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Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
What’S haPPenIng to oUr enVIronMent?
Цілі:вдосконалювати лексичні навички й навички вимови; вдосконалювати навички аудіювання, читання й усного мовлення; розвивати логічне мислен- ня; підвищувати загальну екологічну культуру.
Do ex. 6 (a), p. 137.
1) What is the quality of the environment in your country?
2) If the environment could speak, what would it tell us?
3) Are you environmentally friendly?
3. Reading and writing
Do ex. 6 (b), p. 137.
4. Vocabulary practice
Do ex. 1. p. 139
5. Reading and speaking
Do ex. 2, p. 139.
Listen to the text and fill in the chart.
HOW IS THE ENVIRONMENT POLLUTED?
The environment is polluted in several ways. For example, smoking,
(unnecessary) driving and factories cause a lot of pollution. Plus, there’s
acid rain, which has barely a difference from normal rain. You can’t tell un-
til you drink and get sick from it. It’s formed from all our air pollution, as
told above. Next, there’s water pollution. It’s one of our biggest problems. When you dump trash and waste in a body of water, you’re polluting the
water. The world is made up of 3 % fresh water. 1 % of that water is unpol-
luted. It may sound crazy, but that’s what happens when you build a fac- tory next to water. This may also sound weird, but there’s noise pollution. If you decide that you want to be the world’s loudest person, and you do or trigger something that is really loud, you’ve just created pollution. It’s
not nearly as bad as the other ones, but it’s not good, either. Lastly, there’s
land pollution. This is a BIG problem with humans. Every single time you litter, or pour trash on the floor, you’re polluting the environment. Land-
fills are a good example. You’re burying waste under the ground, but what
for? You’re just polluting the Earth even more! Not only does that effect
the environment, it kills animals. They dig up the trash, or find it on the
ground. If they’re hungry, they’ll probably try to eat it, choking them- selves to do so. Pollution has effected many of us as well as animals, plants,
and the Earth itself. Soon the whole world will be filled with pollution, and
you’ll know when.
Create short conversations about the environment using the vocabu- lary below and try to expand:
Pollution, waste, bag, global warming, herbicide, ivory, box, environ- ment, , elephant, gun, tree, stump, ax, book, paper, bin, windfarms, power, refrigerator, tusk, recycling.
a.What environmental issue are you concerned about?
a.And what can we do about it?
do the quiz
1) Exhaust fumes cause a lot of … , especially in big cities. a) recycling b) pollution
2) Everyone should learn to … ( = save) energy. Using lights / lamps only when needed is a good way to do this.
a) conserve b) converse
3) Nancy is … about pollution. This is why she walks to work instead of driving.
a) cornered b) concerned
4) … is much healthier than driving, and it doesn’t pollute the air. a) baking b) biking
5) David conserves water by not letting it … when he’s not using it. a) run b) jog
6) I’d like to conserve water… But I feel dirty if I don’t … three times a day!
a) bath b) shower
7) Many unethical companies … their waste into rivers. a) dump b) give
8) … , which is partly caused by exhaust fumes from cars, is a very big problem in many big cities across the world.
a) smog b) smoke
9) … rain occurs when pollution in the air is absorbed by water droplets in clouds.
a) dirty b) acid
10) Oil … pollute sea water and kill marine life.
a) soil b) spills
Key: 1 b, 2 a, 3 b, 4 b, 5 a, 6 b, 7 a, 8 a, 9 b, 10 b.
What do you think about fines or jail time for people who use too many resources? Would this increase environmental awareness and responsibi- lity? Write down your ideas to discuss them at the next lesson.
It ShoUldn’t Be deStroYed!
Цілі:вдосконалювати навички вживання Passive Voice; вдосконалювати на- вички усного мовлення, читання й письма; розвивати культуру спілкування й мовленнєву реакцію учнів; підвищувати загальну екологічну культуру, ви- ховувати зацікавленість у розширенні своїх знань.
Find the “odd one out”
There may be more than one answer. Give your reasons. A B C
1) green efficient environmentally friendly
2) to conserve to save to protect
3) to condemn to campaign to oppose
4) traffic jams motorway tolls park and ride schemes
5) nuclear energy oil pollution radioactive waste
6) to ration to share to deplete
7) sustainable biodegradable renewable
8) an oil rig a power station a recycling plant
1) What do you think about fines or jail time for people who use too many
2) Would this increase environmental awareness and responsibility?
Discuss your ideas. (Homework)
Do ex. 3, p. 140.
5. Reading and speaking
Do ex. 4, p. 141.
6. Grammar practice
Do ex. 1, p. 142.
Do ex. 2, p. 142.
Make up sentences in Passive using the following words:
Recycle, spray, generate, bird, windmill, trash can, oil, ivory, crops,
tanker, tusks, bin, factory, trees, paper, shoot, pollution, elephants, toxic
waste, oil spills, pesticides, power, spill, pollute, kill, throw.
Do ex. 3, p. 142.
10. Grammar practice
Do ex. 4, p. 143.
Write the sentence in the passive if possible.
1) Scientists observed the tigers for six days.
2) Scientists are investigating the possibility of life on other planets.
When we walked into the classroom, the teacher had already given the assignment.
Some teachers cleaned up the teachers’ room.
I think the students will have drunk most of the coffee by the time we arrive.
People believe that San Francisco is a warm city.
…made the coffee.
…’s cat broke the vase.
Everyone thinks that San Francisco is the most beautiful city in the
Our findings will intrigue the world. Someone will tell us by this time next week. Many people visit Disneyland every year. Someone has washed the dishes.
Someone poisoned … ’s dinner. What happened to you last night?
John needs to have someone fix his car.
… wants to have someone clean her house.
Discuss any questions you like.
Who do you think is more responsible for pollution, individual people or the government? Explain.
What is the most important issue facing the environment today?
Do you know about any anti-pollution programs in your community? What about programs in your native country?
Do you usually drink bottled water? Why or Why not?
If you could choose one alternative energy source to develop which one would you choose? Why?
Are there litter laws where you live? If so, what is the penalty for lit- tering?
Do you think cars should be banned from city centers?
Do you think people should recycle newspapers? Why or why not? Do you think there are lessons to learn from nature?
How has the world changed since you were a child? (Technology, values, environment, health)
How often is garbage collected in your neighborhood?
Do ex. 5, p. 143.
Цілі:формувати навички вживання нових лексичних одиниць; вдосконалю- вати навички читання, аудіювання й усного монологічного мовлення; розви- вати пізнавальні інтереси учнів; підвищувати загальну екологічну культуру, виховувати зацікавленість у розширенні своїх знань.
Do ex. 1, p. 144.
Do ex. 2, p. 144.
Listen to the interview and do the tasks.
David talks about how deforestation and the problems it causes.
S h i r l e y. Hi, David. How are you?
D a v i d. I’m fine, thank you, Shirley.
S h i r l e y. So, environmental issues … we were talking about them ear- lier throughout the world, and you’re from Kenya.
D a v i d. Yes, I’m from Kenya.
S h i r l e y. So, what’s happening over there?
D a v i d. One of the environmental issues we are having is deforestation,
which is really affecting both the wild animals and people living around the forest and, you know, the environment in general.
S h i r l e y. So, what’s actually happening to the people that… for exam-
ple the people who actually live around the forest area?
D a v i d. Cause you know, when you tend to interfere and come in be-
tween the wild animal’s habitat and things like that, you somehow create
like an imbalance in between the people and the animals and sometimes it’s
not a really nice thing cause animals tend to come close to where people live
instead of living in their own habitat, which is a really bad thing.
S h i r l e y. So, are they like attacking people … or?
D a v i d. They really don’t attack but it’s not a really nice picture or
scene to know that you’re vulnerable at any time.
S h i r l e y. What about livestock of the people that are close to forest
D a v i d. You know, that’s one of the things that are in danger cause,
you know, if wild animals come to where people live, and they have live-
stock, probably they’ll want to be eaten.
S h i r l e y. So, what’s actually causing the deforestation?
D a v i d : People are trying to burn charcoal, so that they can get, they’re trying to burn the trees so that they can get charcoal and sell cause
as you know everyone is not living to the living standard that they’re sup-
posed to be living, and they’re trying in every way to earn an extra dime to support their families, so they turn to deforestation and the cutting down
of trees, and this has been one of major causes of deforestation cause when
you’re trying to get charcoal and sell, you have to cut a tree and that results
to deforestation and other causes that come along with deforestation and
like soil erosion. things like that.
S h i r l e y. So what’s being done to try and remedy this, or to try and counterbalance the effect?
D a v i d. The activist groups that are coming together like … you all know the Nobel Prize winner Wangari Maathai.
S h i r l e y. Yes.
D a v i d. She has her own green belt movement in Kenya. She’s been for so long trying to discourage people and educate people in what deforesta- tion does to the country and how it effects people and the environment in general.
Fill in the gaps.
vulnerable living standard extra dime support discourage
1) Do you work now or do your parents … you?
2) They want to buy a house so they are saving any … they can.
3) Please try to … your brother from smoking.
4) The … is very high in most of Europe.
5) Babies are more … to sickness.
Answer the following questions about the interview.
1) What is deforestation affecting in Kenya?
a) People b) Animals c) Both
2) What is the imbalance?
a) Animals living near people b) People hunting animals c) More animals than people
3) What do the animals tend to attack?
a) People b) Livestock c) Both
4) Why are the people cutting the trees?
a) To gain farmland b) To make charcoal c) To make houses
5) Who is trying to remedy the situation?
a) Local activists b) A Nobel Prize winner c) Both
Key: 1 c, 2 a, 3 b, 4 b, 5 c.
Do ex. 4, p. 145.
he government or the people bear the brunt for environmental
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