I. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, обращая внимание на период объектных и субъектных инфинитивных оборотов.



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

I. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, обращая внимание на период объектных и субъектных инфинитивных оборотов.



Английский язык

Контрольная работа № 3

Вариант № 1

I. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, обращая внимание на период объектных и субъектных инфинитивных оборотов.

1. In a free market competition is known to take place among buyers in order to obtain what they want at a price which suits them.

2.We know employers to obtain their profits only after they have paid all expenses: interest, rentals, payments for machinery, wages etc.

3. Natural monopoly arises where a nation or an individual possesses most of a particular mineral, Canadian nickel and South African gold are considered to be two well-known examples of this kind of monopoly.

 

II. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, учитывая различия в переводе независимого и зависимого причастных оборотов.

1.If too much money is available, its value decreases and it doesn’t buy as much as it did, say, five years earlier, this condition being called as «inflation».

2. Today markets such as the world sugar market or the gold market do not need to have any fixed geographical location, but simply a set of conditions permitting buyers and sellers to work together.

3. When planning his expenditures every individual has to accept fixed prices because he cannot change the price of the commodities he wants.

III. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, содержащие придаточные предложения условия.

 

1.If a man’s assets are considerable, he’ll be able to obtain large sums of credits or even to pay for goods with a credit card.

2. Unless we reach break-even point within six months we will have to ask for an other bank loan.

3. If some firms wanted to buy some commodities in modern markets they wouldn’t have to meet with sellers face-to-face, they might communicate by telephone or through their agents.

 

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст на русский язык.

Effects on Social Relations

Unemployment threatens the stability of the family as an economic and social unit. Without income, with a loss of income the head of the family cannot play the role in which he or she was cast. Family wants and needs are not fulfilled and family relationships suffer as a consequence.

Economic and social dependency and important family ties may be in danger and may eventually be severed by prolonged unemployment.

Human relations outside the family are also seriously affected by un employment. An unemployment person may be rejected by working companions, and loses pride and confidence. In the end, the unemployed may become spiritually disabled.

Although there may be a few families that are economically and socially prepared for unemployment, it tends to strike families least capable of withstanding either its economic or its social effects. Also the incidence of unemployment like family instability and crime is high among low-income groups.

The social and economic effects of unemployment extend beyond the period in which it occurs. During a period of high unemployment, consumption and savings are reduced, debt is incurred for many unemployed people. Home and auto loans may be defaulted. Afterwards, when work is available and income is earned, debts must be paid, savings replenished. It may take a long time the living standards that prevailed prior to the unemployed period can be regained and even longer before self-esteem is restored.

 

Контрольная работа №3

Вариант 2

Контрольная работа № 3

Вариант 3

I.Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям:

1.This country is known to be one of the first states to begin using atomic energy for industrial purposes.

2.I believe them to have accumulated money and invested them in profitable projects.

3.These operations seem likely to give a high profit on the original investments.

 

 

II. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов:

1.The goods having been unloaded, the workers left the port.

2. The general concept of the Code having been examined by the Finance Ministry, the Cabinet of Ministers authorized the country’s main financial department to finish up the Code within a month time.

3. The Tax Code proposes abolishing a number of privileges, including those concerning investment.

 

ECONOMIC SYSTEMS

People and societies organize economic life to deal with the basic problems raised by scarcity and opportunity costs through economic systems. An economic system can be described as the collection of institutions, laws, activities, controlling values, and human motivations that collectively provide a framework for economic decision-making.

There are three basic approaches to economic decisions about resource allocation. One is based on tradition – that is, people generally repeat the decisions made at an earlier time or by an earlier generation. A second is based on command – that is, decisions are made largely by an authority such as a feudal lord or a government planning agency. The third is based on market price.

A market economy is a system of decentralized decision making in which individuals and business firms participate in the market through decisions that are reflected in supply and demand.

Market prices – and changes in them – act as signals to producers telling them what buyers want. Market prices also act as rationing devices by allocating productive resources and finished goods and services among members of a society according to what buyers are willing and able to pay.

 

Контрольная работа № 3

Вариант № 4

 

BASIC INGREDIENTS

OF THE U.S. ECONOMY

The marriage between the United States economy and the free enterprise system has been a hugely successful one, but not without problems. From the time of an early American statesman Alexander Hamilton, there has been a conflict as to what should be the proper role of the government in the economy as various government intervened to stimulate the growth of certain industries, to regulate business when abuse began to appear, to provide protection in the form of tariffs for industries hurt by imports, and sometimes to redistribute wealth. Government’s role ebbed and flowed according to needs of the time.

The United States has what is usually described as a capitalist economy. But capitalist is a term coined by Karl Marx that referred to the control of the most important parts of the economy by a small group of capitalists. By contrast, most Americans think of capitalism as meaning «free enterprise», a system that benefits millions, not just a few. Free enterprise as an idea can simply be described, but it is how this idea is applied to real life that is important.

Every economic system tries to anticipate and then meet human needs through the production and distribution of goods and services. An economic system is the mechanism that brings together natural resources, labor supply, technology, and the necessary entrepreneurial and managerial talents. Although the type of economic system used by a nation is the result of a political experience it is also, in a large part, the result of a historical experience that, over time, becomes a national culture.

 

Английский язык

Контрольная работа № 3

Вариант № 1

I. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, обращая внимание на период объектных и субъектных инфинитивных оборотов.

1. In a free market competition is known to take place among buyers in order to obtain what they want at a price which suits them.

2.We know employers to obtain their profits only after they have paid all expenses: interest, rentals, payments for machinery, wages etc.

3. Natural monopoly arises where a nation or an individual possesses most of a particular mineral, Canadian nickel and South African gold are considered to be two well-known examples of this kind of monopoly.

 



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