ТОП 10:

Tropical Rainforest Destruction



ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

Course Materials

 

 

 

 

Cherkasy – 2005

МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ І НАУКИ УКРАЇНИ

ЧЕРКАСЬКИЙ НАЦІОНАЛЬНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ

імені БОГДАНА ХМЕЛЬНИЦЬКОГО

 

ОХОРОНА НАВКОЛИШНЬОГО СЕРЕДОВИЩА:

Матеріали до вивчення теми

„Людина і довкілля”

 

 

 

 

Черкаси – 2005

Охорона навколишнього середовища: Навчальний посібник для студентів філологічних спеціальностей. Укл. Л.О. Пашіс, Т.В. Криворот – Друге видання. – Черкаси: ЧНУ, 2004. – 64 с.

 

Укладачі: Л.О. Пашіс, Т.В. Криворот

Рецензенти: кандидат філологічних наук, доцент, зав. кафедри теорії та практики перекладу Черкаського державного технологічного університету Л.П. Дєгтярьова

 

кандидат філологічних наук, доцент, зав. кафедри іноземних мов Черкаського національного університету імені Б. Хмельницького С.В. Цюра


ПЕРЕДМОВА

 

Цей навчальний посібник укладено для студентів третіх курсів університетів та педагогічних інститутів філологічних спеціальностей і має за мету підготувати студентів до висловлювання своїх думок з теми "Охорона навколишнього середовища", до аналізу екологічної ситуації, що склалась на Україні та у світі, до пошуку виходу з екологічної кризи і передачі вищезгаданого засобами англійської мови. Навчальний посібник охоплює такі підтеми: охорона атмосфери, ґрунтів, водних ресурсів, наслідки Чорнобильської катастрофи, створення заповідників та деякі інші. Тексти, які підібрані з урахуванням їхньої пізнавальної цінності, актуальності та виховного значення, інформативні та відображають сучасний стан речей. Передтекстові та післятекстові завдання передбачають роботу з тематичним словником, що сприяє розвитку навичок висловлювати свою думку та активізації мислення студентів. До найбільш важких вправ подані ключі.


CONTENTS

ПЕРЕДМОВА............................................................................................................................ 4

CONCRETE ISLAND.............................................................................................................. 6

EXERCISES .............................................................................................................................. 14

TOPICAL VOCABULARY..................................................................................................... 17

TASKS ...................................................................................................................................... 20

TASK 1........................................................................................................................... 20

TASK 2........................................................................................................................... 21

TASK 3........................................................................................................................... 21

TASK 4........................................................................................................................... 22

TASK 5........................................................................................................................... 24

TASK 6........................................................................................................................... 25

TASK 7........................................................................................................................... 26

TASK 8........................................................................................................................... 28

TASK 9........................................................................................................................... 30

TASK 10......................................................................................................................... 30

TASK 11......................................................................................................................... 35

TASK 12......................................................................................................................... 40

TASK 13......................................................................................................................... 41

TASK 14......................................................................................................................... 42

TASK 15......................................................................................................................... 44

TASK 16......................................................................................................................... 45

TASK 17......................................................................................................................... 46

TASK 18......................................................................................................................... 47

TASK 19......................................................................................................................... 48

TASK 20......................................................................................................................... 49

TASK 21......................................................................................................................... 50

TASK 22......................................................................................................................... 52

GLOSSARY .............................................................................................................................. 54

APPENDIX .............................................................................................................................. 57

SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING...................................................................... 67


CONCRETE ISLAND*

by J. Roger Baker

hen he found the first one, Simon didn't tell anybody. He tucked it away in the pocket of his dark grey overall suit and joined the other children who were drawing maps in the sand. That night, while his mother wasn't looking, he slipped it under his pillow. Jane kissed him good night and closed the door. As the light slowly dimmed to a sleep-inducing dark blue, he sat up and, leaning on one chubby arm, examined his discovery.

It was most interesting:1 soft without being squashy; bendy2 but with no spring to it; a beautiful new colour, and the scent was strange. He sniffed it again, it made him feel deeply uneasy somewhere inside. It reminded him of some­thing, but he couldn't remember what. At five you don't worry overmuch about things like that and sleep comes quickly.

The next day its colour was darker, almost black. It got nasty and squashy later, so Simon threw it away and went to look for another.

After kicking about3 in the sand-pit for a while, he dodged across the paved playing area and down the vertical, white-painted ladder that led to the lower level. This was forbidden territory for the children. The sun was very hot.

He was standing on a triangular platform, two sides of which were walled – the short wall he'd just climbed down and a much higher windowless one. The third side ended with a precipitous drop to the twenty-four-stream motorway4 below.

Looking round to make sure no one had followed, Simon made for the acute angle where the walls joined. They didn't quite meet at first, and there was just enough room for a small boy to creep between them for a little way.

"Simon, darling, what ever have you got there?" Jane asked, when he came in dusty and panting for his midday nourish­ment.

"Oh, nothing much, Mummy," he said. But his actions so clearly denied this that Jane laughed. He kept one hand behind his back and was walking sideways towards his room.

She bent down, bringing her face close to his. "Come along, young man," she coaxed, "show Mummy what you've got."

Very reluctantly he brought his arm from behind his back and, holding out his hand, opened the fist.

For a long moment she stared at the thing lying in his palm.


*Текст та вправи до нього взято з підручника Головчинської Л.С. Совершенствуйте устную речь. – М., 1997. – С. 106-123.

Finally she spoke. "Where did you find it?" she asked, hop­ing that Simon wouldn't see that she was pale and trembling, trying to keep her voice steady.

Simon looked sheepish. His mother would be cross if he confessed he had gone down to the forbidden lower level so near the big drop to the motorway. "Oh, out there," he said casually.

"I see. Would you like to show Daddy where you found it?"

Simon burst into tears. "Don't be cross, Mummy. Please."

Suddenly she put both arms round him, tightly. "I'm not cross, darling. Don't worry about it any more." Her own tears fell on to his bright swirl of hair.5 "Go and wash your hands," she said briskly, drawing away and turning towards the win­dow so that Simon could not see her glistening cheeks.

She looked at the thing again, now in her own hand. It lay across her palm like a cruel slash on the map of its creases. Her first impulse was to throw it away, put it into the refuse disposer6, let it be ground to dust with the cans and cartons. But she knew that to hide such a discovery was a capital crime7. The Authority was strict on this. She decided to leave a decision until Robert came home. She stood motionless, look­ing out of the window.

The flat was not, comparatively speaking, high; just thir­ty-two floors up. Far below, the wide motorway ribboned by, carrying traffic on a nonstop journey8 from the north of Scotland to the shores of the Mediterranean. Under the glaring sun it was like a band of light cutting down through England, lea­ping over the channel, bisecting France, where it was joined by similar routes from Scandinavia, Russia, and Spain.

It was bright outside, even through the dark glasses that were compulsory for everyone. As far as she could see, the light bounced from square glittering blocks: flats, offices, factories, some glass-walled. In between were the shopping levels, connected by graceful bridges or flights of steps to play levels, sport levels,9 and unused patches all paved with pink slabs. In the playing areas were shining sand-pits – fine-grained silvery sand – and swimming pools lined with glossy blue tiles.

This was England from coast to coast, a concrete island. Even the swollen hills of Wales and Scotland had been tamed into squares, angles, and cubes by rearing sky-scrapers, con­crete, and glass. This was Europe.

"What shall you do with it, Mummy?"

Jane broke from her reverie to see Simon standing beside her.

"Well, I think we'll put it on this shelf for Daddy to see when he comes home from work." She made an effort to speak lightly, as if he had merely found an odd-shaped piece of metal or unusually-coloured chip of glass. One thing she had to find out, though.

She drew a tumbler of water and dissolved a large spoonful of white powder in it. As Simon drank the milk, she asked him casually, "Did you show it to anyone else, dear?"

"Oh no. It's my secret. My secret," he repeated, pleased that Mummy was more interested in the thing than where he'd found it. He added confidently, "That's three I've found."

Her stomach contracted in another spasm of fear. "The third! What did you do with the others?" Her mind raced;10 supposing he had left them lying about, in the lift, the sand­pit, floating in the pool.

"I threw them away. They got nasty after a bit. They went in that grinding thing."11 He paused thoughtfully. "It was funny," he went on, "the first one went all black and squashy, but the other one got yellowish and dry. What are they, Mum?"

"I don't know, Simon. Perhaps Daddy will tell us," she said quickly, lest he divine her tension. "Now run along and have a swim. But come in before the rain," she added. During the hot months of summer, the operatives at the Ministry of Weather arranged for a two-hour rain shower from six to eight each evening to clean the miles of concrete and freshen the atmosphere.

Simon scudded out, swinging his little towel. He loved swimming and was quite capable of using the deeper pool de­signed for adults.

Jane looked again at the thing Simon had brought in so innocently. If he really hadn't mentioned it to anyone, they might yet escape The Authority.

One of Simon's conversations with his father came back to her. The boy was very bright and his questions were end­less, making Robert proud.

"Daddy – what do you mean when you say something blossoms?"

"Turns from being plain and ordinary into something pretty," he explained.

"It's a funny word, Daddy," Simon persisted. "Where does it come from?" Simon always asked where words came from, ever since Robert had told him that the tall buildings around were called sky-scrapers because when they were first built hundreds of years ago people thought they really did touch the sky.

Robert looked away; he had to say he didn't know, which he always hated doing. "I wish he'd ask about something straightforward like sex," he complained later to Jane. They laughed. Now the joke was springing back12.

Robert came home hot and tired. He worked in the lower strata13 of the Science Ministry, which meant he shared a room with thirty-nine others high up in a glass-fronted build­ing. The higher one rose status-wise14 the lower, cooler, and more shaded one's room was.

Jane dropped a dark brown pill into a tumbler of water; it quickly fizzed into a pale-coloured beer. Robert drank gratefully, mopping his face.

Jane knew that any sort of preamble would be useless and irritating, so she simply took the thing from the shelf and held it out to Robert. "Simon found this."

Robert stared and slowly took it. "Oh no... not Simon,"15 he murmured quietly, "but where ... how?"

"I don't know. I didn't ask him." Her fear began to sur­face16 making her snappy, making her pace about. "I didn't want to frighten him."

Automatically Robert sipped his beer. "What are we going to do?" Jane asked quietly, breaking the long silence.

"Does anyone else know about this?"

"I don't think so. He said not, anyway."

"Good... good. Then perhaps we can risk ignoring it. I must think."

They drew closer together.

The others had gone. Only Simon and Sammy Probick were left at the pool.

"Well, maybe you can go faster than me," said Sammy spite­fully,17 drawing himself out of the water some seconds after Simon. They had been racing. "But I bet you daren't go down there." He pointed dramatically towards the steps that led down to the lower level.

"Been down lots of times," Simon replied, looking superior.

"I mean by yourself."

"I have been down by myself, lots of times." Seeing the other's disbelieving expression, Simon went further. "And I found something down there that you don't know about. Something secret."

"Hugh! What?"

"Shan't tell you."

"No, 'cos there isn't any secret. And you haven't been down there."

"Yes, I have, I have," Simon stamped.

"Let's see you go down there then." Simon hesitated, and Sammy Probick pressed his advantage,18 "I dare you." 19

The unavoidable challenge.

"But I don't understand. What possible harm could it do – and to a little boy like that?" Jane complained.

''From the point of view of The Authority it could lead to the tapping of subconscious memories,20 remind people of the things they have been bred to forget, breed discontent," Robert said.

"But even I can't remember seeing one of those things be­fore, so I don't see how Simon possibly could."

"Yes, my dearest Jane" – Robert put his arm round her narrow shoulders – "but you do guess what it is, don't you?"

"Well, I think I know."

"Simon doesn't. And that's the idea. To breed a generation that knows nothing of what it was like before" – he gestured towards the endless army of buildings outside – "before all this. Not only is it economically impossible to let things like this" – he picked up the thing – "multiply, but if people saw them their memories would be jolted,21 it could lead to mad­ness, to anarchy."

"You're exaggerating. I'm sure it couldn't do so much harm."

He put his hands on her arms and turned her towards him.

"Look, Jane, you know how people see visions when they have been deprived of water for too long – mirages of fountains and pools – well, can you imagine a whole population behaving like that once their memory has been sharpened into remembering something they have been trained to do without? That’s why The Authority is so stern, so ... unyielding." His voice shook.

"I suppose so. But only we know about it, so it'll be all right, won't it? Won't it, Robert?"

"Of course," he said slowly, "the source must be destroyed. I shall have to get Simon to show me where it comes from and do it myself. If we leave it too long, it will be too late – especially after this evening's rain."

"We'll go together," Jane said. She started preparing their meal.

"But remember," Robert added, "if Simon has told anyone, we must expect... callers..."

Mrs. Probick stood at the top of the steps, a towering figure in her bulky black trousers.

"What are you doing down there, you little monkey?" she shouted, her voice coarse and loud.

Sammy started wailing at once. "It was him," he cried, "he made me." Simon came into view, emerging apparently from the angle between the walls.

All Mrs. Probick's jealousy of22 Jane and Robert flared. Robert was more intelligent than her husband and had a better job which entitled him to a lower flat and to more holidays.

"You just wait. I’ll tell your mother," she shouted, drag­ging her own son up the last few steps. Simon climbed up slow­ly, carrying something in his fist.

"And what have you got there..?" The woman started and then realised what it must be. "Sammy, come here," she screamed, horror in her voice. "I don't want you ever to go near that nasty little boy again."

She backed away, pulling Sammy with her protectively, "I'll have to let someone know about this," she murmured, the anger in her voice and eyes instantly replaced by apprehen­sion and fright...

Robert hated letting Simon know he couldn't answer any of his questions. His job, petty though it was, gave him a reputation even among his adult friends, for a wide range of knowledge.

"But, Daddy, it's got such a funny smell too," Simon was saying. "It makes me think of something. But I don't know what." Seeing his parents' expression, "Something nice, though," he added reassuringly.

"You see," Robert whispered to Jane. She nodded.

"Simon, I want you to try to forget all about it after you've shown me where you found it. Then I want you to promise us faithfully that you will never go there again, or touch one any more. And if you do find another you must tell us straight away." Robert spoke kindly, but firmly.

"All right, Daddy," Simon agreed trustingly. "Mrs. Probick was ever so cross when she saw it this afternoon." He yawned, ready for bed.

Jane gripped Robert's hand beneath the table. "Not Mrs. Probick."

"Did you show her?" Robert demanded, more sharply than he had intended.

Simon realised something was very wrong. His bottom lip trembled. Hesitatingly, he explained what had happened. "I didn't even have a chance to show it to Sammy," he whim­pered at the end of his recital.

The rain came, thundering on the roofs and roads.

"Get along to bed, Simon," said Robert gently. The little boy went out miserably.

"This is it then, Jane," said Robert, going to her. "We should have reported it at once. Delay has made it much worse."

"Couldn't we... couldn't we pretend nothing has happened?" sobbed Jane. "We'll say it is just spite from that woman. She's always been jealous."

"The Authority knows well – and so do we, my love – that people don't use things of this nature just for spite. It's far too serious. Why, the woman is probably genuinely terrified and regards it as her duty to report it as she would a fatal accident,23 or a murder."

"What will happen?" Jane's voice was scarcely audible above the hiss of the rain. "They won't take him away...?"

Robert thought for a moment. "Obviously they won't allow him to stay here, mixing with the other children. Perhaps they will take him away for only a short time – for what they call a... a Cure. That is if they are kind. Otherwise he – he becomes an exile."

"Then we will go with him, wherever it is, whatever it may mean for us."

Through the rain they saw far below a long black transpor­ter hover24 above the courtyard of their block and settle on the pavement, now gleaming dark pink. Four men, foreshort­ened shapes,25 got out. With them they could see the squat figure of Mrs. Probick. She was pointing.

Together they went in to Simon. He looked at them nerv­ously over the sheet but, seeing them both smiling down, he relaxed. Jane kissed him.

"Daddy?" he murmured sleepily, "what's a monkey?" Jane turned away.

"I'll tell you in the morning," Robert whispered, bending to kiss him good night. They went out, closing the door quietly.

The bell buzzed sharply. Robert turned. "We mustn't pre­tend, Jane. Put the thing on the table. It's better that way." He paused. "They might be kind," he said, going to open the front door.

Outside the rain streamed down, a scientific cleansing op­eration; there was no vegetation on the concrete island to need its nourishment. Jane went to the shelf and with a shudder put the long green blade of grass on the table.

NOTES

1most interesting – very interesting. Note: The phrase must not be confused with the superlative degree of the adjec­tive. When the noun it refers to is countable the indefinite article is used, e.g. It was a most interesting exhibition.

2bendy (nursery word) – that which bends easily; the boy forms the adjective with the help of the productive suffix -y. Comp. twisty,hurty,mixy, etc. Such words come natural to a small child's vocabulary and have a strong emotional colour­ing.

3kicking about– standing or moving aimlessly here and there, striking the sand with his foot. Note that in verb-adverb combinations with about, e.g. run about, lie about, swim about, etc., about always implies absence of any definite place or direction, e.g. People were sitting about in the park. The children were running about in the yard.

4a precipitous drop to the twenty-four-stream motorway – a very steep way down to the motor road (motorway – Am.) where twenty-four cars could move abreast.

5swirl of hair (Am.) – curly hair.

6refuse disposer – refuse-chute.

7capital crime– a crime punishable by death; capital punishment – execution.

8nonstop journey – one-way traffic makes it possible to cross the country from North to South without a single stop; the road leaping over the Channel might have been a thing of the future.

9shopping levels, play levels, sport levels – the descrip­tion is given in terms of geometry, and the repetition of the word level only emphasizes the monotony and uniformity of the scene.

10Her mind raced – Thoughts flashed through her mind.

11that grinding thing(periphr.) – refuse disposer.

12the joke was springing back – she suddenly recollected the joke.

13worked in the lower strata (fig.) – held a petty job; strata – plural form of stratum – social class.

14status-wise – in status, i.e. with regard to one's rank.

15"Oh no... not Simon" – a response showing the man is shocked at the news and refuses to believe it.

16Her fear began to surface (fig.) – her deep-hidden fear (the fear she was trying to conceal) began to show (to surface is usually said of submarines, meaning "to come to the sur­face").

17spitefully – wishing to say something nasty, full of ill-feeling; spite: to have a spite against smb.; for spite (also in spite, from spite) – e.g. He knew the words would hurt his feelings and said it for spite. Syn. malice.

18pressed his advantage – grew more insistent, urged Simon to take up the challenge

19I dare you – I challenge you.

20the tapping of subconscious memories (fig.) – stirring up (letting out) long-forgotten memories buried in the deep re­cesses of one's mind; to tap – to draw out (liquid), to extract something, as to tap somebody for information; to tap a tele­phone wire– to listen secretly to a telephone conversation.

21their memories would be jolted– long-forgotten memo­ries would be suddenly stirred up, causing a kind of mental shock.

22jealousy (of) – 1) feeling of ill-will, envy at (of) someone being more successful, better off, etc., e.g. Her poorly concealed jealousy of her friend's success was common know­ledge; 2) fear of losing what one possesses, what is dear to him, or efforts to keep the thing one possesses, e.g. Soames' fear of losing Irene, his jealousy of Bosinney were a source of uncea­sing agony. Nоte: Don't make the common mistake of say­ing *He was jealous of his wife instead of jealous of her lover.

23fatal accident – an accident which ended in death. Comp. a fatal wound, disease,etc.

24 to hover – to hang suspended in the air, like a bird (the black transporter– a kind of helicopter of the future); соmр. Hovercraft– transport used to carry passengers from England to France across the Channel, a tech­nical achievement of recent standing.

25foreshortened shapes– viewed from above the figures of the men seemed diminished.

EXERCISES

I. Drills. a) Read and repeat. b) Use the structures in sentences of your own:

1. Simon, darling, what ever have you got there?

What ever are you doing at that time of the day?

When ever are they going to arrive?

Who ever is that handsome young man over there?

What ever did that Jackson woman say that made you so angry?

2. She swore she would follow her husband wherever he was sent.

He would lend her a hand whenever she needed his help.

Whatever they say it's a poor attempt to justify a dirty trick.

Whoever supported him will soon find out he has been wrong.

3. His job, petty though it was, aroused his neighbour's envy.

Angry though she was, she tried to keep her voice steady.

Alarmed though they were, they both took care not to scare the boy.

His warning, stern though it was, was ignored by everybody.

4. The less her husband knew, the safer he was.

The higher he mounted the ladder of success, the stronger his ambition grew.

The longer she brooded over the predicament, the more at a loss she felt.

5. He spoke calmly lest she guess (should guess) his tension.

She spoke casually lest he should guess what was on her mind.

He spoke coaxingly lest she should get cross.

6. He hated doing it but there was no alternative.

Robert hated telling the child he didn't know the answer.

They hated informing the Authority, yet it seemed the only reasonable thing to do.

II. a) Read the model dialogue

b) Replace the parts in bold type by words and phrases from columns 1, 2:

A.: What do you think of Robert's plan to buy a house in the country (1)?

В.: I think it's reasonable (2) that he should.

A.: I'm glad you approve of his plan.

В.: I can't see any reason why I shouldn't.

(1) (2)
send Sam to a public school join the Air Force go to the University Spanish learn to ride to drive a car adopt a child study mathematics take a degree write a novel buy a dog go to Africa the Far East wise sensible understandable advisable natural reasonable good very nice  

III. Replace the italicized parts of the sentences by equivalents from the text:

1. He showed his find very unwillingly to Jane, fearing that she might be angry with him. 2. He had no business going to a place he was not allowed to visit. 3. She spoke quickly trying not to let her voice tremble. 4. Jane sent the boy away so that he should not guess the state of mental and nervous strain she was in. 5. It was widely known that any attempt to conceal important information was a crime punishable by death. 6. Her husband was a petty official in a Government office. 7. Such things are dangerous as they might give rise to a feeling of dissatisfaction, make people remember things they have been taught never to think of.

IV.Find in the text English equivalents for the following:

Засунути (сховати); пісочниця; швидко перебігти; пересвідчитись; вирушити до; досить місця; проповзти; запилений (покритий пилом); нічого особливого; спростовувати; умовляти; неохоче; твердийголос; сердитися; недбало; поріз (рана); сміттєпровід; змолоти; карний злочин; сліпуче сонце; обов’язковий (примусовий); висланий кахлем; розчинити; скорочуватися; вгадати; призначений для дорослих; витирати (піт); дратівливий; пити маленькими ковтками (присьорбувати); злобно (їдко); виклик; завдати шкоди; розмножуватися; втратити; непохитний; відвідувач; грубий голос; давати право (на); праця дрібного службовця; широке коло знань; заспокійливе; різко; хникати; зволікання; ледве чутно; спілкуватися (з); вигнанець; нависати (над); приземкуватий

V. Retell the story according to the given plan using the following words and phrases:

1. Simon makes a discovery

to tuck away (in); to join; to slip smth. (under); to sit up; to examine; most interesting; squashy; scent; to sniff; deeply uneasy; to remind (of); to get nasty; to throw away; to look for; to dodge (across, down); the lower level; precipitous drop (to); to make sure; to make for; to creep (between).

2. Jane investigates the matter

what ever; dusty; to pant; nothing much; to deny; to keep behind one's back; to bend down; to coax; reluctantly; to hold out; to keep one's voice steady; sheepish; cross; to confess; casually; to burst into tears; to put one's arms round; briskly; glistening; first impulse; to grind to dust; capital crime; anyone else; confidently; to contract; to lie about; to throw away; to go squashy (nasty); lest; tension; to run along; to have a swim; to arrange (for); to freshen; to design for.

Robert explains things

to share a room; the higher ... the lower; to mop one's face; to risk ignoring; to do harm to; to remind (of); to breed discontent; that's the idea; could lead to; to see visions; to be deprived of; to be trained to do without; stern; unyielding; to destroy the source; to expect callers; to hate saying; to promise faithfully; to tell straight away; firmly; trustingly; ever so cross; to grip; to have a chance to; to whimper; miserably; should have reported; delay; to sob; genuinely; fatal accident; scarcely audible; to mix (with); сure; exile; wherever.

Mrs. Probick does her bit

towering figure; coarse; jealousy (of); to flare; more intelligent; better job; to entitle one to; to drag; to scream; horror; to hack away; protectively; to let one know; instantly; to replace; apprehension; transporter;   to hover (above); to settle on the pavement; to get out; squat figure; to point; bell; to buzz.  

 

VI. Reread the story very carefully and answer the following questions:

1. Why does the author use the phrase midday nourish­ment? What sort of food did the people take?

2. What sort of rain was arranged for and how is it described at the end of the story?

3. What did the playing area look like? How does it differ from an ordinary playground?

4. In what terms does the author describe the city and the landscape? Pick out the words he uses and try to analyse the effect they have on the reader.

5. Why was it compulsory for the population to wear dark eye-glasses?

6. Why did Simon ask his father what a monkey was?

7. Why was The Authority so strict on things that might breed discontent?

VII. Topics for discussion:

1. How is the distant future described in the story? What is the author's attitude to it?

2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of advanced technologies?

3. What makes the story sad, if not tragic?

4. How is it that technical progress does not put an end to ill-feeling, envy and spite?

5. Give your opinion of the story.

6. Tell a science-fiction story describing: a) people and relations between them;

b) big cities in centuries to come.

7. Speak on science-fiction as a genre (say whether you like it, name the authors you know, the best books or stories you have read, the main features of the genre).

VIII. Group project:

Split into two groups, work out your project/idea of the city of the future, be sure to specify the following points: a) its design, location; b) community services, sources of energy and transportation; c) population and places of their residence; d) industry.

 

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

Man’s Impact on the Biosphere:

· to affect the environment adversely;

· to be fraught with fatal consequences;

· to interfere in nature infinitely;

· negative effects of man’s economicactivity;

· to change the biosphere;

· to be overconcerned with technicism;

· to threaten to destroy everything onearth;

· pollution of the environment throughchemical, physical and biological agents;

· to have a disastrous effect on man;

· to become extinct;

· the disappearance of particular living species;

· to be fraught with the extinction of animalsand plants;

· to perish as a result of industrial, urban and demographic pollution of the environment;

· widespread use of insecticides;

· deforestation;

· changes in the microclimate, vegetation, fauna;

· pesticides and herbicides that destroy the flora and fauna;

· to be vulnerable to the destructive impact of man;

· to reach threatening proportions;

· to transform fertile regions into arid ones.

Protection of Atmosphere:

· to protect all living beings from harmful solar and cosmic radiation;

· disruption in the oxygenbalance;

· destruction of the ozonescreen;

· to increase ultraviolet radiation;

· corresponding effects on the sight of animalsand humans;

· to pollute the atmosphere with exhaust fumes;

· bronchial complaints;

· to die through the effects of a mixtureof smoke, fog and fumes;

· exhaust gases/fumes;

· natural pollution of theatmosphere (eruption of volcanoes, dust storms, forest fires, etc.);

· artificial pollution (industrial enterprises,automobiles, heating systems, etc.);

· emission of harmfulgases and industrial dust;

· toxic substances;

· radioactive pollution of the atmosphere;

· acid rains.

Protection of Soil:

· waste land incapable of yielding crops;

· soil erosion;

· protection of fields againstthe wind;

· retention of moisture in the soil;

· exploitation of plant resources;

· excessive cattlegrazing;

· protective forestation (waterregulating and wind blowingforest belts);

· soil acidity;

· thelayer of fertilesoil;

· soil pollution with heavy metals;

· agricultural wastes;

· domestic wastewaters;

· low fertility;

· to deplete the local flora;

· incorrect use of fertilizers andpesticides;

· to utilize agricultural wastes;

· to recultivate the lands spoiled by industry;

· the leveling of open-cut mines and pits;

· anti-erosion measures;

· to maintainthe mostfavourablesoil moistureregime.

Protection of Water:

· capacity for regeneration;

· rational use of water resources;

· chemical and biological filters;

· cleansing and recycling water;

· to dump uncleaned sewage;

· to shift to a closed productioncycle.

Noise Pollution:

· to suffer from permanent or temporary hearing loss;

· long exposures to noise;

· chronic exposure to high noise levels;

· to interfere with sleep;

· to result in a feeling of fatigue;

· to cause irreversible changes in the nervous system;

· a growing threat to our healthand happiness.

The Ways of Solving Ecological Problem:

· restoration of the unity between man andnature;

· to turn the material production from a purely technical and social element into a biosocial one;

· scientific understanding of the essence of the relation between society and nature;

· theoretical foundation for solving theecological problem;

· joint solution of pressing global problems;

· a purification plant;

· to build factories beyond city limits;

· to establish special zones between housing estates;

· to plant greenery in cities, towns and villages;

· restoration of forests;

· planning of parks.

TASKS

Task 1. Below there is a list of environmentally sound quotes. Agree or disagree with the statements below. Be sure to provide sound arguments.

· The Four Laws of Ecology:

1. Everything is connected to everything else.

2. Every thing must go somewhere.

3. Nature knows best.

4. There is no such thing as a free lunch (Barry Commoner)

· "One generation plants trees ... another gets the shade" (Chinese Proverb)

· "We shape our buildings and afterwards our buildings shape our world"

(Winston Churchill)

· "Harmony with land is like harmony with a friend: you cannot cherish his right hand and chop off his left... The land is one organism" (Aldo Leopold)

· "The most important task, if we are to save the earth, is to educate" (Peter Scott)

· "The world is a beautiful book, but of little use to people who cannot read it" (Carlo Goldoni)

· "The major problems in the world are the result of the difference between the way nature works and the way people think" (Gregory Bateson)

· "Individually, each of us can do only a little. Together, we can save the world" (Denis Hayes, Earth Day Founder)

· "The frog does not drink up the pond in which he lives" (Indian Proverb)

· "The nation that destroys its soil destroys itself" (Franklin D. Roosevelt)

· "Every human has a fundamental right to an environment of quality that permits a life of dignity and well-being" (UN Conference of the Human Environment)

· "Never does nature say one thing and wisdom another" (Juvenal)

· "The environment is not only more complex than we think; it is more complex than we can think" (Unknown).

 

Task 2.Comment on the following. Back your opinion with life examples.

In spite of man’s growing power and his increasingly great contribution toward his own support, he still needs earth materials and earth conditions as Goethe said of the artist, so we can say also of mankind as a whole, that he “has a twofold relation to nature, he is at once her master and her slave”.

Task 3. Put the correct word from the list below in each blank. You may use some words more than once: so, so much, so many, too, too much, too many, enough.

Save the Earth!

e are slowly destroying the earth. The seas and rivers are –––––––––– dirty to swim in. There is –––––––––– smoke in the air, it is unhealthy to live in many of the world’s cities. In one well-known city, for example, poisonous gases from cars pollute the air –––––––––– that traffic policemen have to wear oxygen masks.

We have cut down –––––––––– trees that there are now vast areas of wasteland all over the world. As a result, farmers in parts of Africa cannot grow –––––––––– to eat. In certain countries in Asia there is –––––––––– little rice.

Moreover, we do not take –––––––––– care of the countryside. Wild animals are quickly disappearing. For instance, tigers are rare in India now because we have killed –––––––––– for them to survive. However, it isn’t –––––––––– simply to talk about the problem. We must act now before it is –––––––––– late to do anything about it. Join us now. Save the Earth. This is –––––––––– important to ignore.

Task 3.1. Read the following paragraph carefully.

The world’s oceans are so vast that they can cope with the present level of pollution. However, little is known about the long-term effects of such slow poisoning. The most serious problem of modern times is that man is destroying the earth’s natural resources, and transforming huge areas into wasteland. As a result, it is becoming extremely difficult to grow enough to feed the world’s rapidly increasing population. A way of protecting all the wildlife on the earth must also be found as many species are in danger of disappearing completely from the face of the earth. The dangers, however, are not confined solely to the land and the sea. The smoke in the atmosphere, for example, is increasing so much that the amount of sunlight has been reduced in many cities. Man’s whole environment is being changed in a serious way.

For each of the following dictionary definitions write down the correct word from the passage:

1. Birds, animals, fish which are not tame ………………….

2. Keeping something safe from harm ……………………...

5. The process of making something dirty or impure ............

4. Barren area, desert ………………………………………..

5. The air, water and land in which we live ………………...

6. Completely changing in form or nature .....................……

7. Wealth, goods or products people can use ……………….

8. The air surrounding the earth ............................………….

9. The number of people living in a place ...................……...

10. Difficulty which needs attention and thought ..........……

11. Results, consequences....................................…………...

Task 4.Study the following text and do the given tasks.

ANIMALS IN DANGER

erhaps the most famous rare animal is panda. Twenty years ago it was nearly extinct. Now, its numbers are growing again. It even became a symbol for wildlife conservation. But many other species have been less lucky than the panda.

By the year 2030, 25% of all animals, birds, fish and insects may be extinct. Why is this happening? Well, there are three main reasons. The first is pollution. Millions of animals die every year because man has polluted their natural home or "habitat". A habitat contains everything a living thing needs: food, water, shelter, space, light. Pollution and destruction change the balance of nature. Each species in a habitat – wood, jungle, marsh or forest – needs and helps the rest. If one animal, bird or insect disappears, all the rest suffer, too, because some plants and animals pro­vide food for other animals. Forests help to regu­late water supplies. We all need the help of all living things to maintain chemical balance of the atmosphere.

After pollution or destruction, habitats take many years (sometimes hundreds or even thousands) to grow again. This is what's happening in the rainforests of South America, Africa and Asia. These are some of the world's oldest habitats. Or they were. But the problem doesn't stop there.

The second reason is the environment itself. It is becoming smaller. Every year man cuts down more trees, builds more roads and uses more land for farming. This leaves fewer jungles, fields and forests for wildlife. In fact scientists believe that thirty British animals, fish, birds may become extinct by the beginning of the 21st century.

Today, many more species are in danger not only because man destroys and pollutes their habitat, but because man hunts them. Man has always been a hunter. He still is. But many modern hunters don't just kill for food – they kill for profit. That is why so many rare and protected animals are still dying. Hunters like these are called poachers. In 1981 there were 15,000 black rhinos in Africa. Today, because of illegal hunting, that number is 4,500.

There is only one way to save wild animals and wild habitat – conservation. If it doesn't happen, many wild animals will soon have just one habitat – the Zoo.

Task 7.1.Decide if the following words are used in the text in the given sense.

1. “rare” means undone, cooked so that some blood remained.

2. “extinct” means dead, no longer in existence.

3. “wild” is used in the meaning stormy, violent.

4. “habitat” is a natural place, home.

5. “rainforest” is the place where it rains hard all the year round.

6. “species” means here a group having some common characteristics.

7. “poacher” is a hunter having special legal permission to hunt animals.

Task 7.2. Write a conference report on one of the suggested topics.

1. “Panda is a symbol for Wildlife Conservation” – What other animal-symbols do you know? What things are usually called after animals? What features of the animals do they symbolize? What are the sport teams called after animals?

2. “Many other species have been less lucky than panda” – Do you know what other species have become extinct? Are they on the Endangered Spices List? Where do they live? What is their habitat and what has happened to it? What are people doing to save them?

3. “The Region I live in” – What species live in your area? Are they extinct or their number is growing? What animals does the law protect in you region? Is there the problem of poaching in your area? What is done to fight it?

Task 8.Study the following text and do the given tasks.

Food Safety

here are two sides of the food issue. In poor countries it's a question of life and death. In rich countries it's a question of health and diet.

 

ü Food has become the source of anxiety to many people. Behind it lies a revolution in the way our food is now produced. The problem is that a vast range of chemicals used on the modern farm have crept into our food. Our diet –the food we eat – is not always healthy.

ü 30% of Americans and 25% of Europeans are fat because they eat too much junk food: hamburgers, popcorn, pizza, chocolate. Why is junk food bad for us? The answer is simple. It contains too much sugar and fat. This is the reason why so many people die of heart diseases.

ü Finally, there are "additives" – a group of che­micals which food factories use. They make food look better, taste better, last longer. The best recommendation is to stop eating processed foods. Instead there is a diet of fruit, vegetables, brown bread, fish and other "health" foods.

ü But even health food isn't always healthy. People don't just pollute the atmosphere. They pollute themselves too. Modern farmers and food factories use over three thou­sand chemicals. Some are "fertilizers" – these help crop to grow. Others are "pesti­cides" which kill insects. A third group are "hormones" – these make animals, like pigs, grow more quickly.

ü Concern about the health risks caused great demand for organic food, grown with­out chemicals. Chemicals are replaced by crop rotation. Organic agriculture is also kinder to the environment, the soil and the farm workers.

ü You may turn your worry about food to action. As a shopper you have a great deal of influence. How you choose to spend your money shapes the supply chain policy. Ci­tizens can choose and campaign for food that is safe to eat, healthy for themselves and environment.

Task 8.1. Define whether the statement is true or false; give reasons for your answers based on the text.

1. All our food is healthy.

2. Junk food is very good for men.

 

3. Chemicals used on a modern farm pollute our food.

4. Fruits and nuts, vegetables and wheat are health food.

5. Food additives can add colour, flavour, artificial sweetness.

6. Hormones help plants grow.

7. Fertilizers are used to kill insects and weeds.

8. Chemicals make agriculture safer and healthier.

9. All food grown on a farm can be called organic.

Task 8.2. Work in pairs. One completes the question, another gives an answer.

1. Why has our food become ... ?

2. What food do we call ... ?

3. Why is junk food ... ?

4. What substances help ... ?

5. Why isn’t health food ... ?

6. How do farmers grow ... ?

7. How can people change ... ?

Task 8.3.Find in the text the word which matches the definition:

a) things we eat;

b) sort of food eaten by a person or community;

c) food of little or no value;

d) substance added to food in small amounts for special purposes;

e) chemical substances that kill insects and weeds;

f) food grown without chemicals;

g) take part in an action against something.

Task 8.4.Write out from the text actions you would join to help things change.

Task 8.5.Conduct a survey of the eating habits of teenagers. Include these questions and add some of your own. Present your results to the class.

1. Are you a vegetarian?

2. Do you eat only health food?

3. Do you worry about food safety?

4. Are you fond of hamburgers, pizza?

5. Do you read a label when you buy food?

6. Where do you usually buy food?

 

Task 9.You need to write a report for your English class round-table discussion, but the available material is only in your mother-tongue. Translate the following into English and you’ll have your report.

Грінпіс – міжнародна організація, головною метою якої є охорона навколишнього середовища. Вона проводить активні кампанії за без’ядерне майбутнє, проти забруднення біосфери, на захист живої природи. Ця організація була заснована у 1971 році групою північноамериканських активістів, які закликали боротися за зелену і мирну планету. Сьогодні Грінпіс об’єднує таких людей, як і ті, що у перші роки існування організації на маленькому човні вирушили у зону ядерних випробувань недалеко від острова Амчитка (Аляска). Адже рішучі люди, звертаючи увагу громадськості на варварське ставлення до природи своєю постійною присутністю в зонах екологічного лиха, незважаючи на ризик і небезпеку, здатні змінити дії і навіть мету тих, хто тримає в руках реальну владу.

У 1977 році представництво Грінпіс було відкрито у Великобританії, а у 1979 році її представництва в Австралії, Канаді, Франції, Нідерландах, Новій Зеландії, Великобританії і США об’єдналися у Раду Грінпіс, міжнародну організацію Грінпіс. Грінпіс визнає, що тільки завдяки міжнародній співпраці можна чинити серйозний опір силам, що загрожують нормальному стану природнього середовища. Представництво Грінпіс в Україні почало діяти з 1990 року.

Кампанії Грінпіс мають одну спільну мету: зберегти або відтворити навколишнє середовище, де все живе, з людиною разом, могло б існувати без загрози для свого здоров’я.

Дуже непокоїть Грінпіс загроза існування багатьох видів тварин і рослин. Ця організація також стурбована виробництвом і викидами радіоактивних та інших шкідливих речовин в атмосферу і скиданням токсичних відходів до річок та морів.

Task 10.Read the text and discuss it in small groups. Work out the other way to beat the throw-away society

The Throw-Away Society

any countries bury and forget millions of tonnes of rubbish every year. But we don't have to throw away all our waste paper, glass, metal and plastic. We can also burn or recycle a lot of it. In fact waste can be wonderful stuff. The Green World dossier reports.







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