ТОП 10:

The aim: to reach an agreement and to state the conditions binding 2 parties in an undertaking.

Features: 1. composition 2. extensive use of special terminology, clichés, the use of abbreviations 3. words are used in their logical dictionary meaning and there is no room for contextual meaning

Legal documents, military documents, diplomatic documents. The documents use set expressions inherited from early Victorian period. This vocabulary is conservative. Legal documents contain a large proportion of formal and archaic words used in their dictionary meaning. In diplomatic and legal documents many words have Latin and French origin. There are a lot of abbreviations and conventional symbols.

The most noticeable feature of grammar is the compositional pattern. Every document has its own stereotyped form. The form itself is informative and tells you with what kind of letter we deal with.

Business letters contain: heading, addressing, salutation, the opening, the body, the closing, complimentary clause, the signature. Syntactical features of business letters are - the predominance of extended simple and complex sentences, wide use of participial constructions, homogeneous members.

Morphological peculiarities are passive constructions, they make the letters impersonal. There is a tendency to avoid pronoun reference. Its typical feature is to frame equally important factors and to divide them by members in order to avoid ambiguity(двусмысленность) of the wrong interpretation.

The structure of diplomatic documents:

1.the preamble 2.the substantive clauses,known as ‘the body’ 3.The formal (or final) clauses: the date of the document, the mode of acceptance,opening of the document for signature,entry into force,duration 4.Formal acknowledgment of signature 5.signature by the plenipotentiaries(уполномочен. лица).

Military documents. Features:

1.the use of a specific compositional design 2.cliches,terms 3.the encoded character of the language 4.abbreviations,symbols 5.words in the direct meaning 6.absence of any of any emotiveness.

Sentences are usually single, short, no exclamatory, no negative sentences.

The newspaper style and its peculiarities. 3 substyles: brief news items, headlines, notices and advertisements.AIMof the newspaper FS: to inform, instruct and influence the reader on certain matters.Brief news items – aim: to inform the reader stating only facts without comments. The vocabulary is neutral and common literary, devoid of any emotional coloring. Syntactically the shorter the article is the more complex its syntactical structure. Information is presented according to the rule which has 5-w-and-h-pattern rule (who, what, where, when, why, how).headlines – main aim: to inform the reader briefly, what the news is about and to arouse the reader`s curiosity. Can be of dif. types: 1)full declarative sentences (Allies Now Look to London) 2)interrogative sen-es ( Do you love war?) 3)rhetoric questions 4)nominative sen-es 5)elliptical sen-es(1.with an auxiliary verb omitted 2. with the subject omitted 3. with subject or auxiliary verb omitted) 6)complex sen-es 7)the use of SD.Features: 1)use of short verbs to save space or to sound more dramatic 2)verb changes (simple tense = cont. or perf, past participle = passive constr-n, infinitive = future action)

Editorial – a newspaper article in which the editor or special writer gives the newspapers opinion about current issues. AIM: to influence the reader by giving interpretation of certain facts on political and social events and prove the reader that it is the only correct one. Features: 1)combination of dif. vocabulary strata 2)usage of emotionally colored language elements, both lexical and structural 3)accepted usage of colloq. words and expres-ons, slang and professionalisms 4)usage of various SD but traditional in nature.

Advertisements: classified and non-classified.Features of classified advertisements: 1)mostly neutral vocabulary 2)often elliptical patterns 3)telegram-like statements with articles and punctuation marks omitted 4)rare usage of emotionally colored words

The publicistic style The publicistic style is used in public speeches and printed public works which are addressed to a broad audience and devoted to important social or political events, public problems of cultural or moral character.3 substyles: oratory, essays, feature articles in NPs and magazines.Can be oral and written.Aim: to produce a deep influence on public opinion, to cause the listener/reader to accept the point of view expressed in the speech. Features:1)direct address to the audience 2)the use of the 1st person sing.to justify a personal approach 3)the combination of logical argumentation and emotional appeal 4)brevity of expression 5)the use of emotionally colored words 6)the use of YOU and WE to present the unity, and THEY to set the opponents of 5)the use of SD 6) the structure of connectives(extended)

The belle-letters style Substyles: 1)The language of poetry 2)Emotive prose 3) The language of the drama

Each of these substyles has certain common features, typical of the general BL Style and each of them enjoys some individuality. The common features:

1. Common function (aesthetic-cognitive). Aims at the cognitive process, secures the gradual unfolding(раскрытие) of the idea to the reader and at the same time calls forth a feeling of pleasure. The purpose of the BL Style is not to prove but only to suggest o possible interpretation of the phenomena of life by forcing the reader to see the viewpoint of the writer.

2. The BL Style rests on the certain indispensable (обязательный)ling.features:

· Genuine, not trite, imagery, achieved by purely ling.devices.

· The use of words in contextual or in more than 1 dictionary meaning

· A vocabulary which will reflect to a greater or lesserdegree the author’s personal evaluation of things or phenomena.

· A peculiar individual selection of vocabulary and syntax, a kind of lex. andsyntact. idiosyncrasy.

· The introduction of the typical features of colloquial lang. to a full degree(in plays) or lesser one (in emotive prose) or a slight degree, if any (in poems).

The BL Style is individual in essence. Individuality in selecting lang.means (including SDs), extremely apparent (видимый) in poetic style, becomes gradually less in publicistic style, is hardly noticeable in the style of scientific prose and is entirely lacking in newspapers and in official style.

The relation between the general and the particular assumes different forms in different styles and in their variants. This relation is differently materialized even in 1 style. This is due to the strong imprint of personality on any work of poetic style.(greater or lesser volume of imagery, a greater or lesser number of words with contextual meaning, a greater or lesser number of colloquial elements)

The style of scientific prose AIM: to prove the results of scientific research and to convey exact scientific information.Features of the scientific prose style:

1. objective, precise, and mostly unemotional language (Examples of metaphors: the bed of the river, the branch of mathematics)

2. the use of terms and professional words

3. words used in primary logical meaning

4. impersonality and generalized form of expression, reflected in the choice of grammar and syntactic constructions

5. logical sequence of utterances

6. most developed system of connectives

7. accepted sentence patterns: postulatory, argumentative, formulative.

8. use of quotations and references

9. use of footnotes


Lexicology – is the part of linguistics dealing with the vocabulary of the l-ge and the properties of words as the main units of the l-ge. Object: lexicon – word-stock in modern English. Aim: a study and systematic description of vocabulary in respect to its origin, development and current use.

Approaches to l-ge studies:

1. the synchronic approach (concerned with the vocabulary of a l-ge as it exists at a given time)

2. the diachronic approach (deals with the changes and the development of vocabulary in the course of time)

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