В английском сложноподчинённом предложении с придаточным дополнительным (вопрос «что?», «кто?», «чего?» и т. д.) соблюдаются правила согласования времён в главном и придаточном предложениях. Эти правила сводятся к следующему:

1. Если глагол-сказуемое главного предложения стоит в настоящем или будущем времени, то глагол- сказуемое придаточного дополнительного предложения может стоять в любой временной форме, требуемой смыслом, например: Не says you are right. – Он говорит, что ты прав. Не will tell why he was not at school yesterday. – Он скажет, почему он не был в школе вчера.

2. Если глагол-сказуемое главного предложения стоит в прошедшем времени (обычно – в Past Indefinite), то и глагол дополнительного придаточного предложения должен стоять в одном из прошедших времен, в том числе – в будущем с точки зрения прошедшего (Future in the Past): He said he would not go to school tomorrow. – Он сказал, что не пойдет в школу завтра.

При этом для обозначения действия, одновременного с действием, выраженным сказуемым главного предложения, употребляется Past Continuous (в русском языке – настоящее время) или Past Indefinite: Не told me he was preparing for his exam. – Он сказал мне, что готовится к экзамену.

Для обозначения действия, предшествующего действию, выраженному сказуемым главного предложения, обычно употребляется Past Perfect. На русский язык глагол-сказуемое придаточного в данном случае переводится глаголом в прошедшем времени: / didn't know he had left for Moscow. – Я не знал, что он уехал в Москву.

При указании определенного времени (in 1980, yesterday) предшествующее время выражается при помощи Past Indefinite. Например: / thought you were born in 1980.

Для выражения будущего времени с точки зрения прошедшего времени употребляется форма Future in the Past где вспомогательный глагол willменяется на would, которая на русский язык переводится будущим
временем: Не told me that he would meet me at the college. – Он сказал мне, что встретит меня в колледже.

Задание 11.1. Составьте предложения, используя слова из колонок.

Не thinks he would go to Moscow tomorrow.

He said that he will be an engineer.

He says he knows mathematics well.

He thought he would be a good specialist.

he has translated the text.

he had passed his exams.

he knew English well.

Задание 11.2. Поставьте глаголы в нужную временную форму, соблюдая правило согласования времен. Переведите предложения.1. I did not know that you already (to read) this book 2. He did it better than we (to expect). 3. He said that the bus (to be) here soon. 4. He told us that he (to do) this work himself 5. They decided that they (to bring) us all the books we need. 6. He said that he (can) not do it without my help. 7. I decided that next year I (to go) to the Black Sea coast. 8. It was decided that we (to begin) our work at eight o'clock. 9. I told them that I (to leave) for Minsk next day. 10. The boy did not know that he already (to receive) a good mark. 11. The students wanted to know when they (to pass) their examinations. 12. We saw that our teacher just (to go out) and he (to come back) soon. 13. He said we (may) keep the books as long as we (to like). 14. I knew that he not (to be able) to make his work in time and (to decide) to help him. 15. We understood at once that this control work (to be) a difficult one.

Задание 11.3. Прочитайте и переведите текст:


London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and commercial centre. It is one of the largest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe. Its population is about 8 million. London is situated on the river Thames. The city is very old. It has more than 20 centuries old history. Traditionally it is divided into several parts, the City, Westminster, the West End and the East. End. They are very different from each other. The City is the oldest part of London, its financial and business centre. Numerous banks, offices and firms are concentrated here. Few people live in the City but over a million come to work here. There are two places of interest in the City: St. Paul's Cathedral and the Tower of London. St. Paul's Cathedral was built in the 17th century by the architect Christopher Wren. The Tower of London was built in the 15th century. It was used as a fortress, a palace and a prison. Now it's a museum. Westminster is the aristocratic official part of Lon don. There are Buckingham Palace where the Queen lives and the Houses of Parliament along the north bank of the Thames. The clock tower of the Houses of Parliament is famous for its big hour bell known as «Big Ben». Westminster Abbey is the place where the coronation of nearly all kings and queens has taken place. Many of them are buried here
as well as some other famous people of the country. The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. The best hotels, restaurants, shops, clubs, parks and houses are situated there. There are many tourists there from different countries of the world. Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of London, it was named in the memory of Admiral Nelson's victory in the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The tall Nelson's Column stands in the middle of the square. The East End is an industrial district of London. There are many factories there. The region is densely populated by working class families.

Words: capital – столица; centre – центр; numerous – многочисленный; palace – дворец; fortress – крепость; cathedral– собор; hotel– гостиница; prison– тюрьма; clock tower – колокольня; monument – памятник; memory– память; museum– музей; residence – резиденция; official– официальный; densely – плотно; populated– населено.

Questions: 1. What is the capital of Great Britain? 2. Is London a big city? 3. What is London's population? 4. On what river does London stand? 5. Into what parts is London divided? 6. Why is the City called the business centre of London? 7. What places of interest does Westminster include? 8. Who was buried in Westminster Abbey? 9. What is the West End famous for? 10. Why is the central square in London named Trafalgar Square? 11. Who lives in the East End?


Наиболее употребительные суффиксы и префиксы существительных

Суффиксы существительных

-er/or – teacher, writer, actor, doctor; -ist– scientist, artist; -ment – movement, development, government; -ess – fortress, hostess, actress; -ian– musician, technician, politician; -ance – distance, importance, appearance; -(t)ion– revolution, translation, operation; -ity/-ty – popularity; honesty, morality, ability; -hood – childhood, neighborhood; -y– energy, assembly; -ship – friendship, leadership; -age – passage, marriage; -ism – heroism, socialism, capitalism; -ant – assistant, consultant; -ence – conference, silence, difference; -ure – culture, picture, agriculture; -ing – building, reading, meeting; -dom – freedom, kingdom, wisdom; -sion/ssion – revision, session, discussion; -ness – happiness, illness, darkness; (-s)ure – pleasure, treasure, measure.

Префиксы существительных

re- – reconstruction; со- – cooperation, coexistence; dis- – disadvantage, discomfort, distaste; in- – inaccuracy, independence; mis- – misunderstanding, misprinting, misinformation; im- – impossibility, impatience; un-– unemployment, unconcern, unreality; il- – illegality, illiteracy.

Наиболее употребительные суффиксы и префиксы глаголов

Суффиксы глаголов

-en – deepen, lighten, strengthen; -fy – classify, electrify, specify; -ize– organize, characterize, mechanize; -ate– indicate, activate, translate.

Префиксы глаголов

cо- – cooperate, coexist, collaborate; de-– decode, decompose, demobilize; dis-– disbelieve, disapprove, disappear; in- – input, inlay, incut, indraw; im- – immigrate, impart, implant; inter-– interact, interchange, interdependent; ir-– irradiate, irrigate, irritate; over-– overcome, overheat, overhear, overlook; re-– readjust, rebuild, reconstruct, rewrite; mis-– misprint, misunderstand, miscount.


Наиболее употребительные суффиксы и префиксы прилагательных

Суффиксы прилагательных

-ful – careful, beautiful, useful, powerful; -ant– distant, important, resistant; -ous– famous, dangerous, various; -ed– talented, developed, interested; -ing– interesting, disappointing; -al – natural, cultural, territorial; -ent – dependent, transparent, different; -ish – Spanish, British, boyish, Irish; -ible– possible, terrible, visible, convertible; -able– comfortable, miserable; -ic – atomic, historic, poetic, heroic; -y – rainy, busy, sunny, windy, dirty; -less– hopeless, lifeless, useless, homeless; -ary– ordinary, revolutionary, necessary; -ive – inventive, effective, impressive, detective; -ian – Russian, Canadian, Romanian.

Префиксы прилагательных

un- – unhappy, unable, uncomfortable; in- – independent, indirect, invisible; dis- – disappointing, discouraging, disconnecting; im- – impossible, imperfect, immoral, immaterial; non- – non-ferrous, non-governmental; ir- – irregular, irresponsible, irrational; post-– post-war, post-operational; inter-– interdependent, interchangeable, international; il-– illegal, illiberal, illimitable.

Задание 11.4. Прочитайте следующие существительные, укажите, от каких слов они образованы, определите суффиксы.Russian, construction, direction, concentration, collection, heroism, popularity, musician, boyhood, agreement, kingdom, drawing.

Задание 11.5. Используя известные вам суффиксы и префиксы, образуйте существительные от следующих слов и переведите их на русский язык.1. to sail, to connect, to educate, to build, to dance. 2. friend, leader, fellow. 3. dark, weak, mad, cold, bright

Задание 11.6. Образуйте прилагательные от следующих слов, используя суффиксы и префиксы, и переведите их на русский язык.Hope, truth, beauty, rain, peace, help, color, power, joy, pain, care, use



Формы страдательного залога английских глаголов образуются с помощью вспомогательного глагола to beв соответствующем времени, лице и числе и причастия II(Participle II) смыслового глагола:

Present Indefinite: The letter is written.

Past Indefinite: The letter was written.

Future Indefinite: The letter will be written.

Present Continuous: The letter is being written.

Past Continuous: The letter was being written.

Future Continuous: The letter will be being written.

Present Perfect: The letter has been written.

Past Perfect: The letter had been written.

Future Perfect: The letter will have been written.


Глагол-сказуемое в страдательном залоге показывает, что подлежащее предложения является объектом действия со стороны другого лица или предмета. Сравните: I bought a book.– Я купил книгу. The book was bought (by me). – Книга была куплена (мной).


Глаголы в страдательном залоге на русский язык переводятся:

1. глаголом быть + краткая форма причастия страдательного залога: The letter was sent yesterday. – Письмо было послано вчера.

2. глаголом с частицей -ся (-сь): This problem was discussed last week. – Эта проблема обсуждалась на прошлой неделе.

3. неопределенно-личным оборотом, т. е. глаголом в действительном залоге 3 лица множественного числа, типа «говорят», «сказали»: English is spoken in many countries. – На английском языке говорят во многих странах.

4. глаголом в действительном залоге (при наличии исполнителя действия): Pupils are taught at school by the teachers. – Учеников учат в школе учителя.

Задание 12.1. Переведите и определите залог и время сказуемого. 1. Не left for Moscow. 2. The news will be of great interest. 3. They were speaking to him. 4. She studied many subjects. 5. The film was much spoken about. 6. New subjects will be studied next year. 7. I am working now. 8. The text has been already written by them. 9. He studies at our college. 10. You are working, aren't you? 11. The text is being translated at the moment. 12. Do you work at this office? 13. When I saw him, he was going home. 14. They will have passed their exams by 3 o'clock. 15. This book was written by our teacher. 16. We will be writing our tests at 10 o'clock. 17. The work will have been done when he comes. 18. We translated this text. 19. The letter had been written before we came. 20. We will inform you. 21. These toys are made by children. 22. Does he work here? 23. Is he working now? 24. The conference will be held in May. 25. Rostov was named after Dmitry Rostovsky. 26. What are you doing here? 27. This work must be done at once. 28. You may take my book. 29. I am often asked at the lessons by the teacher.

Задание 12.2. Переведите и определите залог и время сказуемого. 1. They can be seen in our library every day. 2. The delegation was met at the airport. 3. The child was often left home alone. 4. These houses were built last year. 5. All letters had been written when we came. 6. This film is much spoken about. 7. The machine is being tested now. 8. His work has been already finished. 9. I was told to wait in the reception room. 10. Your letter will have been answered by Monday.

Задание 12.3. Раскройте скобки, поставьте глаголы в нужные формы страдательного залога.1. I'm not reading these books today. They (return) to the library. 2. The paintings (exhibit) till the end of the month. 3. Why your home task (not do)? 4. The patient (take) to the hospital today, and (operate) tomorrow morning. 5. This room (use) only on special occasions. 6. Bicycles must not (leave) here. 7. This newspaper (not read) because the pages (not cut). 8. Dictionaries may not (use) at the examination. 9. Usually the floor (sweep) every day, but it (not sweep) yesterday. 10. This book (leave) in the classroom yesterday. 11. Thousands of new houses (build) every year. 12. This room (not use) for a long time. 13. The children (take) to the circus tomorrow.


Задание 12.4. Переведите предложения на английский язык. 1. Эта книга была прочитана всеми. 2. Письмо будет отправлено завтра. 3. Ее часто спрашивают? 4. На ваш вопрос ответят завтра. 5. Текст переводился вчера с двух до трёх. 6. Работа только что закончена нами. 7. Эти книги будут использоваться до конца года. 8. Телеграмма уже получена? 9. О новой книге будут много говорить. 10. В нашем городе сейчас строится много новых зданий. 11. Ключи были утеряны вчера. 12. Мальчика возьмут в кино. 13. Вам сказали об этом?

Задание 12.5. Прочитайте и переведите текст.


The weather in England is very changeable. A fine morning can change into a wet afternoon and evening. And a nasty morning can change to a fine afternoon. That is why it is natural for the English to use the comparison «as changeable as the weather» of a person who often changes his moodor opinionabout something. «Other countries have a climate, in England we have weather». This statementis often made by the English to describe meteorologicalconditions of their country. The English also say that they have three variants of weather: when it rains in the morning, when it rains in the afternoon or when it rains all day long. The weather is the favourite conversational topic in England. When two Englishmen meet, their first words will be «How do you do?» or «How are you?». And after the reply «Very well, thank you; how are you?» the next remarkis almost certain to be about the weather. When they go abroadthe English often surprise people of other nationalitiesby this tendency to talk about the weather, a topic of conversation that other people do not find so interesting. The best time of the year in England is spring (of course, it rains in spring, too). The two worst months in Britain are January and February. They are cold, dampand unpleasant. The best place in the world then is at home by the big fire in the fireplace.Summer months are rather cold and there can be a lot of rainy days. So most people who look forward tosummer holidays, plan to go abroad in summer to France or somewhere on the Continent. The most unpleasant aspectof English weather is fogand smog.This is extremelybad in big cities and especially in London. The fog spreadseverywhere, it is in the streets and it creepsinto the houses. Cars move along slowly, but still street accidents are frequentin the fog. People cannot see each other. They creepalong the houses touching- them with their hands not to lose their way or not to be run over by a car.

Words: changeable – изменчивый, неустойчивый; wet – сырой, мокрый; nasty – мерзкий, противный; comparison – сравнение; mood – настроение; opinion – мнение; statement – утверждение; meteorological – метеорологический; remark – замечание; to go abroad – поехать за границу; damp – сырой, мокрый; nationality – национальность; fireplace – камин; to look forward to – с нетерпением ждать; the Continent – континент; aspect – аспект, сторона; fog – туман; smog (smoke + fog) – смог; extremely – чрезвычайно; to spread (spread, spread) – расстилать(ся); to creep (crept, crept) – ползти, красться; accident – несчастный случай; frequent – частый; to lose way – заблудиться; to be run over by a car – попасть под машину.

Questions: 1. Is the weather in England very changeable? 2. How often does it rain in England? 3. What do Englishmen often say to describe the weather of their country? 4. Englishmen often talk about weather. Do you find this topic of conversation interesting? 5. What is the worst time of the year in England? 6. When do Englishmen prefer to stay at home by the big fire? 7. How do the English spend their short English summer? 8. What is London smog? 9. What kind of weather do you like best of all? 10. Which do you like better: when it's cold or hot? 11. What is the weather like today? 12. What is the weather forecast for tomorrow? 13. What is the weather like in your town in winter (summer, autumn, spring)?


Модальные глаголы показывают отношение говорящего к действию, выраженному инфинитивом. Например, сравните:

You can speak English. Вы можете(умеете) говорить по-английски.

You must speak English. Вы должны говорить по-английски.

You may speak English. Вы можете говорить по-английски. (Вас поймут).

Как видим, в одном и том же предложении изменение модального глагола меняет смысл всего предложения, т. е. меняется отношение к действию, выраженному инфинитивом.


Модальные глаголы не имеют форм во всех временах, для этого употребляются их эквиваленты (заменители). Вопросительные и отрицательные предложения с модальными глаголами строятся без вспомогательных глаголов: Can you help me? Yes, I can. No, I can't. – Вы можете помочь мне? – Да. – Нет. После модальных глаголов и некоторых их эквивалентов инфинитив употребляется без частицы to.


К основным модальным относятся глаголы:

Модальный глагол саn – мочь, быть в состоянии, could – прошедшее время предполагает наличие физической, умственной и прочих возможностей, позволяющих сделать что-либо: I can swim.– Я могу(я умею) плавать. I could translate this text.– Я мог (был в состоянии) перевести этот текст.

Вежливую просьбу можно начинать с модального глагола could: Could you help me, please!He могли бы вы помочь мне, пожалуйста!

В будущем времени у глагола сап есть заменитель – конструкция to be able to (быть в состоянии что-либо сделать): I will be able to help you when I am free. – Я смогу помочь тебе, когда освобожусь.

Модальный глагол may – иметь возможность, получить разрешение (делать что-либо), прошедшее время – might: May I help you?Можно вам помочь? – Yes, you may.– Да, можно.

В будущем времени у модального глагола mayесть заменитель – конструкция to be allowed to (получить разрешение сделать что-либо): Не will be allowed to take the book. – Ему разрешат взять книгу.


Модальный глагол must – должен, обязан: You must write it down now.– Вы должны написать это сейчас.

Заменителями глагола must являются глаголы to have to иto be to, которые имеют некоторые дополнительные оттенками значения. Глаголto have to означает долженствование, вызванное обстоятельствами, вынужденную необходимость, в то время как глагол to be to– долженствование, связанное с расписанием, планом или заранее сделанной договоренностью: She had to stay at home. – Она вынуждена была (ей пришлось) остаться дома. The train was to arrive at 8 in the evening. – Поезд должен был прибыть в 8 вечера. (По расписанию).

Заменителями модального глагола mustявляются также модальные глаголы ought to, should(в значении совета, рекомендации, упрека) и will (испрашивается разрешение на совершение действия): Children ought to obey their parents. – Дети должны слушать своих родителей. You should enter the Institute. – Вам следует поступить в институт (рекомендация, совет). Will I read? Мне следует читать?

В сочетании с перфектным инфинитивом глагол shouldвыражает сожаление о невыполненном действии и переводится «следовало бы»: You should have helped them. – Вам следовало бы помочь им. (Но вы не сделали этого).

Модальный глагол would может иметь следующие значения: 1) Вежливая просьба. Would you help me? He поможете ли вы мне? 2) Повторяемость действия в прошлом. Не would often help me. – Он, бывало, часто помогал мне. 3) Стойкое нежелание совершать какие-либо действия. Не wouldn't listen to me. Он никак не хотел слушать меня

Модальный глагол need – «нужно, надо» употребляется, в основном, в отрицательных предложениях. You needn't do it now. – Вамне нужно делать это сейчас.

Задание 13.1. Переведите предложения. Проанализируйте употребление модальных глаголов в следующих предложениях.1. Who can answer my question? 2. Nobody could translate this text. 3. He ought to do this task at once. 4. Must I attend this meeting? – No, you needn't. 5. You should have shown your notes to the teacher. 6. I asked him, but he wouldn't listen to me. 7. They should visit her, she is in the hospital. 8. Last summer we would often go to the country. 9. Your son can do this work himself. 10. Would you tell me the way to the station? 11. Your friend might have informed us. 12. May I leave for a while? – Yes, you may. 13. She should be more attentive at the lessons. 14. You needn't come so early.

Задание 13.2. Переведите предложения на русский язык.1. We have to stay at home. 2. He was allowed to take this book. 3. Who is able to do this work? 4. He had to leave for Moscow earlier. 5. We are to take exams in June. 6. Am I allowed to visit you? 7. They were able to do this work in time. 8. I will be able to pass my examinations. 9. She will be allowed to watch TV. 10. I have to come in time. 11. The train is to come soon. 12. Are you able to
drive a car?

Задание 13.3. Замените модальные глаголы соответствующими эквивалентами.1. Не couldn't explain anything. 2. You must not stay here. 3. Can you swim? 4. You may take these books. 5. They can run quickly. 6. She might work in our room. 7. Who can read this text? 8. They must go there tomorrow. 9. May I go to the cinema? 10. We must meet at 7 o'clock.

Задание 13.4. Вставьте необходимые модальные глаголы. 1. I ... not go to the theatre with them last night, I ... revise the grammar rules and the words for the test. 2. My friend lives a long way from his office and ... get up early. 3. All of us ... be in time for classes. 4. When my friend has his English, he ... stay at the office after work. He (not) ... stay at the office on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday and ... get home early. 5. … you ... work hard to do well in your English? 6. «... we discuss this question now?» «No, we … We ... do it tomorrow afternoon». 7. I'm glad you ... come. 8. «... you ... come and have dinner with us tomorrow?» «I'd love to». 9. «Please send them this article ». « Oh, ... I do it now?»



Friendship plays a very important role in our life. People usually make friends when they go to the same school, work together or live nearby. It's difficult to explain how two quite different persons make friends. You can have a lot of acquaintances but only a few true friends. It depends on many things. Among them are age, social status, mutual interests and sometimes personal qualities. It is easier to make friends with persons who are much alike you, though sometimes these factors are of no importance. Now I want to tell you about people whom I consider to be my friends. One of them is Nick. He is an old friend of mine. We went to the first form together because he lived next door to me. Now he is a tall young man with dark hair, blue eyes and oval face. He is rather strong and well-built because he is a sportsman. He played volleyball well in our school team. He is going to enter the Mathematical faculty of the University this year. He was always strong in mathematics and he helped me very often with my home tasks. I think he will be able to pass his entrance examinations and become a student. My another best friend is Marina. She is a very pretty girl. She has big blue eyes, fair hair and a nice smile. She is a schoolgirl now. She studies well and she wants to become a doctor. She will try to enter the Medical Institute next year and I hope her first attempt will be successful. I'm sure she will make a good doctor. I often meet my friends. We talk about our school life and our schoolmates. I like to spend my free time with my friends.

Words: friendship – дружба; important – важный; same – тот же; nearby – поблизости; difficult – трудно; to explain – объяснять; quite – совсем, почти; a lot of – много; an acquaintance – знакомый; true – настоящий; to depend on – зависеть от; among – среди; age – возраст; social status – социальное положение; mutual – общий; person – лицо, человек; alike – похожий; though – хотя; factor – фактор; importance – важность; to consider – считать; tall – высокий; rather – довольно; to enter – поступать; attempt – попытка; successful – успешный.

Questions: 1. How important is friendship in our life? 2. When do people usually make friends? 3. What does true friendship depend on? 4. How did you get acquainted with your friends? 5. How does your friend look like? 6. Do you think that the appearance of your friend plays an important role in friendship? 7. How often do you meet with your friends? 8. Do you have any classmates whom you consider to be your friends?


Sport is very popular among people in all the countries of the world. Sport makes people healthy, keeps them fit, more organized and better disciplined. It unites people of different classes and nationalities. Many people do sports on their personal initiative. They go in for skiing, skating, table tennis, swimming, volleyball, football, basketball, body-building etc. All necessary facilities are provided for them: stadiums, sport swimming-pools, skating-rinks, football fields. But, of course, one have to pay for these services. Sport is paid much attention to in our schools and colleges. Physical training is a compulsory subject. Different sports and games are popular with my classmates. All my friends go in for different kinds of sport, such as water sports (that is swimming, sailing, rowing), gymnastics, horse-racing, wrestling, fencing, weightlifting, boxing, football, basketball, volleyball, etc. Physical training lessons at our college are held out of-doors in summer. When it is cold outside the lessons are held indoors in our college gymnasium. Professional sport is also paid much attention to in our country. In the city where I live, there are different sport societies, clubs and sport schools. Practically all kinds of sports are popular in our country, but gymnastics and tennis enjoy the greatest popularity. The most popular kinds of sports in the United States are baseball, basketball and American football. In England popular kinds of sports are golf and rugby. Englishmen like football too. It is their national kind of sports.

Words: all over the world – во всем мире; to be fond ofзд. любить; healthy – здоровый; to be fit – быть в форме; personal initiative – личная инициатива; skiing – лыжный спорт; skating – коньки; body-building – культуризм; facilities – помещения, оборудование; swimming-pool – плавательный бассейн; skating-rink – каток; attention – внимание; compulsory – обязательный; sailing – парусный спорт; rowing – гребля; wrestling – борьба; fencing – фехтование; weightlifting – штанга; out-of-doors – на воздухе; indoors – в помещении; sport societies – спортивные общества.

Questions: 1. Why do people all over the world are fond of sports and games? 2. What are summer sports and what are winter sports? 3. What kind of sports are popular with your friends? 4. Do you have to pay for sports facilities, such as stadiums, swimming pools and tennis courts? 5. What can you say about physical training lessons at your college? 6. What kinds of sport are most popular in our country? 7. What are the sports organizations in our country? 8. What are the most popular kinds of sport in America and England? 9. What other American or English kinds sports do you know? 10. Are American football and baseball popular in Russia? Why and why not?



I live in Russia. Russia is my native country. The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It occupies one seventh of the Earth's surface. It is situated both in Europe and Asia. The total area is about 17 million square kilometers. The country is washed by 12 seas and 3 oceans: the Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic oceans. Our neighbors in the south are China, Mongolia, Korea, Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan. In the west we have borders with Norway, Finland, Belarus and the Ukraine. There is no country in the world like Russia, with the steppes in the south, plains and forests in the midland, tundra and taiga in the north, highlands and deserts in the east. There is a great-number of rivers in Russia. The Volga, the longest in Europe river, flows into the Caspian Sea. The main Siberian rivers – the Ob', the Yenisey and the Lena flow from the south to the north. The Amur in the Far East flows into the Pacific ocean. The deepest lake in the world is Baikal. The water in the lake is so clear, that you can see the stones on the bottom. Because of the vast territory there are various types of climate in the country. The climate varies greatly in different regions. Russia is very rich in oil, coal, iron ore, natural gas, copper, nickel and other mineral resources. Russia is a parliamentary republic with the strong power of the President who is the head of the state. The State Duma and the Council of Federation are the legislative branch of the government. The capital of Russia is Moscow. It is the largest political, cultural and industrial centre. It is one of the eldest Russian cities. The national banner of Russia is a tricolor with white, blue and red stripes.

Words: native country – страна рождения, Родина; to occupy – занимать; surface – поверхность; highlands – возвышенности; to flow – течь; vast – обширный; copper – медь; legislative branch – законодательная ветвь (власти); national banner – государственный флаг; stripes – полосы.

Questions: 1.What is the size of Russia? 2. What oceans is Russia washed by? 2. What are the neighboring countries of Russia? 3. What are the main rivers of Russia? 4. What are the natural resources of Russia? 5. What does the national banner of Russia look like?



People in our country have the right for education. It is our Constitutional right. But it is not only a right, it is a duty, too. Every boy and every girl in Russia must go to school, that is, they must get a full secondary education. So, when they are 6 or 7 years old they begin to go to school. There are thousands of schools in Russia. There are schools of general education, where the pupils study Russian (or a native language), Literature, Mathematics, History, Biology, Music, Arts, Foreign Languages. There is also a number of specialized schools, where the pupils get deep knowledge of foreign languages, or Math’s, or Physics. After finishing 9 classes of secondary school young people can continue their education at different kinds of vocational or technical schools or colleges. They not only learn general subjects, but receive a specialty there. Having finished a secondary school, a technical school or a college young people can start working, or they may enter an Institute or a University. Professional training makes it easier to get higher education. As for high schools, there are a lot of them in our country. Some of them train teachers, others – doctors, engineers, architects, actors and so on. Many institutes have evening and extra-mural departments. That gives the students an opportunity to study at an institute without leaving their jobs.

Words: right – право; duty – обязанность; secondary – зд. среднее; deep – глубокий; vocational school – профтехучилище; general – общий; to receive – получать; training – обучение; higher – высшее; extra-mural – заочный; opportunity – возможность.

Questions: 1. Is education in our country free? 2. Is education in Russia right or duty? 3. What kind of schools are there in Russia? 4. What are the possible ways to continue education after the finishing of the secondary school? 5. What are the main types of educational institutions in our country? 6. What are the types of higher education institutions in Russia?



New York, one of the largest cities in the world, was founded three hundred years ago in the mouth of the Hudson River. The centre of New York is Manhattan Island. In 1626 it was bought from the Indians for a sum of twenty-four dollars. Today Manhattan is the centre of business and commercial life of the country. There are many skyscrapers, banks and offices of American businessmen in Manhattan. Broadway begins here, the Stock Exchange is located here. Very few people live in Manhattan, although the majority work here. Numerous bridges link Manhattan Island with the other parts of New York. New York is inhabited by people of almost all nationalities. It is even called «Modern Babylon». At the turn of the 20th century a lot of people came to the USA from different countries of the world. They entered the USA through New York – the Gateway of America. New York is one of the leading manufacturing cities in the world. The most important branches of industry are those, producing paper products, vehicles, glass, chemicals, machinery. The city traffic is very busy.

Words: mouth– устье; Stock Exchange – Нью-Йоркская фондовая биржа; majority – большинство; numerous– многочисленный; to link– соединять; to inhabit– населять: Babylon– Вавилон; vehicles– средства передвижения (автомобили и т. п.); gateway– ворота; skyscrapers– небоскребы; branches of industry– отрасли промышленности; city traffic– городской транспорт.

Questions: 1. When was New York founded? 2. What was the price of Manhattan Island in 1626? 3. What is Manhattan today? 4. Do many people live in Manhattan? 5. What is Broadway famous for? 6. Why is New York called «Modern Babylon»? 7. What are the most important branches of industry in New York?


Irregular Verbs List


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