Методические указания по теме «Артикли»



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Методические указания по теме «Артикли»



Методические указания по теме «Артикли»

(на английском языке)

 

 

Челябинск – 2005

 

Одобрено методическим советом факультета Евразии и Востока ЧелГУ.

 

 

Методические указания содержат теоретический материал и упражнения, направленные на усвоение студентами правил использования артиклей в английском языке.

 

Предназначены для самостоятельной работы студентов I-III курсов факультета Евразии и Востока.

 

Составитель к.ф.н., доцент В. Г. Будыкина

 

Рецензент ассистент кафедры английской филологии ЧГПУ Н.В. Подковырова

 

 

Classification of nouns

Nouns fall under two classes: 1) proper nouns; 2) common nouns.

1) Proper nouns are individual names given to separate persons or things. Proper noun may be personal names (Mary, Shakespeare), geographical names (Moscow, the Caucasus), the names of the months and of the days of the week (February, Monday), names of ships, hotels, clubs etc.

2) Commonnouns are names that can be applied to any individual of a class of persons or things (man, dog, book), collections of similar individuals or things regarded as a single unit (peasantry, family), materials (snow, iron, cotton) or abstract notions (kindness, development).

Thus there are different groups of common nouns: a) class nouns, b) collective nouns, c) nouns of material and d) abstractnouns.

Nouns can also be classified from another point of view: nouns denoting things (the word thing is used in a broad sense) that can be counted are called countable nouns; nouns denoting things that cannot be counted are called uncountable nouns.

a) Class nouns denote persons or things belonging to a class. They are countable and have two numbers: singular and plural. They are generally used with an article.

b) Collective nounsdenote a number or collection of similar individuals or things regarded as a single unit. Collective nouns fall under the following groups:

· nouns used only in the singular and denoting a number of things collected

together and regarded as a single object: foliage, machinery;

· nouns which are singular in form though plural in meaning: police, poultry,

cattle, people, gentry. They are usually called nouns of multitude. When the subject of the sentence is a noun of multitude the verb used as predicate is in the plural;

· nouns that may be both singular and plural: family, crowd, fleet, nation. We

can think of a number of crowds, fleets or different nations as well as of a single crowd, fleet, etc.

c) Nouns of material denote material: iron, gold, paper, tea, water. They are uncountable and are generally used without any article (There was a scent of honey).

Nouns of material are used in the plural to denote different sorts of a given material (a quantity of select wines).

Nouns of material may turn into class nouns (thus becoming countable) when they come to express an individual object of definite shape (clean panes of glass – a glass of water).

d) Abstract nouns denote some quantity, state, action or idea: kindness, sadness, fight. They are usually uncountable (They gathered new courage), though some of them may be countable (I never had an idea… – people with fixed ideas).

Abstract nouns may change their meaning and become class nouns. This change is marked by the use of the article and of the plural number (beauty – a beauty – beauties, sight – a sight – sights).

THE ARTICLE

I. General notion

The article is a structural part of speech used with nouns. There are two articles in Modern English: the indefinite article and the definitearticle.

The indefinite article has the forms a and an. The form a is used before words beginning with a consonant sound (a book, a pen, a student). The form an is used before words beginning with a vowel sound (an opera, an apple, an hour). The indefinite article has developed from the Old English numeral an (one), and as a result of its origin it is used only with nouns in the singular. The use of the indefinite article implies that the object is presented as belonging to a class.

The definite article has one graphic form the, which is pronounced in two ways: [ði∙] before a vowel sound [ði∙'æpl] and [ðэ] before a consonant sound [ðэ'pen]. The definite article has developed from the Old English demonstrative pronoun se and in some cases it has preserved its demonstrative meaning in Modern English. The use of the definite article shows that a particular object is meant.

The absence of articles with class nouns in the plural, with abstract nouns and nouns of material has grammatical significance: it shows that the nouns are used in a general sense.

With nouns in the plural some is often used. Some, as well as the absence of article with class nouns in the plural, is the equivalent of the indefinite article in the singular. Some is used when the speaker wants to emphasize the idea of number. Some is also used with nouns of material if the idea of quantity is implied. Some has the meaning of "several" with class nouns and "a little" with nouns of material. Some is hardly ever translated into Russian.

 

 

Class nouns

The indefinite article

Class nouns are used with the indefinite article:

1) When the speaker presents the object expressed by the noun as belonging to a certain class. In this case the indefinite article has the meaning of "какой-нибудь, какой-то, один" (in the meaning of "некий").

She has a watch of her own.

Close beside them grew a rose-bush…

In the plural no article is used in this case. If the idea of number is implied the noun is preceded by the pronoun some.

I liked the room because there were flowers in it.

I have brought you some flowers…

2) With a predicative noun, when the speaker states that the object denoted by the noun belongs to a certain class.

Miss Sharp's father was an artist.

In the plural neither the article nor the pronoun some is used.

They are good children, no doubt.

After the conjunction as a predicative noun is often used without an article.

She was engaged as governess.

3) When the noun is used in a general sense. What is said of one representative of a class can be applied to all the representatives of the class. The article has the meaning of "every".

A drowning man catches at a straw.

In the plural neither the article nor the pronoun some is used.

Real friends should have everything in common.

4) There are cases when the indefinite article preserves its old original meaning of "one".

He had hardly spoken a word since they left Riccardo's door… (Voynich)

This meaning is generally found with:

a) nouns denoting time, measure and weight

Aweek or two passed.

b) the numerals hundred, thousand, million and the nouns dozen, score.

He seems to have half a dozen languages at his finger-tips. (Voynich)

With nouns in the plural some is used.

Oliver's sobs checked his utterance for some minutes. (Dickens)

 

The definite article

Class nouns are used with the definite article:

 

1) When the noun denotes an object or objects which the speaker singles out from all the objects of a given class.

An object is singled out in the following cases:

a) when the speaker and the hearer know what particular object is meant.

How did you like the play?

b) when the speaker uses an attribute pointing out a particular object.

This is the house that Jack built.

c) when the situation itself makes the object definite.

The wedding looked dismal. Thebride was too old and thebridegroom was too young. (Dickens)

As a rule the definite article is not translated into Russian. However, there are cases when it must be rendered by этот.

I don't like the idea. – Мне не нравится эта мысль.

2) When the noun denotes a thing unique (the sun, the moon, the universe) or a class.

The sun was getting warmer.

The bourgeoisie is cowardly. (London)

The indefinite article can be used when we mean a certain state of the sun, the moon, the sky. In this case an attribute is used.

Apearl-white moon smiles through the green trees. (Ch. Brontё)

3) With nouns used in a generic sense. A noun used in a generic sense denotes a genus taken as a whole, a thing taken as a type, a genre.

The tiger has always had the reputation of being a man-eater.

The telephone was invented in the 19th century.

The tragedy and the comedy first appeared in Greece.

When the noun man is used in a generic sense no article is used.

He felt that his trust in man had been cruelly destroyed. (Eliot)

When the noun woman is used in a generic sense it is used with the definite article or without an article.

He had always been interested in that mysterious being – thewoman. (Bennett)

Woman is man's helpmate.

A noun used in a generic sense should not be confused with a noun used in a general sense. A noun used in a general sense denotes an object regarded as an individual representative of a class.

A detective story helps to while away the time. (Every or any detective story is meant here.)

A noun in a generic sense denotes the whole class.

Conan Doyle is a master of the detective story. (the detective story is regarded here as a certain genre.)

Nouns of material

1) With nouns of material used in a general sense, when a certain material as such is meant, no article is used.

Honey is wholesome.

She ran for warm water.

2) When a definite part of the substance is meant (when the noun is modified by a particularizing attribute or is made definite by the situation), the definite article is used.

He gulped down a glass of the sherry which Cornelius had brought. (Heym)

The meat was good and White Fang was hungry. (London)

3) When an indefinite part of the substance is meant, some is used.

We took some bread and cheese with us.

Nouns of material denoting different sorts of material are countable and the articles are used according to the general use of articles with class nouns. This use is very rare.

A pleasure to give agood wine to a young woman who looked so well. (Galsworthy)

Abstract nouns

1) When abstract nouns are used in a general sense, no article is used.

While there is life there is hope.

2) When abstract nouns are modified by a particularizing attribute or when the situation makes the idea definite, they are used with the definite article.

Last night I heard Carmen and enjoyed the music.

Abstract nouns modified by an attribute in pre-position are used without articles unless they are modified by particularizing attributes: English literature, Russian art, Soviet music.

The abstract noun weather is never used with the indefinite article.

What fine weather!

When the noun weather is used in a general sense, the definite article is used.

There are people who say that the weather can influence people's mood.

3) Abstract nouns can be used with the indefinite article. In this case the abstract noun denotes a certain kind (оттенок) of a quality, feeling, state, etc. The noun nearly always has a descriptive attribute.

In her eyes there was an eagerness, which could hardly be seen without delight.

4) With countable abstract nouns the use of the articles is the same as with class nouns.

It is acapital idea if only one could carry it out.

5) The indefinite article is used with the nouns period, population, distance, height, salary etc. followed by of + numeral + noun.

Simpson was out of the city for a period of ten days. (Dreiser)

Names of persons

1) Names of persons are used without articles.

His name is John.

2) Names denoting the whole family are used with the definite article.

TheDashwoods were not at home.

3) When names of persons are used to denote a representative of a family, the indefinite article is used.

“Florence will never, never, never be a Dombey,” said Mrs. Chick. (Dickens)

4) Names of persons modified by a particularizing attribute are used with the definite article.

You are not theAndrew Manson I married. (Cronin)

5) Names of persons used as common nouns take the article according to the general rule of the use of articles.

Mozart has been called theRafael of music.

6) Nouns denoting military ranks and titles such as academician, professor, doctor (both a title and a profession), count, lord, etc. followed by names of persons do not take the article.

Common nouns denoting professions followed by names of persons are used with the definite article.

Thepainter Gainsborough has left many fine pictures.

7) Nouns denoting titles such as king, prince, president take the definite article: the King, the Prince, the President.

The definite article is not used before titles with proper names: Queen Victoria.

8) Nouns expressing relationships followed by names of persons do not take the article.

He turned to Aunt Polly.

Nouns expressing relationship not followed by names of persons and the nouns nurse, cook, baby do not take the article when used by members of the family.

I want to see Mother.

If other people’s relations are meant, the article is used.

Theson is as clever as thefather.

9) In most cases no article is usedwith names of persons modified by the adjectives old, poor, young, dear, little, honest, lazy.

He saw that old Chapin wanted to moralize a little (Dreiser).

When modified by other adjectives and participles names of persons take the definite article.

Theastonished Tom could not say a word.

10) Names of persons modified by the adjective certain are used with the indefinite article.

I heard it from acertain Mr. Brown.

Geographical names

1) Geographical names are used without articles: France, London.

The same holds good when a geographical name is modified by an attribute in pre-position: North America, Central Asia, northern France, south – eastern Spain.

The word-groups the Soviet Union, the United States, the United Kingdom are always used with the definite article.

2) Geographical names modified by a particularizing attribute are used with the definite article.

ThePhiladelphia into which he was born was a city of fifty hundred. (Dreiser)

3) With names of oceans, seas, rivers, canals, deserts, the definite article is used: the Pacific Ocean, the Black Sea, the Thames, the Ohio River, the Panama Canal, the Sahara Desert.

4) Names of lakes do not take the article if the word lake is used, if it is not mentioned we find the definite article: Lake Ontario, the Ontario.

5) With names of mountain peaks no article is used: Elbrus, Everest.

With names of mountain chains the definite article is used: the Urals, the Alps.

6) With names of single islands there is no article: Madagascar.

With names of groups of islands the definite article is used: the Bermudas.

7) The names of the following towns, countries, provinces are used with the definite article: the Hague, the Netherlands, the Ruhr, the Riviera, the Crimea, the Ukraine, the Caucasus, the Congo, the Lebanon, the Sudan, the Vatican City.

8) Names of streets and squares are used without articles: Oxford Street, Trafalgar Square.

There are some exceptions: the High Street, the Strand, the Pall Mall, the London road, the M6 motorway.

Names of Cardinal Points

With the names of cardinal points the definite article is used: the North, the West.

In the expressions from East to West, from South to North no article is used.

 

Names of Months and Days

As a rule names of months and days are used without articles: May, Friday.

When these nouns are modified by a particularizing attribute the definite article is used.

TheMay of 1945 will always rest in his memory.

Names of months are used with the indefinite article when we mean one of many Fridays, Mondays, etc.

I do not remember when he came from Moscow, but I am sure it was on a Monday.

Names of months are used with the indefinite article when modified by a descriptive attribute.

A cold May is the usual thing in our region.

The indefinite article

in a harry – второпях, to fly into a passion – прийти в бешенство, to get in a fury (in a range) – прийти в ярость, to take a fancy to smb.– проникнуться симпатией (к к-л.), in a low (loud) voice – тихо (громко), a great many (a great deal) – много, it's a pity – жаль, it's a shame – стыдно, it's a pleasure – приятно, as a result – в результате, to have a good time – хорошо провести время, to be at a loss – быть в недоумении, at a glance – сразу, с первого взгляда.

 

The definite article

it's out of the question – об этом не может быть и речи, to take the trouble to do sth. – потрудиться, in the original – в оригинале, to play the piano (the violin, the harp) – играть на рояле (скрипке, арфе), to keep the bed – соблюдать постельный режим, on the whole – в целом, the other day – на днях, on the one hand … on the other hand – с одной стороны … с другой стороны, to tell (to speak) the truth – говорить правду, to tell the truth – по правде говоря, to be on the safe side – для верности.

 

No article

out of doors – на дворе, на улице, вне дома, to take to heart – принимать близко к сердцу, to take offence – обижаться, to give (to get, to ask) permission – дать (получить, просить) разрешение, to loose heart – терять мужество, приходить в уныние, at present – в настоящее время, from morning till night – с утра до вечера, from head to foot – с головы до ног, from beginning to end – с начала до конца, at first sight – с первого взгляда, by chance – случайно, by mistake – по ошибке, for hours – часами, for ages – целую вечность; by land, by sea, by air – сушей, морем, по воздуху; to go to sea – стать моряком, on deck – на палубе, to keep house – вести хозяйство, at sunrise – на рассвете, at sunset – на закате, at work – за работой, at peace – в мире, by name – по имени, in debt – в долгу.

With predicative nouns

A predicative noun is used with the indefinite article if the speaker states that the object denoted by the noun belongs to a certain class.

Miss Sharp's father was an artist.

If a predicative noun is modified by a particularizing attribute, the definite article is used.

He is the student you wanted to speak to.

If a predicative noun denotes a post which can be occupied by one person at a time, either no article or the definite article is used.

Mr. Henderson is manager.

She is the dean of our faculty.

No article is used with predicative nouns after the verbs to turn, to commence, to appoint, to elect.

He turned traitor. (Он стал предателем.)

They appointed him head-teacher. (Его назначили старшим преподавателем.)

The nouns son and daughter used predicatively take the definite article when modified by an of-phrase, though there may be several sons and daughters in the family.

Lomonosov was theson of a fisherman.

 

With nouns in apposition

1) Nouns in apposition are used with the indefinite article if the speaker states that the object expressed by the noun in apposition belongs to a certain class.

I want to introduce you to Jack, a great friend of mine.

In the plural no article is used .

I want to introduce you to Jack and Ann, great friends of mine.

2) Nouns in apposition are used with the definite article if they are modified by a particularizing attribute.

M. Ivanov, thestudent you have mentioned, has come.

3) If the noun denotes a well-known person or work of art, the definite article is generally used.

Pushkin, thegreat Russian poet, died in 1837.

But if the person or the work of art is not widely known the indefinite article is used.

Pericles, a comedy by Shakespeare, is hardly ever staged.

4) No article is generally used with a noun in apposition when the apposition expresses a post which can be occupied by one person at a time. Occasionally the definite article is used.

Professor Petrov, dean (the dean) of the English department, has left for Moscow.

Place of the article

The usual place of the article is before the noun if it is not modified by an attribute; if the noun is modified by an attribute, the article is placed before the latter. However, there are cases when the article follows the attribute.

1) The definite article follows the attribute expressed by the pronouns both, all.

Both thestories were interesting.

All the stories were interesting.

2) The indefinite article follows the attribute expressed by an adjective after so, too, as.

It was as black a house inside as outside.

This is too serious a matter to be treated in such a fashion.

3) The indefinite article follows quite, such, what (what in exclamatory sentences).

What a wonderful flower!

She is quiet a child.

The indefinite article either precedes or follows rather.

She was in rather a delicate position.

They interchange a rather heated look.

With names of seasons

1) Names of seasons are used without articles if they show a certain time of the year.

It was spring. I like spring.

2) The definite article is used when these nouns are modified by a particularizing attribute or when the situation makes them definite.

It happened in the spring of 1930.

Thespring was cold and rainy.

3) The indefinite article is used when these nouns are modified by a descriptive attribute.

It was a cold spring.

When names of seasons are modified by the adjectives early or late, no article is used.

It was early spring.

With names of meals

1) Names of meals are used without articles:

When did you have dinner?

2) The definite article is used when the nouns are modified by a particularizing attribute or when the situation makes the idea definite:

Thedinner we have today was very substantial.

3) The indefinite article is used if the name of meal is modified by a descriptive attribute:

After a hearty breakfast they went for a walk.

With names of languages

1) Names of languages when they are not followed by the noun language are used without articles.

She knows English.

Note the peculiar use of the definite article in:

It is a translation from the English (the French etc.)

– What is the English (theFrench) for "сосна"?

2) The definite article is used if the noun is modified by a particularizing attribute.

TheEnglish of America differs from the English of England.

3) When the noun language is mentioned the definite article is used: the English language, the German language.

With the noun town

1) The noun town when used with prepositions does not take an article:

· when we mean the nearest town (if we live in the country) or the town we live in.

You cannot go to town tomorrow.

What can you have to do in town?

· when the noun town is opposed to the noun country.

He was not used to country life, having spent 20 years in town.

2) Otherwise the noun town is used with the definite or indefinite article.

I want to go to thetown where I was born.

Additional exercises

Literature

1. 1. В. Л. Каушанская, Р.Л. Ковнер, О.Н. Кожевникова и др. Грамматика английского языка. Пособие для студентов педагогических институтов. /Под редакцией Б. А. Ильиша. Л.; Просвещение, 1973.

2. В. Л. Каушанская, Р.Л. Ковнер, О.Н. Кожевникова и др. Сборник

упражнений по грамматике английского языка. Л.; Просвещение, 1973.

3. Практический курс английского языка. I курс: Учеб. для пед. институтов

по спец. «иностр. яз.» /Л. И. Селянина, К.П. Гинтовт, М. А. Соколова и др.: под ред. В.Д. Аракина. М.; Гуманитарный издательский центр ВЛАДОС, 1997.

4. V. Evans, G. Dooley. Enterprise Grammar 4. Express Publishing, 2000.

5. R. Murphy. English Grammar in Use. Cambridge University Press, 2001.

 

 

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Методические указания по теме «Артикли»

(на английском языке)

 

 

Челябинск – 2005

 

Одобрено методическим советом факультета Евразии и Востока ЧелГУ.

 

 

Методические указания содержат теоретический материал и упражнения, направленные на усвоение студентами правил использования артиклей в английском языке.

 

Предназначены для самостоятельной работы студентов I-III курсов факультета Евразии и Востока.

 

Составитель к.ф.н., доцент В. Г. Будыкина

 

Рецензент ассистент кафедры английской филологии ЧГПУ Н.В. Подковырова

 

 

Classification of nouns

Nouns fall under two classes: 1) proper nouns; 2) common nouns.

1) Proper nouns are individual names given to separate persons or things. Proper noun may be personal names (Mary, Shakespeare), geographical names (Moscow, the Caucasus), the names of the months and of the days of the week (February, Monday), names of ships, hotels, clubs etc.

2) Commonnouns are names that can be applied to any individual of a class of persons or things (man, dog, book), collections of similar individuals or things regarded as a single unit (peasantry, family), materials (snow, iron, cotton) or abstract notions (kindness, development).

Thus there are different groups of common nouns: a) class nouns, b) collective nouns, c) nouns of material and d) abstractnouns.

Nouns can also be classified from another point of view: nouns denoting things (the word thing is used in a broad sense) that can be counted are called countable nouns; nouns denoting things that cannot be counted are called uncountable nouns.

a) Class nouns denote persons or things belonging to a class. They are countable and have two numbers: singular and plural. They are generally used with an article.

b) Collective nounsdenote a number or collection of similar individuals or things regarded as a single unit. Collective nouns fall under the following groups:

· nouns used only in the singular and denoting a number of things collected

together and regarded as a single object: foliage, machinery;

· nouns which are singular in form though plural in meaning: police, poultry,

cattle, people, gentry. They are usually called nouns of multitude. When the subject of the sentence is a noun of multitude the verb used as predicate is in the plural;

· nouns that may be both singular and plural: family, crowd, fleet, nation. We

can think of a number of crowds, fleets or different nations as well as of a single crowd, fleet, etc.

c) Nouns of material denote material: iron, gold, paper, tea, water. They are uncountable and are generally used without any article (There was a scent of honey).

Nouns of material are used in the plural to denote different sorts of a given material (a quantity of select wines).

Nouns of material may turn into class nouns (thus becoming countable) when they come to express an individual object of definite shape (clean panes of glass – a glass of water).

d) Abstract nouns denote some quantity, state, action or idea: kindness, sadness, fight. They are usually uncountable (They gathered new courage), though some of them may be countable (I never had an idea… – people with fixed ideas).

Abstract nouns may change their meaning and become class nouns. This change is marked by the use of the article and of the plural number (beauty – a beauty – beauties, sight – a sight – sights).

THE ARTICLE

I. General notion

The article is a structural part of speech used with nouns. There are two articles in Modern English: the indefinite article and the definitearticle.

The indefinite article has the forms a and an. The form a is used before words beginning with a consonant sound (a book, a pen, a student). The form an is used before words beginning with a vowel sound (an opera, an apple, an hour). The indefinite article has developed from the Old English numeral an (one), and as a result of its origin it is used only with nouns in the singular. The use of the indefinite article implies that the object is presented as belonging to a class.

The definite article has one graphic form the, which is pronounced in two ways: [ði∙] before a vowel sound [ði∙'æpl] and [ðэ] before a consonant sound [ðэ'pen]. The definite article has developed from the Old English demonstrative pronoun se and in some cases it has preserved its demonstrative meaning in Modern English. The use of the definite article shows that a particular object is meant.

The absence of articles with class nouns in the plural, with abstract nouns and nouns of material has grammatical significance: it shows that the nouns are used in a general sense.

With nouns in the plural some is often used. Some, as well as the absence of article with class nouns in the plural, is the equivalent of the indefinite article in the singular. Some is used when the speaker wants to emphasize the idea of number. Some is also used with nouns of material if the idea of quantity is implied. Some has the meaning of "several" with class nouns and "a little" with nouns of material. Some is hardly ever translated into Russian.

 

 



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