Read the extract and fill in prepositions or conjunctions wherever necessary. Translate the text. Give the text the appropriate heading.

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Read the extract and fill in prepositions or conjunctions wherever necessary. Translate the text. Give the text the appropriate heading.



Although 23 percent of the UK’s territory is considered to be arable land, vast plots of agricultural land have remained uncultivated. Many critics have blamed subsidies provided __(1)__ the EU Common Agricultural Policy __(2)__ the lack of agricultural activity __(3)__ these lands. Apart __(4)__ its arable land, the UK also has a supply __(5)__ natural resources. The UK's primary industry sector was once dominated __(6)__ coal, which could be found __(7)__ south Wales, Midlands, Yorkshire, North East England and southern Scotland. However, __(8)__ 1981, the production of coal has fallen drastically __(9)__ more than 75 percent. __(10)__ 1981, the UK was the 4th largest coal producing nation __ (11)__ the world – today the UK is ranked 15th.

Iron ore production has also played an important role __(12)__ UK’s industries. As the primary element __(13)__ steel, iron ore production supports the UK’s steel and manufacturing industries. __(14)__ manufacturing, it also assists __(15)__ the production __(16)__ automobile and aerospace equipment.

The UK also has the 30th largest proven oil reserves and the 39th largest proven natural gas reserves __(17)__ the world. Oil mining activities are concentrated __(18)__ the east coast of Scotland and North East England. The waters __(19)__ the North Sea __(20)__ the east coast of Scotland contain nearly half __(21)__ the UK's remaining oil reserves. Most natural gas production is also located __(22)__ the North Sea, __(23)__ a small amount onshore and __(24)__ the Irish Sea. However, due __(25)__ its limited supply, the UK is a net importer __(26)__ both oil and natural gas.

Presently, a North-South divide exists __(27)__ the UK, due to a gradual shift __(28)__ the economic focus. __(29)__ stark contrast __(30)__ Southern UK, which contains the wealthy financial and technological industries, Northern England and Scotland have seen poor economic performance __(31)__ the years due to its industrial roots. Although the UK government has sought to rectify this imbalance, the uneven distribution __(32)__ economic wealth __(33)__the UK has led __(34)__ migration __(35)__ the north __(36)__ the south – resulting __(37)__ a housing market problem.

The population __(38)__ the UK __(39)__ 2010 was 62.222 million. __(40)__ of this population, 18.0 percent are aged __(41)__ fifteen, 66.3 percent are __(42)__ the ages of fifteen and sixty four, while 15.7 percent are aged sixty-five and above. The age groups are not evenly distributed __(43)__ the country, __(44)__ some areas having many young adults and children and some areas having large numbers of older people.

The UK has the fourth highest labor force participation rate in the world, __(45)__ 28.988 million workers. However, unemployment remains high in the UK __(46)__ 7.841 percent, and is likely to remain so __(47)__ the wake of the UK’s austerity plans. The UK government has warned that nearly half a million jobs could be lost__(48)__ the public sector alone as the government continues its cut (49) ____ public spending.


Supply the missing words and finish the following sentences considering information from the text above. See 2.5.2

1.Vast plots of agricultural land have remained uncultivated partly because of …

2. Today the UK is ranked the 15th largest …

3. The UK’s steel and manufacturing industries may become inoperative without …

4. The UK’s oil and gas deposits are situated …

5. The economic imbalance between Northern England and Scotland on one part and Southern England on the other part has lead to …

6. The population make-up in the UK was …

7. The rate of unemployment in the UK is …



2.5.4. Read the following sentences and guess which of the political or economic terms and concepts given in the box they define:

Politics, European Commission, autonomous region, balance of trade, Economics, franchise, GDP, industries, constitutional monarchy, primogeniture, purchasing power parity – PPP, federalism, austerity, political system, Magna Carta, separation of powers, constitution, boost, a nation’s current account, offshore banking unit, subsidy, national currency.

1. Bad economic conditions in which people do not have much money to spend. ___________________________

2. Something that helps somebody or something to increase or improve. __________

3. They can be classified on the basis of raw materials, size and ownership. ___________________________

4. A complete set of institutions, interest groups (such as political parties, trade unions, lobby groups), the relationships between those institutions and the political norms and rules that govern their functions (constitution, election law). ___________

5. A social science that analyzes the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services. __________________________

6. The art or science of running governmental or state affairs, including behavior within civil governments. _________________________

7. A set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. ___________________________

8. A form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a constitution. ___________________________

9. The Great Charter of the Liberties of England. ______________________

10. The legal right to vote in your country’s elections. ____________________

11. The executive body of the European Union responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the Union's treaties and day-to-day running of the EU. ________________________________

12. The right, by law or custom, of the firstborn to inherit the entire estate, to the exclusion of younger siblings. __________________________

13. Under this model, the state is divided into branches, each with separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility so that no branch has more power than the other branches. The normal division of branches is into a legislature, an executive, and a judiciary. ____________________________

14. The market value of all officially recognized final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. ____________________________

15. A shell banking branch located in an international financial center. Its activities are not restricted by local monetary authorities or governments, but it is prohibited from accepting domestic deposits. _____________________________

16. The legal tender issued by a nation's central bank or monetary authority which is used for most financial transactions in that country. _______________________

17. One of the two primary components of the balance of payments, the other being capital account. It is the sum of the balance of trade. _____________________

18. An economic theory and a technique used to determine the relative value of currencies, estimating the amount of adjustment needed on the exchange rate between countries in order for the exchange to be equivalent to (or on par with) each currency's purchasing power. ____________________________

19. The difference between the monetary value of exports and imports of output in an economy over a certain period. _____________________________

20. Assistance paid to a business or economic sector. Most of them are made by the government to producers or distributed as subventions in an industry to prevent the decline of that industry. ____________________________

21. A political concept in which a group of members are bound together by covenant with a governing representative head. __________________________________

22. An area of a country that has a degree of autonomy, or freedom from an external authority. Typically it is either geographically distinct from the rest of the country or populated by a national minority. _______________________________


2.5.5. a) Read the text and fill in the gaps with the suitable items (a-g) given below.

There are eight __ (1) __ criteria used to determine whether an entity is an independent country (also known as a State with a capital "s") or not. A country only needs __ (2) __ one of the eight criteria not to meet the definition of independent country status. Scotland does not meet all eight criteria; it fails on six of the eight criteria.

I. Scotland has __ (3) __ boundaries. Scotland is 78,133 square kilometers in area.

II. Scotland has people who live there __ (4) __. According to the 2001 census, Scotland's population is 5,062,011.

III. Scotland certainly has __ (5) __ and an organized economy; Scotland even has its own GDP (over 62 billion pounds as of 1998). However, Scotland does not regulate foreign or __ (6) __ because the Scottish Parliament is not authorized to do so. The Bank of Scotland does issue money but it prints the British pound on behalf of the central government.

IV. The Scottish Parliament has the power of __ (7) __, such as education.It is able to control education, training, and __ (8) __ (but not social security). However, this power was granted to Scotland by the UK Parliament.

V. Scotland itself has a transportation system but the system is not fully under Scottish control. The Scottish Parliament controls some aspects of transportation, including the Scottish __ (9) __, bus policy and ports and harbors while the UK Parliament controls railways, __ (10) __ and regulation. Again, this power was granted to Scotland by the UK Parliament.

VI. The Scottish Parliament has the ability to control law and home affairs (including most aspects of __ (11) __, the prosecution system and the courts as well as __ (12) __ and fire services. The UK Parliament controls defense and __ (13) __ across the United Kingdom. Again, Scotland's power was granted to Scotland by the UK Parliament.

VII. Scotland has __ (14) __. The United Kingdom Parliament definitely has power over Scotland's territory.

VIII. Scotland does not have __ (15) __ nor does Scotland have its own embassies in other independent countries.

Thus, as you can plainly see, Scotland (nor Wales, nor Northern Ireland, nor England itself) is not an independent country nor is it a State. However, Scotland is most certainly a nation of people living in an internal division of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.


a) social engineering

b) on an ongoing basis

c) national security

d) transport safety

e) domestic trade

f) road network

g) to fail on

h) sovereignty

i) internationally recognized

j) the police

k) social work

l) accepted

m) external recognition

n) criminal and civil law

o) economic activity


b) Fill in the following grid.



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