ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Техника нижней прямой подачи мяча.
Франко-прусская война (причины и последствия)
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Смысловое и механическое запоминание, их место и роль в усвоении знаний
Коммуникативные барьеры и пути их преодоления
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Образцы текста публицистического стиля
Четыре типа изменения баланса
Задачи с ответами для Всероссийской олимпиады по праву
ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?
Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Союзы в условных придаточных предложениях
Основными союзами условных предложений являются:
If you wait for me, we shall Если вы подождете меня, мы
go there together. пойдем туда вместе.
2) unless -если ...не
Не will not finish his Он не закончит свою работу
work in time вовремя, если вы
unless you help him. ему не поможете.
3) provided (providing) - (при условии) если
We shall start out at 7 Мы выйдем точно в 7 часов,
sharp, provided every- (при условии) что все
body comes in time. соберутся вовремя.
ПЕРВЫЙ ГОД ОБУЧЕНИЯ
Упражнение 1. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Indefinite.
(USUALLY) 1. My sister (to get) up at eight o'clock. 2. She (to be) a school-girl. She (to -go) to school in the afternoon. 3. Jane (to be) fond of sports. She (to do) her morning exercises every day. 4. For breakfast she (to have) two eggs, a sandwich and a cup of tea. 5. After breakfast she (to go) to school. 6. It (to take) him two hours to do his homework. 7. She (to speak) French well. 8. My working day (to begin) at seven o'clock. I (to get) up, (to switch) on the radio and (to do) my morning exercises. It (to take) me fifteen minutes. At half past seven we (to have) breakfast. My father and I (to leave) home at eight o'clock. He (to take) a bus to his factory. My mother (to be) a doctor, she (to leave) home at nine o'clock. In the evening we (to gather) in the living-room. We (to watch) TV and (to talk).
Упражнение 2. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Present Indefinite.
(ОБЫЧНО) 1. Я работаю. 2. Мы работаем. 3. Они не работают. 4. Вы работаете? - Да. 5. Он работает? - Нет. Он учится. 6. Мой брат не учится. Он работает. 7. Моя сестра не читает книг. 8. Наша бабушка любит спать на диване. 9. Вы любите отдыхать в кресле? 10. Мы едим и пьем в кухне. 11. Мой брат не любит читать газеты. 12. Мы спим в спальне. 13. Мой брат спит на диване в жилой комнате. 14. Моя сестра одевается перед зеркалом. 15. Мой дядя пишет книги. 16. Мы пишем упражнения в школе.
Упражнение 3. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Present Indefinite.
1. Когда вы встаете? - Я встаю без четверти семь. 2. Когда встает твой брат? - Он встает без двадцати восемь А твоя сестра тоже встает без двадцати восемь? - Нет. Мой брат ходит в школу, а моя сестра не ходит в школу. Она еще не ученица. Она встает в девять часов. 3. Мой брат работает в больнице. Он врач. Он встает двадцать минут восьмого. Он работает утром и днем. Вечером он не работает. Вечером он отдыхает. 4. Твоя сестра говорит по-французски? - Нет. Она говорит по-немецки, а ее муж говорит по-английски.
Упражнение 4. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Present Indefinite.
Мой дядя инженер. Он очень занят. Его рабочий день начинается рано утром. Он встает в семь часов. Он умывается, одевается и завтракает. После завтрака он идет на работу. Он работает в институте. Он любит свою работу. Он женат. Его жена врач. Она работает в больнице. Вечером она изучает французский язык. Она посещает курсы французского языка. Мой дядя не говорит по-французски. Он говорит по-русски и по-немецки. Он изучает английский язык. Вечером он посещает курсы английского языка. Сын моего дяди ученик. Он ходит в школу. В школе он изучает английский язык.
Упражнение 5. Исправьте предложения.
Пример: The sun rises in the West.
The sun doesn't rise in the West. The sun rises in the East.
1. Mice catch cats.
2. Тhe Earth goes round the Moon.
3. The river Volga flows into the Black Sea.
4. Patients look after nurses in hospitals.
5. Water boils at 50 degrees Сеntigrаdе.
6. Indians live in Scotland.
7. Carpenters make things from metal.
8. Our city stands on the river Thames.
9. It often rains in Africa.
10. Tigers eat grass.
11. Our group studies Chinese.
12. Our classes begin at 8 а.m. еvеrу day.
Упражнение 6. Составьте вопросы и ответьте на них.
Пример: study English / study French
Does Ann study English оr French?
She studies English.
1. like pop music / jazz (you)
2. get up at 7 / 8 о' сlock (you mother)
3. go to the pictures often / once а month (your friends)
4. watch ТV еvеrу evening / at weekends (your family)
5. live in the centre of the city / in а new district (your boy-friend)
6. borrow books from the University library / the local library (you)
7. write dictations еvеrу week / onсе а month (pupils)
8. 1ike skiing / skating better (you)
9. make pies еvеrу day / оп Sundays (your mother)
Упражнение 7. Вставьте вместо пропусков do или does.
1. She (not) study Japanese. 2 .... your father smoke? 3 You (not) like to соmе home late, ... you? 4 .... they like their new flat? 5. ... you promise to help me? 6. My grandmother (not) work now. ... she keep house? 7. ... you often go to the library? 8. I (not) know his new address. 9. They (not) visit their friends еvеrу weekend. 10 .... it often rain in Spain? 11. Your watch (not) tell the right time, ... it? 12. They (not) often go to the theatre.
Упражнение 5. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous.
(NOW) 1. The boys (to run) about in the garden. 2. I (to do) my homework. 3. John and his friends (to go) to the library. 4. Ann (to sit) at her desk. She (to study) geography. 5. A young man (to stand) at. the window. He (to smoke) a cigarette. 6. The old man (to walk) about the room. 7. The dog (to lie) on the floor. 8. You (to have) a break? 9. What language you (to study)? 10. Who (to lie) on the sofa? 11. What they (to talk) about? 12. It still (to rain).
Упражнение 8. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous.
(СЕЙЧАС ) 1. Я читаю. 2. Он не пишет. 3 . Мы не работаем. 4. Вы читаете? 5. Он спит? 6. Коля и Миша играют в футбол. 7. Катя играет на рояле. 8. Она не поет. 9. Моя сестра спит. 10. Папа пьет чай? 11. Твои родители пьют чай? 12. Я не сплю. 13. Она сидит за столом. 14. Мы делаем упражнение. 15. Мы не купаемся. 16. Они играют во дворе? 17. Нина и Аня моют пол. 18. Коля помогает маме. 19. Ты помогаешь папе? 20. Моя сестра читает интересную книгу. 21. Они идут в школу. 21. Вы идете в школу? 22. Он работает? 23 . Твоя бабушка идет в магазин? 24. Он покупает конфеты. 25. Что делает твоя сестра? 26. Где играют дети? 27. Почему ты смеешься? 28. Куда они идут? 29. Что несут эти мальчики?
Упражнение 9. Выполните по образцу.
1. A pretty girl (cross) the street at the crossroads.
A pretty girl is crossing the street at the crossroads.
2. An elderly woman in a pink suit (wait) for a bus at the bus stop.
3. Two boys (go) along the street and (eat) ice cream.
4. A street musician (play) the violin.
5. He (wear) sunglasses.
6. A tall woman and a short man (sit) on a bench and (talk).
7. A stout man in a hat (smoke) a cigar.
8. A dark-haired woman (walk) with a poodle (пудель).
9. The poodle (bark — лаять) at a passer-by.
10. A policeman (explain) something to two tourists.
11. They (carry) big umbrellas and cameras.
12. A bald man (stand) on the corner and (read) a newspaper.
13. A woman (drive) a car and (talk) on the phone.
Упражнение 10.Употребите глаголы в Present Indefinite или в Present Continuous.
Пример: I can't afford that dress. It (cost) costs too much.
1. Look, It (begin)…to rain. Unfortunately, I (have, not)…my umbrella with me. Tom is lucky. He (wear) … a raincoat.
2. I (own, not)… an umbrella. I (wear) … a waterproof hat on rainy days.
3. Right now I (look) … around the classroom. Yoko (write) … in her book. Carlos (bite) … his pencil. Noll (scratch) … his head. Ahmed (stare) … out the window. He (seem) … to be daydreaming, but perhaps he (think) … hard about verb tenses.
4. There's a book on my desk, but it (belong, not) … to me.
5. Dennis (fix) … the roof of his house today, and he (need) … some help. Can you help him?
6. Barbara (tutor, often) … other students in her math class. This afternoon she (help) … Steve with his math assignment because he (understand, not) … the material they (work) … on in their class this week.
7. Right now I (look) … at Janet. She (look) … angry. I wonder what's the matter. She (have) … a frown on her face. She (have, not) … any fun right now.
A: Who is that woman who (stand) … next to the window?
B: Which woman? (Talk, you) … about the woman who (wear) … the blue and gold dress?
A: No, I (talk, not) about her. I (mean) … the woman who (wear) … the blue suit.
B: Oh. I (know, not) … I (recognize, not) …her.
A: Close your eyes. Now listen carefully. What (hear, you) …? What (do, I) …?
B: I (believe) … you (rub) … the top of your desk with your hand.
A: Close, but not exactly right. Try again. (Listen, you) … carefully?
B: Aha! You (rub) … your hands together.
Упражнение 11. Поставьте глаголы в Present Continuous Tense.
1. She (not work), she (swim) in the river. 2. He (teach) his son to ride. 3. Why Ann (not wear) her new dress? 4. The aeroplane (fly) at 2,000 metres. 5. What Tom (do) now? — He (clean) his shoes. 6. This fire (go) out. Somebody (bring) more coal? 7. It (rain)? —Yes, it (rain) very hard. You can't go out yet. 8. You (not tell) the truth.— How do you know that I (not tell) the truth? 9. Who (move) the furniture about upstairs? — It's Tom. He (paint) the front room. 10. Mrs. Jones (sweep) the steps outside her house. 11. What you (read) now?— I (read) "Crime and Punishment". 12. It's a lovely day. The sun (shine) and the birds (sing). 13. Someone (knock) at the door. You (not go) to answer it? — I (go) in a minute. I just (get) out of my bath. 14. My mother doesn't usually make cakes on Mondays, but she (make) one today as my aunt (come) to tea tomorrow. 15. Where is Tom? — He (lie) under the car. 16. Can I borrow your pen or you (use) it at the moment? 17. Why you (type) so fast? You (make) a lot of mistakes. 18. You can't see Ann because she (rest). She always rests after lunch. 19. What (make) that terrible noise? — It's the pneumatic drill. They (repair) the road. 20. The children are very quiet. Go and see what they (do). 21. I can't hear what you (say), the traffic (make) too much noise.
Упражнение 12. Определите предложения, составленные верно. Исправьте неверные.
1. Do you hear me well?
Аrе you hearing me well?
2. She is preferring apples to pears.
She prefers apples to pears.
3. I know what you mean.
I know what you are meaning.
4. The boy weighs 25 ki1os.
The bag is weighing too much.
5. We understand Spanish well.
We аrе understanding Spanish well.
6. The last bus starts in 10 minutes.
Тhe plane is arriving at 5.15 p. m.
7. We are reading the first English book in the original.
He is always reading English books in translation.
8. Do you like London?
She is liking this music.
9. She is constantly worrying about her children.
I am hating the heat.
10. She loves her baby.
She is loving her baby more than anything else.
Упражнение 13. Выберите правильную форму
1. The river Nile flows / is flowing into the Mediterranean.
2. My parents are living / live in Moscow.
3. He usually stays / is staying at the Baltimor Hotel when he is in London.
4. Don't forget to take your umbrella. It rains / is raining outside.
5. I am leaving / leave. Good night.
6. My dad is а teacher, but he doesn't work / is not working at the moment.
7. The boy does / is doing his homework now.
8. They seldom quarrel / are quarrelling.
9. The Earth moves / is moving round the Sun.
10. Now they are crossing / cross the street.
11. Birds fly / are flying to warm countries in autumn.
12. The children often laugh / are laughing at their funny little friend.
13. She always talks / is talking to him on the telephone
Упражнение 14. Поставьте глаголы, данные в скобках, в Present Indefinite или Present Continuous.
1. What's the matter? Why … the child (cry)?
2. She seldom ... home so early (come).
3. Hurry up! The train … in five minutes (start).
4. They … very well (not get on). They … always (quarrel).
5. We ... many books in the original, now we ... The Fairy Tales by Oscar Wilde (read).
6. Don't disturb her, she … at her essay (work).
7. ... you see well what ... on the stage (see, go)?
8. Where ... the chi1dren (be)? They ... computer games (play).
9. What ... you now (do)? I ... an аррlе pie (make).
10. John … , tomorrow to spend his holidays with us (come).
Упражнение 15. Ответьте на вопросы используя Present Continuous Tense.
А. 1. What song are they singing now?
2. What are you laughing at?
3. What photos is he showing?
4. Who are you looking at?
5. What are you hiding behind your back?
6. What rule is the teacher explaining now?
В. Ваш друг собирается посетить вечеринку. Расспросите его об этом, используя слова, данные в скобках.
Пример: Where / go?
Where are you going?
1. When / leave?
2. Go/ alone?
3. Go/ by car?
4. Where / stay?
5. How long / stay?
6. Meet / your friends?
7. Who / come to see off?
8. Take / much little luggage?
С. Ваш друг просит вас навестить его, но вы очень заняты. Загляните в свой ежедневник, и объясните ему, почему вы не сможете прийти.
Volleyball 7-30 р.m.
Work late (till 9 р.m.)
theatre (with mother)
meet Julia 5 р.m.
Jack: Can you come on Monday evening?
You: Sorry, I'd love to but I'm playing volleyball
Jack: What about Tuesday evening then?
You: I can't I’m afraid. I (1)………….…………………
Jack: Well, what are you doing on Wednesday evening?
Jack: I see. Well, are you free on Thursday evening?
You: I'm afraid not. (3)………………………………….
Упражнение 16. Put the verb into the most suitable form, Present Continuous or Present Indefinite, with а future meaning.
1. We (have) а party next Sunday.
2. What time (leave) the next train for Cambridge?
3. What you (do) on Monday evening?
4. The next show (start) at 7:30.
5. You know, Sarah (come) tomorrow and she (plan) to stay here for two weeks.
6. The an exhibition (open) in three days and (close) in two weeks.
7. Аlеx and Маrу (get married) next week.
8. The liner (leave) Dover at 11 а.m. Don't miss it.
9. John (meet) his boss tomorrow.
Упражнение 17. Перепишите следующий текст в прошедшем времени.
Boris wakes up when it is already quite light. He looks at his watch. It is a quarter to seven. Quick! Boris jumps out of bed and runs to the bathroom. He has just time to take a cold shower and drink a glass of tea with bread and butter. He is in a hurry to catch the eight o'clock train.
At the railway station he meets three other boys from his group. They all have small backpacks and fishing-rods.
In less than an hour they get off the train at a small station near a wood. They walk very quickly and soon find themselves on the shore of a large lake. The boys spend the whole day there fishing, boating and swimming.
They return home late at night, tired but happy.
Упражнение 18. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present или Past Indefinite.
1. I (to go) to bed at ten o'clock every day. 2. I (to go) to bed at ten o'clock yesterday. 3. My brother (to wash) his face every morning. 4. Yesterday he (to wash) his face at a quarter past seven. 5. I (not to have) history lessons every day. 6. We (not to rest) yesterday. 7. My brother (not to drink) coffee yesterday. 8. My mother always (to take) a bus to get to work, but yesterday she (not to take) a bus. Yesterday she (to walk) to her office. 9. You (to talk) to the members of your family every' day? - Yes, I .... But yesterday I (not to talk) to them: I (to be) very busy yesterday. 10. You (to come) home at six o'clock yesterday? •- No, I ... . Yesterday I (to come) home from school at half past eight. I (to be) very tired. I (to have) dinner with my family. After dinner I (to be) very thirsty. I (to drink) two cups of tea. Then I (to rest). 11. Your sister (to go) to school every day? Yes, she ....
Упражнение 19. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present или Past Indefinite.
1. My friend (to know) Spanish very well. 2. Who (to ring) you up an hour ago? 3. He (to live) on the third floor. 4. It (to take) you long to find his house yesterday? 5. When your lessons (to be) over on Monday? 6. I (to have) dinner with my family yesterday. 7. Her friends (to be) ready at five o'clock. 8. One of her brothers (to make) a tour of Europe last summer. 9. Queen Elizabeth II (to be) born in 1926. She (to become) Queen of England in 1952. 10. You always (to get) up at seven o'clock? - No, sometimes I (to get) up at half past seven.
Упражнение 20. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present, Past или Future Indefinite.
1. I (to go) to bed at ten o'clock every day. 2. I (to go) to bed at ten o'clock yesterday. 3. I (to go) to bed at ten o'clock tomorrow. 4. I (not to go) to the cinema every day. 5. I (not to go) to the cinema yesterday. 6. I (not to go) to the cinema tomorrow. 7. You (to watch) TV every day? 8. You (to watch) TV yesterday? 9. You (to watch) TV tomorrow? 10. When you (to leave) home for school every day? 11. When you (to leave) home for school yesterday? 12. When you (to leave) home for school tomorrow? 13. My brother (to go) to work every day. He (to leave) home at a quarter past eight. As the office he (to work) at (to be) near our house, he (to walk) there. He (not to take) a bus. Yesterday he (not to go) to work. Yesterday he (to get) up at nine o'clock. 14. You (to have) a PT lesson yesterday? No, I ... . 15. What you (to buy) at the shop yesterday? - I (to buy) a book. 16. Yesterday my father (not to read) newspapers because he (to be) very busy. He (to read) newspapers tomorrow.
Упражнение 21. Напишите по одному предложению, что вы делали в указанное в скобках время.
1. (at 8 o'clock yesterday evening) ...I was having dinner with some friends …
2. (at 5 o'clock last Saturday) ...I was ..
3. (at 10.15 yesterday morning)…
4. (at 4.30 this morning)…
5. (at 7.45 yesterday evening)…
6. (half an hour ago)…
Упражнение 22. Допишите предложения, используя время Past Continuous.
1. Tom burnt his hand while he ....was cooking the dinner.
2. The doorbell rang while I …
3. We saw an accident while we …
4. Mary fell asleep while she …
5. The television was on but nobody …
Упражнение 23. Поставьте глаголы в нужном времени Past Continuous или Past Indefinite.
Упражнение 24. Поставьте глаголы в правильную временную форму Past Continuous или Past Indefinite.
1. Jane ...was waiting.. (wait) for me when I...arrived... (arrive).
2. 'What … (you/do) this time yesterday?' 'I was asleep.'
3. '… (you/go) out last night?' 'No, I was too tired.'
4. 'Was Carol at the party last night?' 'Yes, she… (wear) a really nice dress.'
5. How fast … (you/drive) when the accident … (happen)?
6. John … (take) a photograph of me while I … (not/look).
7. We were in a very difficult position. We … (not/know) what to do.
8. I haven't seen Alan for ages. When I last … (see) him, he … (try) to find a job in London.
9. I … (walk) along the street when suddenly I … (hear) footsteps behind me. Somebody … (follow) me. I was frightened and I … (start) to run.
10 When I was young, I … (want) to be a bus driver.
Упражнение 25. Поставьте глаголы в правильную временную форму. Допишите окончание истории.
The sun … (shine) when John and Paul … (arrive) at the beach. It … (be) very hot and they both … (look) at the water. 'Let's go for a swim', John … (suggest). Paul … (be) first in the water. John … (swim) towards Paul when suddenly he … (see) a dark shape in the water. 'Paul!' he … (shout). Paul … (swim) and … (not hear) John. The black ship … (move) closer and closer. Paul … (turn) around and … (scream).
Упражнение 26. Закончите предложения, используя выражения, данные в скобках, поставив их в правильную временную форму: Past Continuous или Past Indefinite.
1. When I switched on the light I ... . (see а strange scene)
2. When the lecture entered the room the students ... . (talk in loud voices and laugh)
3. Не heard а strange noise when he ... . (come up to the house)
4. Nobody was listening to what he … . (say)
5. When I entered the shop the shop-girl ... . (show а nice dress to an elderly lady)
6. Мг. Brown was making а сall when his secretary ... . (bring in the morning post)
7. When she was five her mother ... . (teach her English)
8. It was already late and the people ... . (leave the party)
9. The ball was at its peak when John … .(arrive)
10. The ship ran against а rock and ... (sink) quickly.
11. It was cold and а strong wind ... . (blow from the North)
12. The patient was very ill and people ... . (talk in low voices)
Упражнение 27. Поставьте глаголы, данные в скобках, в Past Continuous или Past Indefinite.
1. I (walk) slowly down the street when somebody (call) me.
2. The woman (put) some perfume into her bag when the shop-girl (see) her.
3. The woman (not/see) that the girl (look) at her.
4. We (not/stop) to look at а shop window.
5. She (try on) а sweater while I (talk) to the manager
6. ... you still (work) when I left?
7. I (wonder) whether you could lend me some money.
8. I (break) а plate last night. I (do) the washing up when it (slip) out of my hand.
9 Fred (not/drive) very fast when the accident (happen).
10. Не (live) in Paris during his last years.
Упражнение 28. Напишите, что вы делали в указанное время вчера.
8.30 р.m.; 11.20 а.m.; 2.00 р.m.; 4. 00 р.m.;
6.00 р.m.; 10.30 р.m.; 9.00 р.m.; 12.30 р.m.;
3.15 р.m.; 4.30 р.m.; 8.20 р.m.; 11.15 р.m.
Упражнение 29. Поставьте глаголы, данные в скобках, в Past Continuous.
1. Why you (wa1k) along Oxford Street late yesterday evening?
2. I (read) in bed when I heard а scream.
3. What you (do) at this time yesterday?
4. What the girl (try on) when the fire alarm rang?
5. She (put) а pair of gloves into her bag when the shop-girl caught her at it.
6. You ( wait) for your friend when I saw you.
7. It (get) colder when the sun set.
8. The children (plау) quietly on the floor when their mother came back.
Упражнение 30. Переведите на английский язык предложения, используя время Past Indefinite или Past Continuous.
1.Хотя было уже поздно, кто-то играл на пианино в столовой. 2. Они редко выходили куда-нибудь по воскресеньям. 3. Она говорила по телефону, когда я вошла в комнату. 4. Он очень много работал в прошлом году. 5. Какие документы он просматривал, когда вы вошли в кабинет? 6. Где вы учили иностранные языки? 7. О чем мы говорили, когда она прервала нас? 8. Вчера он все утро играл в гольф. 9. Я смотрела интересный детектив по телевизору, когда зазвенел телефон. 10. Он пытался узнать мелодию, которую она играла.
Упражнение 31. Поставьте глаголы, данные в скобках в Present Perfect.
1. I (not get) the grant this year.
2. The settlers (leave) the bay forever.
3. Не (not answer) my letter yet.
4. You ever (eat) caviar?
5. She recently (become) а student.
6. They (travel) all over the world.
7. How long you (be) here?
8. I saw her in May but I (not see) her this month.
9. My friend (buy) а new car.
10. I (lose) mу gloves.
11. I never (ride) а camel.
12. They never (behave) like this before.
Упражнение 32. Дайте положительный ответ, используя глаголы, данные в скобках.
Пример: Are the rooms clean? (do)
Yes, Mother has done them.
1. Does she know the song? (learn)
2. Is breakfast ready? (cook)
3. Do you know how tasty the pie is? (eat)
4. Is she at home? (come)
5. Are the papers ready? (type)
6. Do you know the melody? (hear many times)
7. Can you speak on the subject? (read about it)
8. Is Ann on holiday? (go to Italy)
9. Are you ready with the report? (write it)
10. Can you do this work? (finish it)
Упражнение 33. Вставьте предлоги since или for в следующие предложения.
Пример: Where is Kate? Oh, she's been in London since 1993.
1. I’ve known him ... а long time. 2. We've been on holiday ... three weeks. З. He's been а student … four years. 4. She hasn't been to work … July. 5. She has been ill ... а fortnight. 6. They have been divorced ... last year. 7. We have been very busy … Christmas. 8. My grandmother has been а pensioner ... five years. 9. Не has been away .... а month.
Упражнение 34. Дайте отрицательные ответы, используя слова в скобках.
Пример: When did you see her last? (since autumn)
I haven't seen her since autumn.
1. When did it rain last? (since September)
2. When did you last eat caviar? (for ages)
3. When did you play chess last? (for а long time)
4. When did he last write to you? (since last summer)
5. When did you last go to Madrid? (never)
6. When did you last ride а horse? (for two months)
7. When did you last visit her? (since last month)
8. When did your boy-friend give you а present last? (since my birthday)
9. When did you buy fruits last? (for two days)
10. When did you speak to your German friends on the telephone last? (since New Year)
Упражнение 35. Вставьте already, ever, yet, just в предложения.
1. Have you … been to South Africa? 2. Have you ... finished writing your essay or did you finish it earlier? - I haven't finished it ... . 3. Shall I pay the waiter? - No, I’ve ... paid the bill. 4. Have you … spoken to а famous person? 5. Ann, lay the table. I’ve ... cooked dinner. 6. They don't know what the problem is. They have ... arrived. 7. Is it а good film? - Yes, it's the best I have … seen. 8. The post hasn’t come... . 9. She has ... explained the situation to me 10. He hasn't invited me to the party ... . 11. Nobody has found the lost city of Atlantis …
Упражнение 36. Ответьте по образцу на следующие приказы и просьбы.
Пример: Wi1l you make some sandwiches, please?
But I have already made them.
1. Do the flat, will you? 2. Will you sweep the floor, please? З. Please, give Peter this dictionary. 4. Will you send а telegram to Маrу, please? 5. Write them а letter at once, please! 6. Go and tell Mother everything. 7. Will you show the children your new slides, please? 8. Make fresh tea, please! 9. Bring some more bread from the kitchen, please! 10. Read this article by all means. 11. Do exercise 5, please. 12. Will you wash up the dishes, please!
Упражнение 37. Поставьте глаголы, данные в скобках, в Present Indefinite или Present Perfect.
1. I can't speak about the book. I (not read) it yet.
2. Every day I (wind up) my watch at 7 o'clock in the morning.
З. It's Friday. ... you (see) him this week?
4. Students usually (buy) books at the House of Books.
5. It's а pity, but I (not buy) this dictionary yet.
6. As а rule we (do) many exercise in class.
7. He (tell) this joke many times.
8. Something (go) wrong with my watch.
9. I already (translate) these sentences into French.
10. They (have) their English many hours а week.
11. She (work) much and usually (get) many good marks.
12. We (buy) а new ТV set this year
Упражнение 38. Переведите на английский язык, используя время Present Perfect.
1. Вы когда-нибудь были в Лондоне? 2. Он когда-нибудь рассказывал вам о своей жене? 3. Они когда-нибудь ссорились? 4. Вы когда-нибудь болели гриппом? 5. Он когда-нибудь дарил вам цветы? 6. Вы когда-нибудь летали на Дальний Восток? 7. Вы когда-нибудь видели такую красивую девушку? 8. Вы когда-нибудь учили французский? 9. Вы когда-нибудь пробовали спаржу (asparagus)? 10. Вы были влюблены когда-нибудь?
Упражнение 39. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Indefinite.
1. We (to travel) around Europe last year. 2. My father knows so much because he (to travel) a lot. 3. I (to see) Pete today. 4. She (to see) this film last Sunday. 5. Alex (to meet) his friend two hours ago. 6. I just (to meet) our teacher. 7. The children already (to decide) what to do with the books. 8. Yesterday they (to decide) to help their grandmother. 9. Helen speaks French so well because she (to live) in France. 10. She (to live) there last year. 11. The rain (to stop) and the sun is shining in the sky again. 12. The rain (to stop) half an hour ago. 13. Mary (to buy) a new hat. 14. I (to buy) a pair of gloves yesterday. 15. The wind (to blow) off the man's hat, and he cannot catch it. 16. The weather (to change), and we can go for a walk. 17. The wind (to change) in the morning.
Упражнение 40. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Indefinite.
1. I already (to do) my homework. Now I can go for a walk. 2. I (to do) my homework yesterday. 3. He just (to come) home. 4. He (to come) home a minute ago. 5. Nick (to play) football yesterday. 6. She already (to come) from school. Now she is doing her homework. 7. I (to read) this book last year. 8. I (to read) this book this year. 9. I never (to be) to Washington. 10. You ever (to be) to New York? 11. You ever (to see) the eruption of a volcano? 12. I (not yet to eat) today. 13. He (not to eat) yesterday. 14. You (to play) the piano yesterday? 15. You (to play) the piano today? 16. What you (to prepare) for today? 17. Look at this bird-house. Mike (to make) it himself. He (to make) it last Sunday. 18. Where you (to put) my pen? I cannot find it. 19. You (to see) Mary today? 20. When you (to see) Mary? - I (to see) her last week. 21. Your mother (to promise) to take you to the theatre? 22. Look at my new dress! I (to make) it myself. 23. He is not at school today, he (to fall) ill. - When he (to fall) ill? - He (to fall) ill yesterday.
Упражнение 41. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Indefinite.
1. At last I (to do) all my homework: now I shall go out. 2. The building of the house (to begin) early in April. 3. The rain (to stop) but a cold wind is still blowing. 4. We already (to solve) the problem. 5. He (to come) a moment ago. 6. I never (to speak) to him. 7. He just (to finish) his work. 8. You (to make) any spelling mistakes in your dictation? 9. It (to be) very cold yesterday. 10. When you (to meet) him? 11. I (not to see) him since 1987. 12. How many mushrooms you (to gather)? 13. Where you (to put) the newspaper? I want to read it, but cannot find it anywhere. 14. The new school (to begin) working last year. 15. You (to read) all the books on this shelf? 16. I (not to see) my cousin since last year. 17. Why you (to put) these things in the wrong place? 18. Why you (to leave) the door open? You will catch cold sitting in the draught. 19. "We (not to meet) for such a long time!" said my friend. "Yes, indeed," I answered, "and we both (to grow)." 20. What books you (to read) when you (to live) in the country? 21. They (not yet to come) from the south. 22. He (to be) ill last week, but now he (to recover). 23. If everybody (to read) this new novel, let's discuss it. 24. You (to book) tickets? - Yes, I ... . I (to book) them several days ago. 25. I can hardly recognize you. I (not to see) you since you (to leave) for Moscow. And you (to change) so much.
Упражнение 42. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Indefinite.
1. Не (to be) abroad five years ago. 2. You (to be) in the Caucasus last year? 3. They (to leave) England when he (to be) still a child. 4. He (not yet to come) back. 5. He (to go) already? 6. When you (to see) him last? 7. I (not to see) him for ages. 8. His health (to improve) greatly since I (to see) him last. 9. Last night I (to feel) tired and (to go) to bed very early. 10. Where you (to spend) your holidays? 11. You ever (to spend) your holidays in the Crimea? 12. While travelling in the Crimea I (to meet) your friend. 13. I never (to visit) that place. 14. He (to visit) that place last year. 15. I just (to get) a letter from Tom. 16. You (to take) any photographs while travelling in the south?
Упражнение 43. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Perfect или Past Indefinite.
1. The sun (not to use) yet, but the sky in the east is getting lighter every minute. 2. I (to see) you walking along the street the other day with a heavy bag. 3, I (not to read) the newspaper today. 4. It is very late, and trams (to stop) running: we must find a taxi to get home. 5. How many times you (to be) to St. Petersburg? 6. At last I (to translate) this article: now I shall have a little rest. 7. We (to go) to the country yesterday, but the rain (to spoil) all the pleasure. 8. My watch was going in the morning, but now it (to stop). 9. The lecture (not yet to begin) and the students are talking in the classroom. 10. She just (to go) out. 11. She (to leave) the room a moment ago. 12. We (not yet to solve) the problem. 13. When it all (to happen)? 14. The morning was cold and rainy, but since ten o'clock the weather (to change) and now the sun is shining brightly. 15. Show me the dress which you (to make). 16. Oh, how dark it is! A large black cloud (to cover) the sky. I think it will start raining in a few minutes. 17. Oh, close the window! Look, all my papers (to fall) on the floor because of the wind. 18. When you (to open) the window? - I (to open) it ten minutes ago.
Упражнение 44. Поставьте глаголы в PAST INDEFINITE или PRESENT PERFECT.
1. I (attend, not) … any parties since I came here.
2. Al (go) … to a party at Sally's apartment last Saturday night.
3. Bill (arrive) … here three days ago.
4. Bill (be) … here since the 22nd of December.
5. Try not to be absent from class again for the rest of the term. You (miss, already) … too many classes. You (miss) … two classes just last week.
6. Last January, I (see) … snow for the first time in my life.
7. In her whole lifetime, Anna (see, never) … snow.
8. I (know) … Greg Adams for ten years.
9. So far this week, I (have) … two tests and a quiz.
10. Up to now, Professor Williams (give) … our class five tests.
Упражнение 45. Составьте вопросы для каждой ситуации, используя слова, данные в скобках.
Пример: John looks sunburnt. You ask: (you / sit in the sun?)
Have you been sitting in the sun?
1. You have just arrived to meet a friend who is waiting for you. You ask: (you / wait / long?)
2. You meet a friend in the street. His face and hands are very dirty. Yon ask: (what / you / do?)
3. A friend of yours is now living in Baker Street. You want to know 'How long...?' You ask: - (how long / you / live / in Baker Street?)
4. A friend tells you about his job - he sells computers. You want to know 'How long...?' You ask: (how long / you / sell / computers?)
Упражнение 46. Прочитайте ситуации и закончите предложения.
Пример:The rain started two hours ago. It's still raining now.
It has been raining for two hours.
1. We started waiting for the bus 20 minutes ago. We're still waiting now.
We … for 20 minutes.
2. I started Spanish classes in December. I'm still learning Spanish now.
I … since December.
3. Ann began looking for a job six months ago. She's still looking now.
… for six months.
4. Mary started working in London on 18 January. She's still working there now.
… since 18 January.
5. Years ago you started writing to a penfriend. You still write to each other regularly now.
We … for years.
Упражнение 47. Поставьте глаголы, данные в скобках, в Present Continuous (I am -ing etc.) или Present Perfect Continuous (I have been -ing etc.).
Пример: Maria has been learning (learn) English for two years.
1. Hello, Tom. I … (look) for you all morning. Where have you been?
2. Why … (you/look) at me like that? Stop it!
3. We always go to Ireland for our holidays. We … (go) there for years.
4. I … (think) about what you said and I've decided to take your advice.
5. 'Is Ann on holiday this week?' 'No, she … (work).'
6. Sarah is very tired. She…(work) very hard recently.
Упражнение 48. Прочитайте ситуации и составьте по 2 предложения к ним, используя слова в скобках.
Пример: Tom started reading a book two hours ago. He is still reading it and now he is on page 53. (read / for two hours) He has been reading for two hours (read / 53 pages so far)...He has read 53pages so far
1. Linda is from Australia. She is travelling round Europe at the moment. She began her tour three months ago. (travel / for three months) She…(visit / six countries so far)
2. Jimmy is a tennis player. He began playing tennis when he was ten years old. This year he is national champion again - for the fourth time. (win / the national championship four times). ... (play / tennis since he was ten)
3. When they left college, Mary and Sue started making films together. They still make films. (make / ten films since they left college) They … (make/films since they left college)
Упражнение 49. К каждой ситуации задайте вопрос, используя слова, данные в скобках.
Пример: You have a friend who is learning Arabic.
You ask: (how long / learn / Arabic?) ...How long have you been learning Arabic?
1. You have just arrived to meet a mend. She is waiting for you. You ask: (how long/wait?)
2. You see somebody filling by the river. You ask: (how many fish/catch?)
3. Some friends of yours are having a party next week. You ask: (how many people/invite?)
4. A friend of yours is a teacher. You ask: (how long/teach?)
5. You meet somebody who is a writer. You ask: (how many books /write?) (how long/write/books?)
6. A friend of yours is saving money to go on holiday. You ask: (how long/save?) (how much money / save?)
Упражнение 50. Поставьте глаголы, данные в скобках, в Present Perfect Indefinite (I have done etc.) или Continuous (I have been doing etc.).
Пример: Where have you been? Have you been playing (you/play) tennis?
1. Look! Somebody … (break) that window.
2. You look tired … (you/work) hard?
3. '…(you/ever/work) in a factory?' 'No, never. '
4. Jane's away on holiday.' 'Oh, is she? Where … (she/go)?
5. My brother is an actor. He … (appear) in several films.
6. 'Sorry I'm late.' That's all right. I …(not/wait) long.'
7. 'Is it still raining?' 'No, it … (stop).'
8. I …(lose) my address book … (you/see) it anywhere?
9. I … (read) the book you lent me but I … (not/finish) it yet.
10. I … (read) the book you lent me, so you can have it back now.
Упражнение 51. Определите, является ли подчеркнутая форма глагола правильной или неправильной, исправьте неправильные предложения.
1. Bob is a friend of mine. I know him very well. ...RIGHT
2. Bob is a friend of mine. I know him for a long time. ...WRONG . I have known him
3. Sue and Alan are married since July...............................................
4. The weather is awful. It's raining again..........................................
5. The weather is awful. It's raining all day........................................
6. I like your house. How long are you living there?.........................
7. Graham is working in a shop for the last few months.................
8. I'm going to Paris tomorrow. I'm staying there until next Friday
9. 'Do you still smoke?' 'No, I gave it up. I don't smoke for years.’
10. That's a very old bicycle. How long do you have it?.................
Упражнение 52. Составьте предложения, начиная с фразы I’ll и подходящего глагола.
1. I feel a bit hungry. I think ... something to eat. 2. "Have you written that letter to Jack?" - "Oh, I forgot. ... it this evening." 3. "We haven't got milk!" - "Oh, haven't we. ... and get some." 4. "Would you like tea or coffee?" - "... coffee, please." 5. It's cold here. I think ... the window. 6. It's late to telephone Jack. Well, ... him in the morning. 7. Don't cook anything for me. ... (dine out) tonight. 8. .., some sandwiches for the party. 9. I don't like this dress. ... on the green dress. 10. "Are you going to send him a postcard or a telegram?" - "... him a telegram." 11. ... everything I can to help you. 12. "... him some tea", Naomi said.
Упражнение 53. Выберите правильную временную форму глагола.
1. Jack isn't free on Saturday. He will work / is working.
2. According to the weather forecast it will snow / is snowing tomorrow.
3. I expect he will arrive / is arriving tonight.
4. I am sure she will come / is coming tonight.
5. I can't see you this evening. A friend of mine will come / is coming.
6. Don't worry about the dog. It won't hurt /isn't hurting you.
7. He says the plane will take off/ is taking off in a minute.
8. The wind is getting stronger. It will rain / is raining in the night.
9. I hope the company will leave / is leaving in a few minutes.
10. Ann thinks that they will stay / are staying at a hotel.
Упражнение 54. Закончите диалоги.
Пример: A. I've got a headache.
B. I'll get you an aspirin.
1. A. I've spent all the money.
B. I'll … …
2. A . John and Mary have just got married.
B. Have they? I'll … …
3. A. What's his telephone number?
B. Just a moment. I'll … …
4. A. We've run out of bread.
B: Don’t worry. I’ll …
5. A. You'll need some books for your essay.
B. I'll ...... library.
6. A. Now you have a flat of your own. Will you keep any pets?
B. I'll ......
7. A. I have so many things to do before my son's birthday party.
B. Don't worry, I'll ......
8.A. It's a pity you haven't seen this film.
B. I'll ......
9.A. When can you bring me the book you promised?
B. I'll ......
Упражнение 55. Составьте предложения, используя время Future Indefinite
Пример: I hope I'll have a job in 10 years' time.
1. I hope 1 / have a job in 10 years time.
2. Perhaps I / have a good job,
3. I probably / not / be very rich.
4. I / not / look the same as I do now.
5. I think I / be married.
6. I / probably / have children.
7. I / perhaps / buy a house,
8. I / spend / much time in my garden.
Упражнение 56. Ответьте на вопросы о ваших предстоящих каникулах.
1. When will you have your next holiday? 2. Will you stay in town or go anywhere? 3. Who will you go there with? 4. What are you going to do there? Relax or see the sights, or both? 5. Will you go there by train, by plane or by car? 6. Where will you stay there? 7. Where will you have your meals? 8. How much do you think you will spend on your holiday? 9. Will you buy any souvenirs for your family and friends? 10. When will you come back?
Упражнение 57. Закончите предложения фразой I'll + подходящий глагол.
Пример: I'm too tired to walk home. I think I’ll get a taxi.
1. 'It's a bit cold in this room.' 'Is it? … on the heating then.'
2. 'We haven't got any milk.' 'Oh, haven't we? … and get some.'
3. 'Do you want me to do the washing-up?' 'No,it's all right… it’
4. 'I don't know how to use this computer.' 'OK, … you.'
5. 'Would you like tea or coffee?' ' … coffee, please.'
6. 'Goodbye! Have a nice holiday.' 'Thanks … you a postcard.'
7. Thank you for lending me your camera, … it back to you on Monday, OK?
8. Are you coming with us?' 'No, I think … here.'
Упражнение 58. Прочитайте ситуации, напишите предложения, начинающиеся с фраз I think I'll... или I don't think I'll....
Пример: It's a bit cold. You decide to close the window. You say: I think I’ll close the window.
1. You are feeling tired and it's quite late. You decide to go to bed.
You say: I think…
2. A friend of yours offers you a lift in his car but you decide to walk.
You say: Thank you but…
3.You arranged to play tennis today. Now you decide that you don't want to play.
You say: I don't think…
4.You were going to go swimming. Now you decide that you don't want to go…
Упражнение 59. Выберите правильный вариант.
Пример:'Did you phone Ruth?' 'Oh no, I forgot.
I can't meet you tomorrow afternoon. I'm playing /
1. 'I meet / I'll meet you outside the hotel in half an hour, OK?' 'Yes, that's fine.'
2. 'I need some money.' 'OK, I'm lending / I'll lend you some. How much do you need?'
3. I'm having / I'll have a party next Saturday. I hope you can come.
4. 'Remember to buy a newspaper when you go out." 'OK. I don't forget/1 won't forget.'
5. What time does your train leave / will your train leave tomorrow?
6. I asked Sue what happened but she doesn't tell / won't tell me.
7. 'Are you doing / Will you do anything tomorrow evening?' 'No, I'm free. Why?'
8. I don't want to go out alone. Do you come / Will you come with me?
9. It's a secret between us. I promise I don't tell /1 won't tell anybody.
Упражнение 60. Прочитайте ситуации, напишите предложения, начинающиеся с shall I... ? или shall we... ?
Пример:You and your friend want to do something this evening but you don't know what.
You ask your friend. What shall we do this evening?
1. You try on a jacket in a shop. You are not sure whether to buy it or not.
You ask a friend for advice. … it?
2. It's Ann's birthday next week. You want to give her a present but you don't know what.
You ask a friend for advice. What…
3. You and a friend are going on holiday together but you haven't decided where.
You ask him/her…
4. You and your friend are going out. You haven't decided whether to go by car or to walk.
You ask him/her … or …
5. Your friend wants you to phone later. You don't know what time to phone.
You ask him/her…
Упражнение 61. Выберите правильную форму глагола.
Пример: Ann isn't free on Saturday.
1. I'll go / I'm going to a party tomorrow night. Would you like to come too?
2. I think Jane will get / is getting the job. She has a lot of experience.
3. 1 can't meet you this evening. A friend of mine will come / is coming to see me.
4. A: Have you decided where to go for your holidays?
B: Yes, we will go / we are going to Italy.
5. There's no need to be afraid of the dog. It won't hurt / It isn't hurting you.
Упражнение 62. Поставьте предложения в вопросительную и отрицательную формы.
1. Paul will be making a fuss about the affair. 2. Their manager will be lingering with the decision. 3. They will be having fun tomorrow afternoon. 4. All together we shall be watching a crucial football match. 5. The participants will be disputing for hours on end. 6. Stella will be pretending to be unaware of the whole business. 7. I shall be observing a unique operation from two till three o'clock tomorrow. 8. Mr. Pin will be performing a difficult music piece for the public. 9. Our relatives will be arriving very soon. 10. The idle people will be hanging around the place all day long.
Упражнение 63. Переведите на английский язык, используя время future continuous или другие временные формы.
1. Завтра в это время мы уже будем лететь в самолёте во Франкфурт. 2. Вот увидишь, я перееду в твой район, и мы будем видеться с тобой гораздо чаще. 3. Я слышала, вы едете отдыхать. Детей думаете с собой взять? 4. С двух до пяти завтра мы будем обсуждать проект нового делового центра. Позаботьтесь, пожалуйста, о кофе для гостей. 5. Во время перерыва я буду разговаривать с мистером Клайдом. Разговор важный, поэтому постарайтесь, чтобы нас никто не отвлекал. 6. Беатрис едет в Париж. Счастливая! Будет ходить по Лувру. — Да уж, конечно! Будет ходить и глазеть на витрины магазинов. 7. Я пригласила Джорджа Примроуза на вечеринку. Как думаешь, он придёт? 8. Знаю я эту Лиз. Придёт и будет молчать весь вечер, вот увидишь. 9. На следующей неделе я всё время буду готовиться к экзаменам. 10. Скоро мы все, как попугаи, начнём повторять вслед за новым начальником, что главное — это деловой энтузиазм. 11. Завтра я весь день буду тренироваться играть в сквош. А то я играю хуже всех в классе. 12. Я так сильно замёрзла. Сейчас приду домой и буду долго лежать в горячей ванне. 13. Интересно, Тим Бэрроуз возвратится в среду или нет? 14. Как мне найти мисс Пэлл? — Завтра в это время она будет играть на теннисном корте. Там Вы её и найдёте. 15. В течение часа дети будут плавать в бассейне, а потом пойдут на ланч. 16. И что, мы будем это слушать? — Да, будете. — Вы в самом деле думаете, что я буду это всё слушать?
Упражнение 64. Ответьте на следующие вопросы, используя Future Continuous Tense.
1. What will you be doing in the evening? And he? And your friend? And your sister? 2. Will your family be having supper when you come home? And his children? And your aunt? And her nephew? 3. Will you be working hard at your report next term? And they? And other students? 4. When will she be doing the washing? And Helen? And Susan? 5. Will he be working hard or having his rest at 5 o'clock? And Nick? And Pete? 6. Will they be studying German for two or three more years? And Ann?
Упражнение 65. Раскройте скобки и задайте вопросы по образцу:
Пример: You want to take your father's computer this evening, (you/use/your computer this evening?)
Will you be using your computer this evening?
1. You want to borrow your friend's tape-recorder tomorrow evening, (you/ use/your tape-recorder tomorrow evening?) 2. You want to ask your parents to post your letter, (you/pass the post office/ this evening?) 3. You want to borrow your brother's suit tomorrow evening? (you/wear/your suit tomorrow evening?)
Упражнение 66. Откройте скобки и поставьте глаголы в Future Continuous или Future Indefinite.
1. The teacher (to ask) us at the lesson. He (to ask) us the whole lesson. 2. He (to return) home on Sunday. Please, come and see us. 3. I (to read) in the library from 5 to 8 o'clock. 4. They (to go) to the South at this time tomorrow. 5. She (to become) a doctor in two years. 6. At the beginning of the lesson one of our students (to show) us his pictures.7. His daughter (to take) music lessons. 8. He (to sleep) tomorrow at 7 o'clock. 9. They (to have) coffee after dinner. 10.1 (to ring) you up at 6 o'clock the day after tomorrow. 11. He (to drive) to town at this very hour tomorrow. 12. I'll come at two o'clock. Good, I (to expect) you.
Упражнение 67. Составьте предложения, используя слова, данные в скобках.
Пример: You went to Jill's house but she wasn't there, (she / go / out) ..She had gone out.
1. You went back to your home town after many years. It wasn't the same as before. (it / change / a lot) …
2. I invited Rachel to the party but she couldn't come. (she / arrange / to do something else) …
3. You went to the cinema last night. You arrived at the cinema late. (the film / already / begin) …
4. I was very pleased to see Tim again after such a long time. (I / not / see / him for five years) …
5. I offered Sue something to eat but she wasn't hungry. (she / just / have / breakfast) …
Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-09-05; Нарушение авторского права страницы
infopedia.su Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав. Обратная связь - 22.214.171.124 (0.181 с.)