 2

1. Прочитайте и переведите текст:

 

SOURCES OF POWER

The industrial progress of mankind is based on power; power for industrial plants, machines, heating and lighting system, transport. In fact, one can hardly find a sphere where power is not required.

At present most of the power required of obtained mainly, from two sources. One is from burning of fossil fuels, i.e.coal, natural gas and oil, for producing heat that will operate internal- and external-combustion engines.Many of these engines will actuate generators, which produce electricity. The second way of producing electricity is by means of generators that get their power from steam of water turbines. Electricity so produced then flows through transmission lines to houses, industrial plants, enterprises, etc.

It should be noted, however, that the generation of electricity by these conventional processes is highly uneconomic. Actually, only about 40 per cent of heat in the fuel is converted into electricity. Resides, the world resources of fossil fuels are not everlasting. On the other hand,the power produced hydroelectric plants,even if increased many times, will be able to provide for only a small fraction of the power required in near future.

Therefore much effort and thought are being given to other means bf generating electricity.

One is the energy of hot water. Not long ago we began utilizing hot underground water for heating and hot water supply, and in some cases, for the generation of electric power.

Another promising field for the production of electricity is the se of ocean tides.

The energy of the Sun, which is being used in various ways, presents a practically unlimited source.

Using atomic fuel for the production of electricity is highly remising. It is a well-known fact, that one pound of uranium contains s much energy as there million pounds of coal, such cheap power can с provided wherever it is required. However, the efficiency reached in generating power from atomic fuel is not high, namely 40 per cent. No wonder, therefore, that scientists all over the world are doing their bestto find more efficient ways of generating electricity directly from the fuel (without using intermediate cycles). They already succeeded developing some processes, which are much more efficient, as high as 80 per cent, and in creating a number of devices capable of giving a higher efficiency. Scientists are hard at work trying to solve all these and many other problems.

SOLAR POWER

The Sun's energy manifests itself as thermal, photoelectric and photochemical effects. Men have tried to use solar energy since earliest times, but no means existed to generate useful power from the Sun's heat until steam and hot-air engines were invented.

Crude devicesfor heating water by solar energy date back many years, and production of salt by solar evaporation of sea water is probably the most ancient of man's sun-activated processes. Photo­electricityhas been known for almost a century, and millions of selenium photocells have been used as light meters and in similar application.

Most fundamental of all thermal solar processes is the simple fact that, when sunlight falls upon a surface of any kind, the surface becomes warmer than the surrounding air. The extentrise of the surface temperature depends upon many factors. The most important of which are the angle between the surface and the sun's rays, the absorptivityof the surface and precautionstaken to prevent the surface from losing the absorbed heat.

The angle effect is caused by the fact that the Sun's rays travel in straight lines. When a surface is perpendicular to the rays, their intensity is at its maximum; the surface being horizontal, the radiation intensity drops offand reaches its minimum.

The most effective way to minimize the loss of energy from the heated surface is to Cover it with one or more sheets of a glass-like material. This material is transparent to the Sun's rays but opaque to the longer wave length emittedby the warmed surface. The air space between the surface and the glass is an effective prevention of heat loss by convection.

A flat plate of blackened metal covered with one or more transparent sheets of glass or plastic is known to be the simplest collector of solar energy. Once collected, heat can be used in a variety of ways. Here are some of the potential and actual applications.

Space heating is probably the most important, since nearly one-third of our energy supply is used for this purpose. Water heating can be achieved by portablesolar heaters,which are able to give as much as 400 litres of boiling water on a sunny day.

The distillation of sea's water is another process to be accomplished by variations of the simple plate collector. The production of temperatures low enough for air conditioning and domestic refrigeration is a very important potential use of solar energy which is only now beginning to receive the attention it deserves.

 

SOLAR SYSTEM

Our Sun and Earth, our Moon and the planets, meteors and comets belong to the “family of the Sun” which we call our “solar system”.

Our solar system includes of nine planets and their moons. The closest planet to the sun is Mercury/ No other planet receives more light and heat that this one. It is a smallest of the planets. Mercury revolves around the Sun at a higher rate of speed than other planets. Its speed is much higher than theirs.

Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system. Venus is not so large as Jupiter, but it is the brightest planet in the sky. We see its quiet light in the morning as well as in the evening. When it is in the West it is the first point of light which we see in the evening. We see it best of all on a dark night. The darker night grows the brighter it shines and the better we see it. When Venus appears in the Fast it is possible to see it in the early morning hours as well.

2.Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания:

1) experiment is based upon the flow electric current;

2) the deflection of rays;

3) a point on the diagram;

4) a thermometer's scale;

5) negative terminals;

6) to disturb the reception;

7) to disturb radio communication;

8) air disturbances;

9) a turning armature;

10) a magnetic coil.

 

3.Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:

 

1) телевизионная программа;

2) указать направление;

3) новый радиоприёмник;

4) источники энергии;

5) солнечная энергия;

6) солнечная система;

7) индустриальный прогресс человечества;

8) ископаемое топливо;

9) гидроэлектростанция;

10) двигатели внутреннего и внешнего сгорания.

 

4.Найдите в тексте слова, имеющие общий корень с данными словами. Определите, к какой части речи они относятся, и переведите их на русский язык:


1) economic;

2) electrical;

3) ground;

4) practice;

5) to limit

6) black;

7) to heat;

8) to collect;

9) minimum;

10) sun.


 

5.Задайте к выделенному в тексте предложению все типы вопросов (общий, альтернативный, разделительный, специальный: а) к подлежащему; б) к второстепенному члену предложения).

 

6.Выполните анализ данных предложений, обратив внимание на следующие грамматические явления: времена группы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future Active& Passive); глаголы to be, to have; конструкция there is, there are; все типы вопросов; степени сравнения прилагательных; модальные глаголы:

1.The most effective way to minimize the loss of energy from the heated surface is to Cover it with one or more sheets of a glass-like material.

2. Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system.

3. Venus is not so large as Jupiter, but it is the brightest planet in the sky.

4.Once collected, heat can be used in a variety of ways.

5. The angle effect is caused by the fact that the Sun's rays travel in straight lines.

6. A flat plate of blackened metal covered with one or more transparent sheets of glass or plastic is known to be the simplest collector of solar energy.

7. Our solar system includes of nine planets and their moons.

 

7.Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:

1. What are the main two sources of power?

2.What other means of generating electricity do you know?

3.Why is the energy of the Sun a practically unlimited source?

4.How is the solar power used now?

5.What are portable solar heaters?

6.What does our solar system consist of?

7.How many planets does the solar system include?

 



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