Чтение согласных букв и буквосочетаний



Буква s читается как:


· [ s ] в начале слов, перед согласной буквой, в конце слов после глухих согласных;

· [ z ] между гласными, в конце слов после гласных и звонких согласных.


8. Read the following words observing the rules of reading:

Lots, tops, nets, sets, notes, fogs, pets, nods, bills, foxes, kisses, beds, clocks, kids, sticks, themes, bells, mills, cities, tests, desks, bees, sees, best, send, these, close, self, nest, pencils, blocks, dogs, maps, lamps, rulers, mass, miss.




· Буква x читается как [ ɡz ] только перед ударной гласной, в остальных случаях – [ ks ]: exam [ ɪɡˈzæm ], six [ sɪks ], expect [ ɪksˈpekt ].


9. Read the following words observing the rules of reading:


Exist, exact, exempt, exult, exude, exam, exert, exotic, box, next, except, expect, wax, excellent, six, fix, tax, exceed, excel, exchange, exclaim, exile, expand, expense, explain, fax, oxen, ax, exit.




Буквосочетание th читается как:


· [ θ ] в большинстве знаменательных слов: thin, Smith;

· [ ð ] в служебных словах, местоимениях и в конце знаменательных слов: the, this, bathe;

· В начале личных имен, названий стран, городов, гор, рек буквосочетание th

· [ t ] в начале личных имён, названий стран, городов, рек: Thomas [ ˈtɒməs ], Thames [ temz ], Thailand [ ˈtailənd ].


10. Read the following words observing the rules of reading:

Thick, the, theft, tenth, bathroom, then, thimble, third, thirsty, thorn, three, seventh, that, this, these, than, them, thin, with, scythe, thirteen, thirty, lithe, thousand, birthday, father, mother, brother, three, breathe, cloth, clothe, theme, depth, tenth, fifth, sixth, width, bathe, teeth, thane, thank, within, thatch, think, bath, blithe, thrash, throne, thrice, myth, moth, kith, seethe, Smith, they, those, thus, their, tooth, thrill.




Буква c читается как:


  • [ s ] перед буквами e, i, y;
  • [ k ] во всех остальных случаях;
  • [ k ] в буквосочетании ck.


11. Read the following words observing the rules of reading:

Can, ice, came, nice, cat, mice, fact, space, pact, face, place, cage, cite, cell, cent, cattle, cinder, clack, cyst, cut, cry, cube, race, code, center, cake, class, city, pencil, bicycle, clean, cyme, cape, candle, camp, cane, clamp, clock, knock, neck, rock.




Буква g читается как:


  • [ ʤ ] перед буквами e, i, y: page [ peɪʤ ], gin [ ʤɪn ], [ ˈʤɪmnæst ];
  • [ ɡ ] во всех остальных случаях;
  • Исключения: get [ ɡet ], girl [ ɡə:l ], give [ ɡɪv ].


12. Read the following words observing the rules of reading:

Gate, gem, gas, age, gym, page, egg, gin, game, beg, ginger, cage, gage, gap, gent, rage, gentle, gibe, gipsy, grin, green, grave, glum, gee, gamble, gale, page, cage, big, badge, stage, stag, god, glim, sage, dig, got, go, glide, glad, gene, gybe, log, dog.




· Сочетание gh в середине и в конце слова не произносится (после ударной гласной): eight [ eɪt ];

· Буква i перед gh имеет алфавитное чтение [ aɪ ]: high [ haɪ ], light [ laɪt ];

· Буквосочетание gh — [f] – на конце некоторых слов: rough [ rʌf ];

· Диграфы II группы au,ou перед ght читаются как [ ɔ: ]: daughter [ dɔ:tə ], thought [ θɔ:t ];

· Исключения: ghastly ['gɑ:stlɪ], ghost [gəust], ghetto ['getɒʋ].


13. Read the following words observing the rules of reading:


Weighty, ought, bought, bright, might, night, sight, eight, tight, brought, naughty, sought, drought, weigh, blight, neighbor, though, sough, tough, rough, enough, fight, daughter, trough, thought, bought, caught, brought, naughty, fought, ought, daughter, taught, faugh, slaughter, right, flight, bright, high, lighter, freight, light.



Wh, wr

· В сочетании wr буква w не читается: writer [ ˈraɪtə ];

· В сочетании wh читается только первая буква w: white [ waɪt ]. Но перед буквой o, наоборот, читается только вторая буква h: who [ hu: ], whole [ həʊl ], whose [hu:z ].


14. Read the following words observing the rules of reading:


When, whom, why, what, whose, which, whole, white, whale, wheat, whether, whip, where, wreck, write, wrap, writer, wrinkle, wry, Rhine, rhyme, rhythm, rhombus, wrist, wretch, writ, wrap, wrong, wrack, wraith, wrangle, wreath, wreathe, wren, wrench, wrest, wrestle, wrick, wriggle, wright, wring, wrote, whine, wheel, whim.




Сочетание ch читается:


· как [ tʃ ] в словах английского происхождения: chess [ tʃes ];

· как [ k ] в словах греческого происхождения: architect [ ˈa:kitəkt ];

· как [ ʃ ] в словах французского происхождения: machine [ məˈʃi:n ].


15. Read the following words observing the rules of reading:


Chrome, chord, chordal, choristic character, echo, epoch, hi-tech, technical, architect, such, chess, match, chin, China, chill, chips, chops, chinch, chic, chemist, technical, scheme, school, chalk, teach, speech, achieve, child.


Sh, ph


· Сочетание sh читается [ ʃ ]: she [ ʃi: ];

· Сочетание ph обычно встречается в словах греческого произношения и читается [ f ]: phone [ fəυn ].

16. Read the following words observing the rules of reading:


Phone, phrase, photo, phase, physics, phoney, photo, phantom, pharmacy, phasic, phial, phlox, phosphor, photon, typhus, shell, fish, shelf, shin, fresh, shift, shim.


Ng, nk, kn


· Буквосочетание ng читается как звук [ŋ]: thing [θiŋ];

· Буквосочетание nk читается как звук [ŋk]: ink [iŋk];

· В сочетании kn в начале слова буква k не произносится: know [ nəʊ ];


17. Read the following words observing the rules of reading:


Strong, wrong, ring, bang, gang, reading, dancing, painting, drawing, collecting, singer, thing, clinging, ringing, angry, English, England, longer, stronger, ink, sink, link, pink, drink, uncle, drunk, bank, sank, rank, wink, tank, funk, cling, clink, knit, knee, knight, knife, kneel, knock, knot, ding, dung, pang, wing, blank, fang, bong, bring, song, think, ankle, sing, ding-dong, dunk, long, lank, plank, morning, building, donkey, sitting, taking, bringing, singing, knew, knell, knack, knag, knap, knar, knave, knead, knick-knack, knob, knuckle, knur, knurl.


Hh, Jj


· Буква h в начале слова перед гласной читается как [ h ]: hat [ hæt ], he [ hi: ];

· В некоторых словах французского происхождения буква h в начале слова не читается: hour [ ˈauə ], honour [ ˈɒnə ];

· Буква j всегда читается как звук [ ʤ ]: Jane [ ʤein ], jam [ ʤæm ].


18. Read the following words observing the rules of reading:


-sure, -ture, -sion, -tion, -ous, -ance


· sure [ ʒə ] pleasure, leisure, measure, treasure;

· ture [ tʃə ] nature, culture, furniture, literature;

· sion [ ʃ ] pension, passion, session, tension;

· sion [ ʒn ] vision, division, decision, invasion;

· tion [ ʃ ] station, intention, nation, sensation;


19. Read the following words observing the rules of reading:


Treasure, measure, pleasure, closure, lecture, feature, future, picture, section, mention, attention, dictation, collection, condition, decoration, revolution, solution, institution, station, tradition, conversation, situation, famous, delicious, curious, annoyance, importance, expression, commission, discussion, impression, permission, division, television, collision, conclusion


Revision exercises


20. Read the words:


Cap, can, ice, came, nice, cat, neck, mice, fact, space, peck, pace, kin, keen, pact, face, gate, gem, gas, age, gym, page, egg, gin, game, beg, gag, jam, Jim, Jack, Jane, sky, shame, dish, she, ship, shape, shave, fish, shine, chest, chin, match, catch, fetch, chick, chill, this, that, these, than, them, theme, faith, thick, thin.


21. Read the words:


Sad, made, stale, fit, deep, film, fail, name, day, please, nice, fine, beat, Spain, pale, date, ban, tape, fate, mad, say, same, fat, Sam, lane, land, tame, faint, aim, leave, bede, deed, lean, mean, seat, line, pin, pine, man, dent, Ann, nine, bet, bed, dine, did, May, style, vet, bay, sat, tilt, file, ease, pet, tin, veal, slip, stay.


22. Read the words:


Risk, red, ripe, read, rest, rally, hand, hay, hip, hate, heap, help, hide, yes, yell, easy, daddy, yet, yelp, my, by, myth, next, text, exam, sex, six, sixty, ring, thing, fang, bring, sing, gang, sling, drink, link, clink, pink, prank, shelf, shy, sheet, dash, fish, chain, chick, change, catch, patch, mine, cage, fill, mine, Spain, miss, ice, page, back, space, click, game, gem, let, lest, gay, set, lay, say, lack, icy.


23. Read the words:


Note, lot, lone, nod, code, cot, tone, cope, dot, sock, hot, pope, doll, hop, bone, tool, moon, look, doom, took, fool, cool, shook, loop, cook, choose, hook, sport, torn, corn, gorge, cork, or, fork, lead, steel, meat, bet, lest, tip, tiny, type, myth, mice, stay, plain, star, farm, cart, cell, cod, sing, cling, bank, rank, spin.


24. Read the words:


Sit, lame, back, miss, sack, gave, tip, tide, tap, late, mad, made, nine, fill, cake, thick, bat, pin, pine, hate, act, ice, plot, face, hid, fate, stamp, spot, pile, land, mist, mole, mark, gold, cap, nose, fix, harm, merry, horn, start, form, exact, examination, exist, sixty, appendix, expend, exotic, except, exile.

25. Read the words:


Speed, loaf, loom, reach, rose, fill, coal, aim, cube, weave, faint, steam, tool, freeze, mutton, crystal, tense, shoot, trainer, coast, raze, float, beach, least, boot, fee, rein, toil, author, veil, toy, spoil.

A merry song, a big boat, a simple riddle, a little star, a black bag, an old goat, a good cook, a fat cock, a good accent, an old oak, a good tool, ten miles, go home, take the pen, a pale face.

26. Read the words:


Best, code, nod, tops, sent, bed, these, cod, sold, spoke, mock, theme, block, then, neck, cone, bold, enter, cell, centner, motor, close, nest, depth, less, self, fold, doctor.


27. Read the words:


Five, tip, bed, pipe, land, fry, rule, ton, tone, pupil, love, cut, shade, brother, bus, snack, blame, poke, found, aloud, green, town, toy, farm, yellow, glove, warm, some, won, worse, nothing, mild, world, month, company, worship, none, find, wild, ought, above, brought.


28. Read the words:


Face, eight, yet, gate, cage, engine, lock, wrong, write, job, white, gymnastics, Alice, chest, light, cheek, fish, sigh, gently, knight, bright, ginger, knock, physics, phlox, Gypsy, whole, whip, whoop, whisper.

29. Read the words:


Boot, prepare, ball, book, mere, meat, good, store, bread, care, palm, cure, cold, last, plant, text, exam, rather, germ, hurt, hare, grasp, bald, calf, chalk, clasp.

30. Read the words:


A talented dancer, a broken branch, a stone wall, a dull day, a wise man, a cheap car, a big ship, a fat sheep, a naughty girl, a lazy boy, a rare plant, a strict lady, a cold lake, a birthday present, Bertha’s basket, spare time, pure water.


31. Read the words:


Work, rare, fire, tyre, myrtle, type, myth, admire, party, parrot, lorry, caught, pillow, further, loud, accept, box, walk, pain, palm, pure, hare, share, store, here, cure, fur, term, more, firm, spare, sphere, wire, mere.

32. Read the words:


A spare moment, a famous painter, a rare ring, the upper teeth, the thick wood, the first letter, the next room, the full moon, the vast territory, the main street.

33. Read the words:


Weight, lain, coin, play, neighbour, neutral, grew, pie, pool, took, toy, autumn, how, know, narrow, true, group, bread, peace, feel, dare, mere, where, sore, ore, nasty, salt, lure, sure, jerk, jaw, fruit, foe, paw, hair, dear, chair, peer, learn, car, moor.

34. Read the words:


A white bear, a poor fellow, a new dish, a low couch, a big mouth, a narrow path, a broken chair, an old gypsy, chilly weather, brown bread, good maize, bitter beer, fresh air, red hair, bad flour, repeat each word, correct these mistakes, close the window, take the pill, don’t eat these peaches.


35. Read the words:


Lecture, housewife, phone, physics, big, scythe, stalk, knee, treasure, importance, decision, debtor, person, France, hotel, chemist, hedge, lodge, knuckle, bang, length, strengthen, phrase, thumb, throng, thesis, then.


36. Read the words:


Did-deed, had-hard, lick-leak, hip-heap, dear-deer, lad-lard, Mary-marry, hail-hear, sill-seal, bear-beer, lip-leap, pit-pat, hill-heal, chair-cheer, bad-bard, fill-feel, marry-merry, ship-sheep, taught-tap-tape, pen-pain-pale, fit-foot-fate, dive-dove-dame, daisy-lazy-darling.


37. Practise reading the following words:


Ben, meet, tell, be, ten, tent, bed, bede, bee, dene, bet, dent, beet, end, men, peep, dell, bent, den, mete, lend, less, best, lends, seems, send, pens, sets, beds, bees, nets, seeds, tests, deed, spell, Bess, text.


38. Practise reading the following words:


Plane, main, train, raise, may, pay, stay, map, plan, angle, battle, be, mete, eve, mean, seat, see, keen, feel, speak, wet, nest, gentle, vein, they, either, neither, seize, ate, ache, chest, cheese, please, these, veil, cent, gin, gap, gain, gypsy, giant, cyclist, them, method, theme, with, thick.


39. Practise reading the following words:


Cede, cell, theme, than, with, sheath, vein, neither, cake, sane, shape, ate, tax, cramps, aid, pain, claim, said, grey, play, day, cent, get, gift, gap, gain, gem, gin, gyps, bench, back, ache, many, east, eagle, teach, deaf, breathe, they, method, bathe.


40. Practise reading the following words:


Mule, muff, cube, grew, coat, sauce, pause, aunt, daughter, faugh, cook, thousand, sound, soul, ought, clown, blow, southern, pewter, shrewd, crowd, loaf, faint, veil, least, beach, crystal, mark, expend, exist, land, snack.


41. Practise reading the following words:


Cup, cube, but, nut, mute, butter, rung, huge, wake, weak, wig, waver, wine, wink, way, weed, wit, coin, boy, point, join, toy, noisy, joy, now, how, yellow, Moscow, window, gown, down, out, ounce, foul, noun, scout, count, seller, actor, town, term, first, bird, third, stern, turn, Byrd, furs, curl, curt, serf, curb, herb, want, wash, was, watch, watt, whale, wharf, wheat, ward, when, whether, which, whiff, whip, warn, whole, warp, why, cat, bunch, pinch, rice, will, chest, sister, frost, lick, sly, pace, lunch, rib, from, luck, cry, chat, shy, chill, sky, hale, rose, spine, till, spider, vine, sniff, maze, pan, reader.


42. Practise reading the following words:


Straight, sauce, jaundice, slaughter, awkward, payment, breadth, deign, seize, eulogy, shrewd, achieve, sprightly, oath, foe, honey, ounce, fountain, coyness, glue, pursue, bruise, hyacinth, cigar, wharf, concern, perceive, encircle, ornament, worship, burden, square, adhere, gyre, fairness, appear, yearn, rehearse, career, hoarse, devour, boor, enemy, wobble.


43. Practise reading the following words:


Occasion, debtor, doubt, ceiling, accident, ladder, fragment, gist, agent, giant, forehead, exhaust, honour, destroy, synonym, beneath, ant, leader, reason, wan, wise, exclude, complexion, yoke, chemist, bench, judge, bulgy, defence, gnat, knave, knuckle, bomb, dumb, climb, triumph, question, liquid, rhapsody, rheumatism, scene, science, ashamed, thumb, whole, also, waffle, almost, whack, quake, serene, stretcher, ceremony, medal, junction, enclose, renew, embrace, define, polite, equip, wiry, sign, typical, evoke, soldier, both, bronze, clutch, rhumb, cube, uncertain, flute, yule, fury, curious, plural, rural, jury, dyke, scythe, lymph.


44. Practise reading the following words:


Paper, table, plane, main, train, raise, may, pay, stay, said, many, map, angle, battle, plan, large, part, start, article, glass, pass, class, fast, mast, cast, grant, plant, branch, half, calf, ask, task, mask, father, bath, chance, advance, shaft, after, craft, draft, stair, hair, affair, care, fare, scare, ball, almost, install, launch, author, saw, naught, aunt, mass, war, warm, want, wash, what, captain, Monday, be, mete, eve, mean, seat, see, keen, feel, speak, wet, nest, gentle, bread, reader, ready, weather, meant, lead, her, term, serve, permanent, heard, learn, earth, near, fear, clear, engineer, cheer, mere, here, maker, partner, member, answer, market, planet, new, few, Europe, deuce, crew, grew, either, neither, vein, freight, they, eight, cheese, please, these, three, meal, pen, best, tremble, breath, veil, weight, theme, teacher, time, title, cinema, kind, find, wild, mild, light, sight, lie, stick, imagine, timber, brittle, first, bird, thirst, third, fire, mire, entire, diamond, dialogue, science, society, field, brief, friend, grieve, fine, white, child, tie, night, fight, middle, this, believe, little, sir, firm, wire, diary, tired, client, require, scientist, priest, liege, yield, twice, behind, desire, dirt, might, mirth, remind, my, try, gypsy, sorry, family, cycle, dye, style, gym, myth, baby, yet, yard, year, tyre, tyrant, myrtle, yesterday, no, open, smoke, note, cold, who, how, road, boat, load, broad, loan, oak, know, window, low, cow, now, stop, box, hospital, from, town, brown, round, sound, count, cloud, southern, sport, port, born, morning, corner, poor, floor, door, more, core, ore, bore, before, board, source, moor, brought, thought, fought, taught, our, sour, hour, doctor, voice, coil, toy, oil, boy, noise, food, root, noon, too, moon, pool, book, look, took, hook, various, work, world, warm, mother, other, both, brother, month, son, front, come, London, some, cover, oven, rode, program, hold, narrow, coal, object, mottle, bottle, block, crowd, ground, round, short, sought, course, point, avoid, roof, tooth, cook, numerous, honey, discover, flour, soap, tube, duty, nude, nuclear, put, cut, push, bus, hull, bush, number, run, full, blue, true, cruise, juice, difficult, suspend, supply, turn, curve, urgent, surface, pure, cure, sure, curious, stupid, fury, dust, must, but, muddle, dull, current, clue, burn, rule, flu, June, July, gurgle, nurse, curb, suggest, during, perfume, rude, doubt, though, high, right, through, which, white, whose, knot, chalk, walk, talk, calm, balm, palm, wrap, wrong, wry, whole, knife, size, miss, pens, sees, fits, pins, seems, lips, bay, peck, faint, mad, Spain, aim, lean, ease, neck, ice, pace, gate, gem, age, game, jam, gas, shame, chest, match, catch, fetch, faith, thick, honour, next, exam, exhibit, exhibition, fang, stronger, gang, sling, link, drink, pink, prank, sheet, lack, rank, huge, waver, wink, weed, wine, yellow, wharf, wheat, angry, quite, quick, quest, English, bathe, ceiling, question, colour, judge, grammar, station, potato, drew, blew, uncle, share, shark, square, verse, whirl, mistake, lecture, housewife, phone, physics, bigger, key, scythe, stalk, shall, knee, treasure, forehead, importance, decision, debtor, person, France, hotel, chemist, epoch, hedge, lodge, knuckle, bang, length, strengthen, phrase, thumb, throng, thesis, then, bright, whale, deceive, receive, quarter, lung, jupe, euphony, jewel, shrewd, siege, thigh, oyster, reward, severe, appear, sheer, career, coarse, luxury, luxurious, yoke, ozone, induce.

§ 7. Dialogues for intoning




W: Hello, Betty!

B: Good afternoon, Mr. White!

W: Is Doctor Sandford ['sænfəd] in?

B: No, he isn't. Doctor Sandford is still in the hospital.

W: Is Mrs. Sandford at home?

B: No, she isn't.Mrs. Sandford is out. She is in the park with Benny, and old Mrs. Sandfordis not well.

W: Oh, that's a pity! What's the matter?It isn't the flu,isit?

B: Oh, no,it's a bad cold, she's better today.

W: Isshe in bed?

B: No, she isn't. Come in, Mr. White, andhave a talk with Mrs. Sandford. Sheis alwaysglad to see you.

W: Perhaps, some other day,Betty!

B:I'm sosorry Mr. Sandford isn't at -home yet.

W: That's all right. Remember me to Mrs. Sandford.

B: Yes, Mr. White.

W: So long then, Betty!

B: So long, Mr. White. On Saturday Mr. Sandford is at home after four.



Doctor Sandford's family is not very large. There are five of them. The five members of his family are: his mother, his sister- in-law, his son Benny, his wife Helen and himself. Helen has no parents.

Old Mrs. Sandford is fifty-eight. Helen is twenty-six. Doctor Sandford is thirty. Benny is an only child and there are no boys or girls in the family for him to play with.


"Granny, have I any cousins?"

"Yes Benny! You have two."

"Whose children are they? How old are they? Are they boys or girls?"

"Not so many questions at once, please, Benny! Your cousins are: a five-year-old boy, Georgie, and a four-year-old girl, May. They are your Aunt Emily's children. They are in Canada now with their parents: your Aunt Emily, my daughter, and her husband, Mr. Thomas Brown."

"In Canada? What's Canada, granny? Where is it?"

"Canada is a far-away country. It is in the North of America."

"In the North of America? Where is it? Is it as far as London?"

"Oh, no Benny! It's much farther." "But, granny..."

"Come along, my dearest. It's just the time for your midday milk."




Teacher: Good morning, all! Sit down please!I expect no oneis away?

Monitor: Nobody is. Allare present. Oh, sorry, Ann is not here.

T e а с h e r:What's up? Is she ill?

Monitor: It's flu with a hightemperature.

Teacher:That's too bad. Well now. Let's begin. We'll check our homework. Mike, will you take yourexercise-bookand come to the board?

Mike:Shall I write the words intranscription?

Teacher: Do. And you, Helen, readText 7, will you? The others shouldwrite down the mistakes if she has any. Do you follow me? Will you read a littlelouder, please.That'll do. Any mistakesnoticed?

Julia: I believe there's somepalatalization in the nouns "family" and "Benny".

Teacher:That's it. Please, Helen,pronounce the words. Now it's correct. You must work more.Pronunciation is your weak point, I'm afraid.

Helen: Shall I read the text again for the next time?

Teacher: Yes.Have another try and make your reading moredistinct. Now everybody look at the board!

Mike: Shall I read the exercise?

Teacher: Of course. (Mike reads). Is everything correct, Pete?

Pete: I think it is.

Teacher: Thank you, Mike. Clean the board, please, and go to your seat. (To the monitor). Have we got theheadphones?

Monitor: Here they are.

Teacher: Fine. Let's listen to the new text. Open your books at page 81. Will you pleaseswitch on thetape-recorder?Thank you.


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