ТОП 10:

Молчанова О.Е., Хостай И.С., Андрианова И.В., Шеваршинова Е.И., Егорова А.Г.



Молчанова О.Е., Хостай И.С., Андрианова И.В., Шеваршинова Е.И., Егорова А.Г.

МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ ПО ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЙ ФОНЕТИКЕ ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ I КУРСА

Калуга, 2013

Предисловие

Настоящее методические пособие предназначено для студентов 1-го курса филологических факультетов для работы в процессе вводно-коррективного фонетического курса. Задача вводно-коррективного фонетического курса заключается в корректировке и автоматизации произносительных навыков студентов. Данное методическое пособие может использоваться как преподавателями в условиях аудиторных занятий, так и студентами в качестве дополнительного материала для самостоятельной работы параллельно с основным учебным пособием «Практическая фонетика английского языка» автора Е.Б. Карневской. Разделы данного методического пособия позволяют решать следующие задачи: отработка произношения отдельных звуков; отработка произношения звуков в потоке речи (ассимиляция); обучение ритмике, особенностям фразового ударения английского языка, а также коммуникативной функции английской интонации. Разделы, содержащие английские скороговорки и стихотворения, позволяют отрабатывать фонетические трудности английского языка в потоке речи, что является начальным этапом работы над развитием навыков устной речи. Также, данное методическое пособие содержит наиболее полное собрание правил чтения английского языка с примерами и упражнениями на отработку и закрепление полученных знаний. Теоретико-практический раздел об основных типах английских вопросов рассказывает о правилах построения каждого типа вопросов и о тонах, с которыми произносятся конкретные типы вопросов. Раздел “Dialogues for intoning” позволяют применить знания об основных типах тонов английской интонации на практике, а именно, содержит ряд диалогов и текстов, которые можно самостоятельно проинтонировать и озвучить.

Авторы настоящего методического пособия надеются, что данный материал будет полезным, как для коллег-преподавателей, так и для студентов, и будут благодарны за замечания, советы и критику, которые помогут им улучшить пособие.

 

Авторы

 

 

 

 

§ 1. Дыхательные упражнения

 

Упражнение 1: Вдох – четыре резких выдоха

 

Уприте язык в нижние зубы, не выгибая спинку языка, слегка открыв рот. Глубоко вдохните и сделайте четыре резких выдоха.

 

Упражнение 2: Вдох и несколько сильных, но коротких выдохов с постепенным закрыванием рта

 

Широко открыв рот, глубоко вдохните, сделайте как можно больше выдохов, постепенно закрывая рот.

 

Упражнение 3: Вдох с оттягиванием назад уголков губ назад и плавный выдох

 

Слегка откройте рот, оттягивая уголки губ назад, и вдохните. Сохраняя положение губ и щель между зубами, плавно выдохните.

 

Упражнение 4: Оскал

 

Слегка приоткройте рот, оттягивая уголки губ назад, и при вдохе приподнимите верхнюю и опустите нижнюю губу так, чтобы были видны верхние и нижние резцы зубов. Губы держите плоско. Сделайте несколько коротких, но резких выдохов. Не морщите нос. Язык уприте в нижние зубы.

 

Упражнение 5: Опускание челюсти

 

Сделайте «оскал», вдохните, и при выдохе опустите нижнюю челюсть вниз, не меняя положения губ и языка.

 

Упражнение 6: Повторение упр. 5 с сокращением выдоха при опущенной челюсти

 

Продолжить выдох при подъеме челюсти до сохранения узкой щели между зубами. Выполняйте закрывание плавно и ритмично. Это упражнение отличается от предыдущего выдохом – при нем челюсть плавно идет вверх.

 

Упражнение 7: Губно-зубная преграда

 

Повторите «оскал», вдохните, при выдохе коснитесь наружным краем нижней губы верхних резцов несколько раз.

 

Упражнение 8: Хоботок

 

Вытяните губы слегка вперед, округлив их. Вдохните носом при закрытом рте, а выдох произведите через круглое отверстие вытянутых в хоботок губ.

 

Упражнение 9: Хоботок – оскал

 

Чередуйте «оскал» и «хоботок». Сначала – вдох через нос с закрытым ртом, выдох разделите на две части между «хоботком» и «оскалом».

 

Упражнение 10: Быстрая смена положения губ от «оскала» к «хоботку» и обратно

 

Сделайте несколько чередований «хоботка» и «оскала» при выдохе. В момент вытягивания губ задержите выдох, разделив его таким образом на 3 - 4 раза. Задержку делайте очень короткой, для чего быстро выдвигайте губы вперед, округляя их.

 

Упражнение 11: Губно-губная преграда

 

Слегка приоткрыв рот, закрывайте его при вдохе, затем сделайте несколько плотных смыканий губ, разжимая их сильной струей воздуха при выдохе.

 

Упражнение 12: Округление губ

 

Сделайте «оскал» и резко опустите челюсть вниз. При выдохе округлите губы, не вытягивая их и не меняя положения челюсти.

 

Упражнение 13: Межзубная преграда

 

Сделайте «оскал» и положите язык между зубами, сохраняя плоское положение языка. Плавно и сильно выдохните 3 - 4 раза.

 

Упражнение 14: Альвеолярная преграда

 

Сделайте «оскал», кончиком языка коснитесь бугорков за верхними зубами несколько раз. Чередуйте апикальное положение языка с нейтральным, т.е. у нижних зубов.

 

Упражнение 15: При широкой щели между зубами округлите губы, вдохните, и выдвинув как можно дальше назад язык, выдохните.

 

§ 2. Характеристика звуков

 

Гласные переднего ряда:

1) [ ɪ ] – монофтонг переднего отодвинутого назад ряда, широкой разновидности, высокого подъёма, краткий, ненапряжённый, нелабиализованный.

 

2) [ i: ] – гласный переднего ряда, узкой разновидности, высокого подъёма, долгий, напряжённый, нелабиализованный (дифтонгоид).

 

3) [ e ] – монофтонг переднего ряда, узкой разновидности, среднего подъёма, краткий, ненапряжённый, нелабиализованный.

 

4) [ æ ] – монофтонг переднего отодвинутого назад ряда, широкой разновидности, низкого подъёма, полудолгий, нелабиализованный.

 

[ æ ] и [ e ] встречаются только в закрытом слоге.

 

5) [ аɪ ] – дифтонг, ядро которого – гласный переднего ряда, широкой разновидности, низкого подъема, нелабиализованный.

 

6) [ eɪ ] – дифтонг, ядро которого – гласный переднего ряда, узкой разновидности, среднего подъема, нелабиализованный.

 

7) [ ɪə ] – дифтонг, ядро которого – гласный переднего отодвинутого назад ряда, широкой разновидности, высокого подъема, нелабиализованный.

 

8) [ аʊ ] – дифтонг, ядро которого – гласный переднего отодвинутого назад ряда, широкой разновидности, низкого подъема, нелабиализованный.

 

9) [ ɛə ] - дифтонг, ядро которого – гласный переднего ряда, широкой разновидности, среднего подъема, нелабиализованный.

 

Гласные смешанного ряда:

1) [ ə ] – нейтральный гласный смешанного ряда, широкой разновидности, среднего подъема, краткий, нелабиализованный.

 

2) [ ɜ: ] – монофтонг смешанного ряда, узкой разновидности, среднего подъема, долгий, напряженный, нелабиализованный.

 

3) [ ɜʊ ] – дифтонг, ядро которого - гласный смешанного ряда, узкой разновидности, среднего подъема, лабиализованный.

Гласные заднего ряда:

1) [ а: ] – монофтонг глубокого заднего ряда, широкой разновидности, низкого подъема, долгий, напряженный, нелабиализованный.

 

2) [ ʌ ] – монофтонг заднего продвинутого вперёд ряда, широкой разновидности, среднего подъема, краткий, ненапряженный, нелабиализованный.

 

3) [ ʊ ] – монофтонг заднего продвинутого вперёд ряда, широкой разновидности, высокого подъема, краткий, ненапряженный, слегка лабиализованный.

 

4) [ u: ] – гласный глубокого заднего ряда, узкой разновидности, высокого подъема, долгий, напряженный, лабиализованный. Имеет дифтонгоидный характер в конечном открытом слоге.

 

5) [ ɔ: ] – монофтонг глубокого заднего ряда, узкой разновидности, низкого подъема, долгий, напряженный, лабиализованный.

 

6) [ ɒ ] – монофтонг глубоко заднего ряда, широкой разновидности, низкого подъема, краткий, ненапряженный, слегка лабиализованный. Не встречается в конечной позиции в слове. В закрытом ударном слоге имеет усечённый характер.

 

7) [ ʊə ] – дифтонг, ядро которого - гласный заднего продвинутого вперёд ряда, широкой разновидности, высокого подъема, слегка лабиализованный.

 

8) [ ɔɪ ] – дифтонг, ядром которого является звук, занимающий промежуточное положение между гласными [ ɒ ] и [ ɔ: ]. Звук заднего ряда узкой разновидности, низкого подъёма, слегка лабиализованный.

 

Сонанты:

 

1) [ n ] – переднеязычный апикально - альвеолярный смычный носовой.

 

2) [ m ] – губно-губной смычный носовой сонант.

 

3) [ j ] – среднеязычный палатальный щелевой сонант.

 

4) [ l ] – переднеязычный апикально – альвеолярный щелевой боковой сонант. Существует два аллофона: светлый и тёмный. Светлый оттенок [ l ] звучит перед гласными и перед согласным [ j ], а тёмный – на конце слов и перед согласными.

 

5) [ r ] – переднеязычный какуминальный заальвеолярный срединный щелевой сонант.

 

6) [ ŋ ] – заднеязычный смычный носовой сонант. Не употребляется в начале слова.

 

7) [ w ] – губно-губной заднеязычный срединный щелевой сонант. При его произнесении одновременно с выпячиванием губ поднимается задняя спинка языка. Наличие второго фокуса придает звуку твёрдую окраску.

Согласные:

а) парные:

 

1) [ f ], [ v ] – губно-зубные щелевые фрикативные согласные. [ f ] – глухой, [ v ] – звонкий.

 

2) [ t ], [ d ] – переднеязычные альвеолярные смычно-взрывные согласные. [ t ] – глухой, сильный; [ d ] – звонкий, слабый.

 

3) [ s ], [ z ] – переднеязычные альвеолярные фрикативные щелевые согласные.

 

4) [ p ], [ b ] – губно-губные смычно-взрывные согласные.

 

5) [ k ], [ g ] – заднеязычные смычно-взрывные согласные.

 

6) [ ʃ ], [ ʒ ] – переднеязычные альвеолярные щелевые фрикативные согласные со средним фокусом.

 

7) [ tʃ ], [ dʒ ] – переднеязычные альвеолярно-палатальные аффрикаты

 

8) [ θ ], [ ð ] – переднеязычные апикально-межзубные щелевые фрикативные согласные.

 

б) непарные:

 

1) [ h ] – фарингальный щелевой глухой согласный. Встречается только перед гласными звуками.

§ 3. Скороговорки

 

1. [ æ ]

A black cat sat on a mat and rapidly ate the rat.

 

2. [ b ]

Betty Botta bought some butter

"But," she said, "This butter's bitter!

But a bit of better butter will make my butter better."

So she bought a bit of butter

Better than the bitter butter,

And it made her butter better.

So it was better Betty Botta

Bought a bit of better butter.

 

3. [ b ]

A big black bug beat a big black bear.

A big black bear beat a big black bug.

 

4. [ s, ʃ ]

She sells shells on the sea-shore.

The shells she sells on the sea-shore are sea shells.

For if she sells shells on the sea-shore,

The shells she sells on the sea-shore are sea shells I'm sure.

 

5. [ p ]

Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.

A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked.

If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers,

Where's the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?

 

6. [ w, ð ]

Whether the weather be fine

Or whether the weather be not,

Whether the weather be cold

Or whether the weather be hot,

We`ll weather the weather

Whatever the weather

Whether we like it or not.

 

7. [ w, ð ]

When the weather is wet

We mustn`t fret,

When the weather is warm

We mustn`t storm,

When the weather is cold

We mustn`t scold,

But be thankful together

Whatever the weather.

 

8. [ w, ð ]

Whether it rains,

Or whether it snows,

We shall have weather,

Whether or no

9. [ w, ð ]

We wonder whether the wether will weather the weather

Or whether the weather the wether will kill?

 

10. [ ɒ ]

All I want is a proper cup of coffee,

Made in a proper copper coffee-pot.

I may be off my dot

But I want a cup of coffee

From a proper copper coffee-pot.

Tin coffee-pots and iron coffee-pots,

They're no use to me.

If I can't have a proper cup of coffee

From a proper copper coffee-pot

I'll have a cup of tea!

 

11. [ d, ɒ ]

When a doctor doctors a doctor,

Does the doctor doing the doctoring

Doctor as the doctor being doctored wants to be doctored or

Does the doctor doing the doctoring doctor as he wants to doctor?

 

12. [ w, ʧ ]

How much wood would a wood-chuck chuck if a wood-chuck would chuck wood?

 

13. [ w, ʃ ]

I wish to wish the wish you wish to wish,

But if you wish the wish the witch wishes to wish,

I won't wish the wish you wish to wish.

 

14. [ ɪ ]

Six sick hicks nick six slick bricks with picks and sticks.

 

15. [ θ ]

I can think of six thin things. Can you?

Yes, I can think of six thin things and of six thick things too.

 

16. [ θ ]

Fifths are hard to say...

A nimble tongue they need.

And sixths, and sevenths,

And eighths, and ninths

Are very hard indeed.

 

17. [ ð ]

 

This is used for one thing here

That means something over there,

These and those mean two or more,

Those are far and these are near.

 

18. [ ʤ ]

Can you imagine an imaginary menagerie manager

Imagining managing in an imaginary menagerie?

 

19. [ ʤ ]

Jump the rope, jump the rope,

Jump, jump, jump!

Jump it high, jump it low,

Jump, jump, jump!

Jump it fast, jump it slow,

Jump, jump, jump!

Jump again – out you go,

Jump, jump, jump!

 

20. [ s, ʃ ]

The sixth sheik`s sheep is sick.

 

Six silly sisters selling shiny shoes.

 

Sunshine city (3 times).

 

21. [ t, uː ]

A tutor who tutored the flute

Tried to teach two young tooters to toot

Said the two to the tutor

«Is it harder to toot, or

For the tutor two tooters to tute?»

 

Beautiful blue balloons (3 times).

 

22. [ w, aɪ, ɪ ]

Why do you cry, Willie?

Why do you cry?

Why, Willie, why, Willie?

Why, Willie, why?

 

23. [ ʊ, ŋ ]

Good morning! Good morning!

Good morning to you!

Good morning! Good morning!

We are glad to see you!

 

24. [ ŋ ]

The singers sang a nice song –

Ting-a-long, ting-a-long.

A nice song the singers sang –

Ting-a-long, ting-a-long.

The song they sang was very long –

Ting-a-long, ting-a-long.

Ting-a-ting-a long.

 

25. [ r ]

Round and round the rugged rock

The ragged rascal ran,

How many R's are in that?

Now tell me if you can.

 

26. [ r ]

Robert Rowley rolled a round roll 'round;

A round roll Robert Rowley rolled 'round;

If Robert Rowley rolled a round roll 'round,

Where`s the round roll Robert Rowley rolled 'round?

 

Red lorry, yellow lorry (3 times).

 

27. [ fl ]

A flea and a fly in a flue.

Were imprisoned. So what could they do?

Said the flea, "Let us fly!"

Said the fly, "Let us flee!

So they flew through a flaw in the flue.

 

28. [ g, gr ]

Three gray geese in the green grass grazing.

Grey were the geese and green was the grassing.

 

29. [ ʧ, ʃ ]

If a dog chews shoes

What shoes would he choose to chew?

Too few for sure.

You`re a choosy shoe-chewer.

 

30. [ θ, tr ]

If a three – month truce

Is a truce in truth ,

Is the truth of a truce in truth

A three – month truce?

 

31. [ eɪ ]

My dame has a lame tame crane,

My dame has a crane that is lame,

Let my dame`s tame crane

Feed and come home again.

 

32. [ sw ]

Swan swam over the sea,

Swim, swan, swim.

Swan swam back again,

Well swum, swan!

 

33. [ sw, ŋ ]

Oh, swing the king and swing the queen,

Oh, swing them round and round the green.

Oh, swing them round and round the green.

Oh, swing them round the green.

 

34. [aI]

No need to light a light on a light night like tonight.

 

35. [I:], [e]

Each Easter Eddie eats Easter eggs.

 

36. [w], [v]

William always wears a very warm woolen vest in winter.

 

37. [h]

Hello! Here’s Henry the Happy Hippopotamus.

 

38. [tw]

Twelve twins twirled twelve twigs.

 

 

39. All sounds

Yellow butter, purple jelly, red jam, brown bread.

Spread it thick, say it quick.

Yellow butter, purple jelly, red jam, brown bread.

Spread it thicker, say it quicker.

Yellow butter, purple jelly, red jam, brown bread.

Now repeat it while you eat it.

 

§ 4. Short children`s Rhymes

 

One, two, three,

One, two, three,

The cats in the cupboard

And she can`t see.

 

One, one, one.

Little dog run.

Two, two, two.

Cat see you.

Three, three, three.

Birds on the tree.

Four, four, four.

Rats on the floor.

 

One, two, three, four,

Marry at the cottage door.

Five, six, seven, eight,

Eating cherries off a plate.

 

One, two, three,

Look out for me

For I’m coming

And I can see.

 

One, two,

What must I do?

Three, four,

Shut the door.

Five, six,

Pick up sticks.

Seven, eight,

Take the plate,

Nine, ten,

A red pen.

 

How will you count to two?

Count three just like me:

One, two, three!

Count to eight,

Don`t be late!

Count to nine,

That is fine!

And we then count to ten.

 

§ 5. Types of Questions

 

Yesterday Kelly went to London to see her friend.

Kind of question Question forming, order and intonation Examples
1.General Questions In these questions, the auxiliary verb (to do, to be, to have, will) is placed before the subject, and the main verb follows the subject, i.e., the word order is: auxiliary verb + subject + main verb (+ object + adverbial modifier). Responses to general questions can be in the form of short "Yes" or "No" answers or in the form of full statements (General questions are also called Yes / No questions or yes-no questions). General questions are pronounced with the High Rising nuclear tone (mid-high variant) preceded a High Level or Stepping Head, normal or high Prehead. Did she go to London to see her friend yesterday? (Yes, she did/No, she didn`t)   Negative-interrogative: Didn`t she go to London to see her friend yesterday?  
2. Disjunctive Questions (Tag Questions) A disjunctive question (a tag question) consists of two parts. The first part is a declarative sentence (a statement). The second part is a short general question (the tag). If the statement is affirmative, the tag is negative. If the statement is negative, the tag is affirmative. Use the Falling tone in the first part and the Rising tone (if you aren`t sure of the answer) or the Falling tone (if your purpose is to keep the conversation going on) in the second part of the tag question. Yesterday Kelly went to London to see her friend, didn`t she?
3. Alternative Questions Word order in alternative questions (questions with a choice) is the same as in general questions. The answer is usually given in full because you need to make a choice, but short responses are also possible. Use the Rising tone on the first element of the choice (before "or") and the Falling tone on the second element of the choice. Did she go to London or to Liverpool to see her friend yesterday? Did she go to London to see her friend or her teacher yesterday? Did she go to London to see her friend yesterday or two weeks ago?
4. Questions to the subject When the interrogative word "who" or "what" is the subject in the question (i.e., the question is put to the subject), the question is asked without an auxiliary verb, and the word order is that of a statement: interrogative word (i.e., the subject) + predicate (+ object + adverbial modifier). Who went to London to see a friend yesterday?
5. Special questions When the question is put to any part of the sentence, except the subject, the word order after the interrogative word (e.g., how, whom, what, when, where, why) is the same as in general questions: interrogative + auxiliary verb + subject + main verb (+ object + adverbial modifier). The answer is usually given in full, but short responses are also possible. Special questions are pronounced with the Falling tone. Why did she go to London? When did she go to London to see her friend? Where did she go to see her friend yesterday? Who(-m) did she go to London to see yesterday?

§ 6. Reading Rules

 

Типы слогов

I тип слога – открытый слог, т.е. слог, оканчивающийся на гласную. Ударная гласная читается так, как она называется в алфавите. Обычно это долгий гласный или дифтонг. Первый тип слога имеет две разновидности:

1. Абсолютно открытый слог – графический образ слога совпадает с его фонетическим образом (с его звучанием);

 

Me [ mi: ], no [ nəu ]

 

2. Условно открытый слог – графически открытый, а фонетически закрытый.

 

Note [ nəut ], Pete [ pi:t ]

II тип слога – закрытый слог. В этом типе слога за ударной буквой стоит одна или несколько любых согласных, кроме r. Гласная буква в этом типе слога передает краткий звук, и согласные буквы, стоящие перед гласной, как правило, не влияют на чтение гласной.

 

Pen [ pen ], spend [ spend ]

 

III тип слога – слог, в котором за ударной буквой следует r. Буква r не читается, она указывает на то, что предшествующая ей гласная имеет долгое чтение.

В случае с rr, как и со всякой удвоенной согласной, ударная гласная двусложного слова читается по 2 типу слога. В случае, когда за ударной гласной двусложного слова стоит согласная r, эта гласная читается по 4 типу слога:

2 тип: marry [ mærɪ ], sorry [ sɔrɪ ]

4 тип: Mary [ mɛərɪ ], during [ djuərɪŋ ]

 

IV тип слога – графически напоминает условно открытый слог. Разница между ними в том, что в 4 типе слога между ударной гласной и немым e стоит не любая согласная, а именно r.

 

ТАБЛИЦА ЧТЕНИЯ ГЛАСНЫХ БУКВ ПОД УДАРЕНИЕМ

 

Тип слога   Буквы Алфавитное чтение Краткое чтение Чтение гласной в сочетании
I тип открытый слог II тип закрытый слог III тип гласная + r IV тип гласная + r + e
a [ eɪ ] name lake   [ æ ] flag back [ ɑ: ] part car [ ɛə ] hare care Искл: are [ ɑ: ]
o [ əu ] rose go [ ɔ ] stop dog [ ɔ: ] sport fork [ ɔ: ] store more
e [ i: ] Pete be [ e ] pet ten [ ə: ] Bert per [ ɪə ] here mere Искл: there [ ðɛə ], where [ wɛə ], were [ wə: ]
u [ ju: ] music cube [ ʌ ] bus cut [ ə: ] fur turn [ juə ] pure cure Искл: sure [ ʃuə ]
i   y   [ aɪ ]   type Mike time   [ ɪ ]   Syd pin myth thick   [ ə: ]   sir girl   [ aɪə ]   fire tyre hire  

 

Note:

· После звуков [ r ],[ l ], [ ʤ ] буква u читается как [ u: ]: rule [ ru:l ], plume [ plu:m ], June [ ju:n ].

· После звуков [ ʃ ], [ ʤ ], [ r ] и сочетания букв согл. + lбуква u читается как [ uə ]: sure [ ʃuə ], jury [ ʤuərɪ ], rural [ ruərəl ], plural [ pluərəl ].

 

1. Practise the following words observing the rules of reading of the stressed syllables:

 

I тип слога: be, bede, he, we, me, dene, eve, Pete, mete, ice, pile, mine, fine, vine, size, kite, nine, line, like, time, style, my, type, bike, time, style, pine, make, pale, table, wake, Jane, game, file, take, plate, name, late, face, date, cake, same, lane, fate, dine, five, stale, note, lone, code, tone, cope, pope, bone, rose, nose, those, go, stone, rosy, ripe, hate, hide, tide, cone, close, lame, gave, theme, spoke, no, home, so, pipe, raze, cube, mute, cute, use, nude, rude, pupil, crude, kite, nice, by, zone, smoke, tube, duty, ruler, June, July.

 

II тип слога: tell, bed, Ted, pen, Ben, ten, better, tent, dent, end, men, dell, bent, shelf, dress, nest, wet, tremble, dense, bend, send, Peg, Meg, Brett, sit, miss, fill, thick, pin, hid, mist, fix, kitchen, spring, winter, myth, test, spell, then, bid, did, pit, lend, pep, ebb, ill, milk, little, middle, Kitty, hand, hat, flat, stand, lamp, map, apple, bad, glad, Ann, Sam, bet, sad, fit, film, ban, fat, land, vet, sat, tilt, pet, tin, slip, lot, nod, cot, dot, sock, hot, doll, hop, stop, box, got, from, that, fine, red, risk, rest, help, chick, set, let, pot, best, tops, long, block, cod, mock, neck, cell, less, depth, self, clock, dog, bottle, not, off, cross, shop, back, sack, tip, stamp, plot, bat, mad, cup, nut, plus, brush, sum, dust, run, pull, bull, full, up, much, number, duster, hundred, Sunday, put, push, null, gull, must, club, duck, buck, leg, left, bag, cap, cock, land, man.

 

III тип слога:arm, large, March, park, farm, cart, hard, bar, yard, charm, harm, dark, star, bard, yarn, scarf, form, short, corner, cord, fork, port, sport, born, sort, forty, for, lord, pork, morn, yore, York, morning, or, term, her, serve, perk, herb, herd, nerve, hers, serf, terse, ferm, ferny, Bern, berth, mercy, girl, third, shirt, skirt, thirty, Byrd, turn, fir, whirl, bird, birth, sir, first, dirty, Thursday, curtain, curl, curt, curb, lurch, church, spur, nurse, curd, curdle, burst, purse, hurt, turtle, fur, burn, art, car, star, torn, perm, urn, firm, surf, surge, syrtis, purl.

 

IV тип слога:care, stare, large, flare, fare, share, rare, hare, blare, spare, mare, scare, square, bare, prepare, score, more, store, core, ore, before, shore, explore, bore, pore, chore, fore, sore, horde, here, sphere, were, where, there, cere, fere, mere, sere, fire, mire, entire, shire, tyre, tyrant, desire, require, tired, wire, lyre, hire, dire, gyre, pyre, ire, cure, during, curious, durable, lure, endure, secure, pure, mure, hare, glare, severe, sphere, stare, fire, cure, tire, lure.

 

2. Divide the words into two groups according to the type of reading of the stressed vowel:

 

Plate, name, bag, take, man, glad, late, date, hat, hand, me, men, nest, wet, dene, eve, best, we, pets, Pete, dense, kite, nine, milk, my, by, middle, five, type, time, little, myth, like, line, best, code, nod, tops, sent, spoke, sit, lame, back, gave, tide, late, type, mole, plot, pin, land, fate, stamp, run, mute, bull, true, hid, hate, like, sun, pull, tune, duty.

3. Divide the words into four groups according to the type of reading of the stressed vowel:

Silk, pale, turn, glad, wife, part, scare, neck, mere, eve, term, time, stick, fire, simple, try, tyre, box, smoke, tube, pure, cure, run, nose, stop, or, large, fare, put, June, blue, far, tram, fate, fat, Pete, pet, pert, here, style, gypsy.

Wh, wr

· В сочетании wr буква w не читается: writer [ ˈraɪtə ];

· В сочетании wh читается только первая буква w: white [ waɪt ]. Но перед буквой o, наоборот, читается только вторая буква h: who [ hu: ], whole [ həʊl ], whose [hu:z ].

 

14. Read the following words observing the rules of reading:

 

When, whom, why, what, whose, which, whole, white, whale, wheat, whether, whip, where, wreck, write, wrap, writer, wrinkle, wry, Rhine, rhyme, rhythm, rhombus, wrist, wretch, writ, wrap, wrong, wrack, wraith, wrangle, wreath, wreathe, wren, wrench, wrest, wrestle, wrick, wriggle, wright, wring, wrote, whine, wheel, whim.

 

Ch

 

Сочетание ch читается:

 

· как [ tʃ ] в словах английского происхождения: chess [ tʃes ];

· как [ k ] в словах греческого происхождения: architect [ ˈa:kitəkt ];

· как [ ʃ ] в словах французского происхождения: machine [ məˈʃi:n ].

 

15. Read the following words observing the rules of reading:

 

Chrome, chord, chordal, choristic character, echo, epoch, hi-tech, technical, architect, such, chess, match, chin, China, chill, chips, chops, chinch, chic, chemist, technical, scheme, school, chalk, teach, speech, achieve, child.

 

Sh, ph

 

· Сочетание sh читается [ ʃ ]: she [ ʃi: ];

· Сочетание ph обычно встречается в словах греческого произношения и читается [ f ]: phone [ fəυn ].

16. Read the following words observing the rules of reading:

 

Phone, phrase, photo, phase, physics, phoney, photo, phantom, pharmacy, phasic, phial, phlox, phosphor, photon, typhus, shell, fish, shelf, shin, fresh, shift, shim.

 

Ng, nk, kn

 

· Буквосочетание ng читается как звук [ŋ]: thing [θiŋ];

· Буквосочетание nk читается как звук [ŋk]: ink [iŋk];

· В сочетании kn в начале слова буква k не произносится: know [ nəʊ ];

 

17. Read the following words observing the rules of reading:

 

Strong, wrong, ring, bang, gang, reading, dancing, painting, drawing, collecting, singer, thing, clinging, ringing, angry, English, England, longer, stronger, ink, sink, link, pink, drink, uncle, drunk, bank, sank, rank, wink, tank, funk, cling, clink, knit, knee, knight, knife, kneel, knock, knot, ding, dung, pang, wing, blank, fang, bong, bring, song, think, ankle, sing, ding-dong, dunk, long, lank, plank, morning, building, donkey, sitting, taking, bringing, singing, knew, knell, knack, knag, knap, knar, knave, knead, knick-knack, knob, knuckle, knur, knurl.

 

Hh, Jj

 

· Буква h в начале слова перед гласной читается как [ h ]: hat [ hæt ], he [ hi: ];

· В некоторых словах французского происхождения буква h в начале слова не читается: hour [ ˈauə ], honour [ ˈɒnə ];

· Буква j всегда читается как звук [ ʤ ]: Jane [ ʤein ], jam [ ʤæm ].

 

18. Read the following words observing the rules of reading:

 

-sure, -ture, -sion, -tion, -ous, -ance

 

· sure [ ʒə ] pleasure, leisure, measure, treasure;

· ture [ tʃə ] nature, culture, furniture, literature;

· sion [ ʃ ] pension, passion, session, tension;

· sion [ ʒn ] vision, division, decision, invasion;

· tion [ ʃ ] station, intention, nation, sensation;

 

19. Read the following words observing the rules of reading:

 

Treasure, measure, pleasure, closure, lecture, feature, future, picture, section, mention, attention, dictation, collection, condition, decoration, revolution, solution, institution, station, tradition, conversation, situation, famous, delicious, curious, annoyance, importance, expression, commission, discussion, impression, permission, division, television, collision, conclusion

 

Revision exercises

 

20. Read the words:

 

Cap, can, ice, came, nice, cat, neck, mice, fact, space, peck, pace, kin, keen, pact, face, gate, gem, gas, age, gym, page, egg, gin, game, beg, gag, jam, Jim, Jack, Jane, sky, shame, dish, she, ship, shape, shave, fish, shine, chest, chin, match, catch, fetch, chick, chill, this, that, these, than, them, theme, faith, thick, thin.

 

21. Read the words:

 

Sad, made, stale, fit, deep, film, fail, name, day, please, nice, fine, beat, Spain, pale, date, ban, tape, fate, mad, say, same, fat, Sam, lane, land, tame, faint, aim, leave, bede, deed, lean, mean, seat, line, pin, pine, man, dent, Ann, nine, bet, bed, dine, did, May, style, vet, bay, sat, tilt, file, ease, pet, tin, veal, slip, stay.

 

22. Read the words:

 

Risk, red, ripe, read, rest, rally, hand, hay, hip, hate, heap, help, hide, yes, yell, easy, daddy, yet, yelp, my, by, myth, next, text, exam, sex, six, sixty, ring, thing, fang, bring, sing, gang, sling, drink, link, clink, pink, prank, shelf, shy, sheet, dash, fish, chain, chick, change, catch, patch, mine, cage, fill, mine, Spain, miss, ice, page, back, space, click, game, gem, let, lest, gay, set, lay, say, lack, icy.

 

23. Read the words:

 

Note, lot, lone, nod, code, cot, tone, cope, dot, sock, hot, pope, doll, hop, bone, tool, moon, look, doom, took, fool, cool, shook, loop, cook, choose, hook, sport, torn, corn, gorge, cork, or, fork, lead, steel, meat, bet, lest, tip, tiny, type, myth, mice, stay, plain, star, farm, cart, cell, cod, sing, cling, bank, rank, spin.

 

24. Read the words:

 

Sit, lame, back, miss, sack, gave, tip, tide, tap, late, mad, made, nine, fill, cake, thick, bat, pin, pine, hate, act, ice, plot, face, hid, fate, stamp, spot, pile, land, mist, mole, mark, gold, cap, nose, fix, harm, merry, horn, start, form, exact, examination, exist, sixty, appendix, expend, exotic, except, exile.

25. Read the words:

 

Speed, loaf, loom, reach, rose, fill, coal, aim, cube, weave, faint, steam, tool, freeze, mutton, crystal, tense, shoot, trainer, coast, raze, float, beach, least, boot, fee, rein, toil, author, veil, toy, spoil.

A merry song, a big boat, a simple riddle, a little star, a black bag, an old goat, a good cook, a fat cock, a good accent, an old oak, a good tool, ten miles, go home, take the pen, a pale face.

26. Read the words:

 

Best, code, nod, tops, sent, bed, these, cod, sold, spoke, mock, theme, block, then, neck, cone, bold, enter, cell, centner, motor, close, nest, depth, less, self, fold, doctor.

 

27. Read the words:

 

Five, tip, bed, pipe, land, fry, rule, ton, tone, pupil, love, cut, shade, brother, bus, snack, blame, poke, found, aloud, green, town, toy, farm, yellow, glove, warm, some, won, worse, nothing, mild, world, month, company, worship, none, find, wild, ought, above, brought.

 

28. Read the words:

 

Face, eight, yet, gate, cage, engine, lock, wrong, write, job, white, gymnastics, Alice, chest, light, cheek, fish, sigh, gently, knight, bright, ginger, knock, physics, phlox, Gypsy, whole, whip, whoop, whisper.

29. Read the words:

 

Boot, prepare, ball, book, mere, meat, good, store, bread, care, palm, cure, cold, last, plant, text, exam, rather, germ, hurt, hare, grasp, bald, calf, chalk, clasp.

30. Read the words:

 

A talented dancer, a broken branch, a stone wall, a dull day, a wise man, a cheap car, a big ship, a fat sheep, a naughty girl, a lazy boy, a rare plant, a strict lady, a cold lake, a birthday present, Bertha’s basket, spare time, pure water.

 

31. Read the words:

 

Work, rare, fire, tyre, myrtle, type, myth, admire, party, parrot, lorry, caught, pillow, further, loud, accept, box, walk, pain, palm, pure, hare, share, store, here, cure, fur, term, more, firm, spare, sphere, wire, mere.

32. Read the words:

 

A spare moment, a famous painter, a rare ring, the upper teeth, the thick wood, the first letter, the next room, the full moon, the vast territory, the main street.

33. Read the words:

 

Weight, lain, coin, play, neighbour, neutral, grew, pie, pool, took, toy, autumn, how, know, narrow, true, group, bread, peace, feel, dare, mere, where, sore, ore, nasty, salt, lure, sure, jerk, jaw, fruit, foe, paw, hair, dear, chair, peer, learn, car, moor.

34. Read the words:

 

A white bear, a poor fellow, a new dish, a low couch, a big mouth, a narrow path, a broken chair, an old gypsy, chilly weather, brown bread, good maize, bitter beer, fresh air, red hair, bad flour, repeat each word, correct these mistakes, close the window, take the pill, don’t eat these peaches.

 

35. Read the words:

 

Lecture, housewife, phone, physics, big, scythe, stalk, knee, treasure, importance, decision, debtor, person, France, hotel, chemist, hedge, lodge, knuckle, bang, length, strengthen, phrase, thumb, throng, thesis, then.

 

36. Read the words:

 

Did-deed, had-hard, lick-leak, hip-heap, dear-deer, lad-lard, Mary-marry, hail-hear, sill-seal, bear-beer, lip-leap, pit-pat, hill-heal, chair-cheer, bad-bard, fill-feel, marry-merry, ship-sheep, taught-tap-tape, pen-pain-pale, fit-foot-fate, dive-dove-dame, daisy-lazy-darling.

 

37. Practise reading the following words:

 

Ben, meet, tell, be, ten, tent, bed, bede, bee, dene, bet, dent, beet, end, men, peep, dell, bent, den, mete, lend, less, best, lends, seems, send, pens, sets, beds, bees, nets, seeds, tests, deed, spell, Bess, text.

 

38. Practise reading the following words:

 

Plane, main, train, raise, may, pay, stay, map, plan, angle, battle, be, mete, eve, mean, seat, see, keen, feel, speak, wet, nest, gentle, vein, they, either, neither, seize, ate, ache, chest, cheese, please, these, veil, cent, gin, gap, gain, gypsy, giant, cyclist, them, method, theme, with, thick.

 

39. Practise reading the following words:

 

Cede, cell, theme, than, with, sheath, vein, neither, cake, sane, shape, ate, tax, cramps, aid, pain, claim, said, grey, play, day, cent, get, gift, gap, gain, gem, gin, gyps, bench, back, ache, many, east, eagle, teach, deaf, breathe, they, method, bathe.

 

40. Practise reading the following words:

 

Mule, muff, cube, grew, coat, sauce, pause, aunt, daughter, faugh, cook, thousand, sound, soul, ought, clown, blow, southern, pewter, shrewd, crowd, loaf, faint, veil, least, beach, crystal, mark, expend, exist, land, snack.

 

41. Practise reading the following words:

 

Cup, cube, but, nut, mute, butter, rung, huge, wake, weak, wig, waver, wine, wink, way, weed, wit, coin, boy, point, join, toy, noisy, joy, now, how, yellow, Moscow, window, gown, down, out, ounce, foul, noun, scout, count, seller, actor, town, term, first, bird, third, stern, turn, Byrd, furs, curl, curt, serf, curb, herb, want, wash, was, watch, watt, whale, wharf, wheat, ward, when, whether, which, whiff, whip, warn, whole, warp, why, cat, bunch, pinch, rice, will, chest, sister, frost, lick, sly, pace, lunch, rib, from, luck, cry, chat, shy, chill, sky, hale, rose, spine, till, spider, vine, sniff, maze, pan, reader.

 

42. Practise reading the following words:

 

Straight, sauce, jaundice, slaughter, awkward, payment, breadth, deign, seize, eulogy, shrewd, achieve, sprightly, oath, foe, honey, ounce, fountain, coyness, glue, pursue, bruise, hyacinth, cigar, wharf, concern, perceive, encircle, ornament, worship, burden, square, adhere, gyre, fairness, appear, yearn, rehearse, career, hoarse, devour, boor, enemy, wobble.

 

43. Practise reading the following words:

 

Occasion, debtor, doubt, ceiling, accident, ladder, fragment, gist, agent, giant, forehead, exhaust, honour, destroy, synonym, beneath, ant, leader, reason, wan, wise, exclude, complexion, yoke, chemist, bench, judge, bulgy, defence, gnat, knave, knuckle, bomb, dumb, climb, triumph, question, liquid, rhapsody, rheumatism, scene, science, ashamed, thumb, whole, also, waffle, almost, whack, quake, serene, stretcher, ceremony, medal, junction, enclose, renew, embrace, define, polite, equip, wiry, sign, typical, evoke, soldier, both, bronze, clutch, rhumb, cube, uncertain, flute, yule, fury, curious, plural, rural, jury, dyke, scythe, lymph.

 

44. Practise reading the following words:

 

Paper, table, plane, main, train, raise, may, pay, stay, said, many, map, angle, battle, plan, large, part, start, article, glass, pass, class, fast, mast, cast, grant, plant, branch, half, calf, ask, task, mask, father, bath, chance, advance, shaft, after, craft, draft, stair, hair, affair, care, fare, scare, ball, almost, install, launch, author, saw, naught, aunt, mass, war, warm, want, wash, what, captain, Monday, be, mete, eve, mean, seat, see, keen, feel, speak, wet, nest, gentle, bread, reader, ready, weather, meant, lead, her, term, serve, permanent, heard, learn, earth, near, fear, clear, engineer, cheer, mere, here, maker, partner, member, answer, market, planet, new, few, Europe, deuce, crew, grew, either, neither, vein, freight, they, eight, cheese, please, these, three, meal, pen, best, tremble, breath, veil, weight, theme, teacher, time, title, cinema, kind, find, wild, mild, light, sight, lie, stick, imagine, timber, brittle, first, bird, thirst, third, fire, mire, entire, diamond, dialogue, science, society, field, brief, friend, grieve, fine, white, child, tie, night, fight, middle, this, believe, little, sir, firm, wire, diary, tired, client, require, scientist, priest, liege, yield, twice, behind, desire, dirt, might, mirth, remind, my, try, gypsy, sorry, family, cycle, dye, style, gym, myth, baby, yet, yard, year, tyre, tyrant, myrtle, yesterday, no, open, smoke, note, cold, who, how, road, boat, load, broad, loan, oak, know, window, low, cow, now, stop, box, hospital, from, town, brown, round, sound, count, cloud, southern, sport, port, born, morning, corner, poor, floor, door, more, core, ore, bore, before, board, source, moor, brought, thought, fought, taught, our, sour, hour, doctor, voice, coil, toy, oil, boy, noise, food, root, noon, too, moon, pool, book, look, took, hook, various, work, world, warm, mother, other, both, brother, month, son, front, come, London, some, cover, oven, rode, program, hold, narrow, coal, object, mottle, bottle, block, crowd, ground, round, short, sought, course, point, avoid, roof, tooth, cook, numerous, honey, discover, flour, soap, tube, duty, nude, nuclear, put, cut, push, bus, hull, bush, number, run, full, blue, true, cruise, juice, difficult, suspend, supply, turn, curve, urgent, surface, pure, cure, sure, curious, stupid, fury, dust, must, but, muddle, dull, current, clue, burn, rule, flu, June, July, gurgle, nurse, curb, suggest, during, perfume, rude, doubt, though, high, right, through, which, white, whose, knot, chalk, walk, talk, calm, balm, palm, wrap, wrong, wry, whole, knife, size, miss, pens, sees, fits, pins, seems, lips, bay, peck, faint, mad, Spain, aim, lean, ease, neck, ice, pace, gate, gem, age, game, jam, gas, shame, chest, match, catch, fetch, faith, thick, honour, next, exam, exhibit, exhibition, fang, stronger, gang, sling, link, drink, pink, prank, sheet, lack, rank, huge, waver, wink, weed, wine, yellow, wharf, wheat, angry, quite, quick, quest, English, bathe, ceiling, question, colour, judge, grammar, station, potato, drew, blew, uncle, share, shark, square, verse, whirl, mistake, lecture, housewife, phone, physics, bigger, key, scythe, stalk, shall, knee, treasure, forehead, importance, decision, debtor, person, France, hotel, chemist, epoch, hedge, lodge, knuckle, bang, length, strengthen, phrase, thumb, throng, thesis, then, bright, whale, deceive, receive, quarter, lung, jupe, euphony, jewel, shrewd, siege, thigh, oyster, reward, severe, appear, sheer, career, coarse, luxury, luxurious, yoke, ozone, induce.

§ 7. Dialogues for intoning

 

AVISIT

 

W: Hello, Betty!

B: Good afternoon, Mr. White!

W: Is Doctor Sandford ['sænfəd] in?

B: No, he isn't. Doctor Sandford is still in the hospital.

W: Is Mrs. Sandford at home?

B: No, she isn't.Mrs. Sandford is out. She is in the park with Benny, and old Mrs. Sandfordis not well.

W: Oh, that's a pity! What's the matter?It isn't the flu,isit?

B: Oh, no,it's a bad cold, she's better today.

W: Isshe in bed?

B: No, she isn't. Come in, Mr. White, andhave a talk with Mrs. Sandford. Sheis alwaysglad to see you.

W: Perhaps, some other day,Betty!

B:I'm sosorry Mr. Sandford isn't at -home yet.

W: That's all right. Remember me to Mrs. Sandford.

B: Yes, Mr. White.

W: So long then, Betty!

B: So long, Mr. White. On Saturday Mr. Sandford is at home after four.

DOCTOR SANDFORD’S FAMILY

 

Doctor Sandford's family is not very large. There are five of them. The five members of his family are: his mother, his sister- in-law, his son Benny, his wife Helen and himself. Helen has no parents.

Old Mrs. Sandford is fifty-eight. Helen is twenty-six. Doctor Sandford is thirty. Benny is an only child and there are no boys or girls in the family for him to play with.

ABOUT BENNY'S COUSINS

"Granny, have I any cousins?"

"Yes Benny! You have two."

"Whose children are they? How old are they? Are they boys or girls?"

"Not so many questions at once, please, Benny! Your cousins are: a five-year-old boy, Georgie, and a four-year-old girl, May. They are your Aunt Emily's children. They are in Canada now with their parents: your Aunt Emily, my daughter, and her husband, Mr. Thomas Brown."

"In Canada? What's Canada, granny? Where is it?"

"Canada is a far-away country. It is in the North of America."

"In the North of America? Where is it? Is it as far as London?"

"Oh, no Benny! It's much farther." "But, granny..."

"Come along, my dearest. It's just the time for your midday milk."

 

OUR ENGLISH LESSON

 

Teacher: Good morning, all! Sit down please!I expect no oneis away?

Monitor: Nobody is. Allare present. Oh, sorry, Ann is not here.

T e а с h e r:What's up? Is she ill?

Monitor: It's flu with a hightemperature.

Teacher:That's too bad. Well now. Let's begin. We'll check our homework. Mike, will you take yourexercise-bookand come to the board?

Mike:Shall I write the words intranscription?

Teacher: Do. And you, Helen, readText 7, will you? The others shouldwrite down the mistakes if she has any. Do you follow me? Will you read a littlelouder, please.That'll do. Any mistakesnoticed?

Julia: I believe there's somepalatalization in the nouns "family" and "Benny".

Teacher:That's it. Please, Helen,pronounce the words. Now it's correct. You must work more.Pronunciation is your weak point, I'm afraid.

Helen: Shall I read the text again for the next time?

Teacher: Yes.Have another try and make your reading moredistinct. Now everybody look at the board!

Mike: Shall I read the exercise?

Teacher: Of course. (Mike reads). Is everything correct, Pete?

Pete: I think it is.

Teacher: Thank you, Mike. Clean the board, please, and go to your seat. (To the monitor). Have we got theheadphones?

Monitor: Here they are.

Teacher: Fine. Let's listen to the new text. Open your books at page 81. Will you pleaseswitch on thetape-recorder?Thank you.

 

Going to Waterloo Station

 

Characters: Same as above.

T: Do you think you can get me to Waterloo by a quarter to ten?

D: We should be O.K., sir, if the lights are with us. ... Here we are, sir. Waterloo Station. You've still got twelve minutes to spare. A pound and fifty pence, please.

T: Thank you, driver. Here you are. You can keep the change.

 

Going to Leicester Square

 

Characters: Same as above.

T: Leicester Square. I have to be there at nine fifteen. It's urgent.

D: I think we can make it, if we get a move on. ... Here we are, madam. Leicester Square. Two pounds seventy pence







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