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Let’s talk about shopping and money. What do you know about the history of money?



Let’s talk about shopping and money. What do you know about the history of money?

Do you like shopping? Why (not)?

What questions will you ask a shop assistant to help you to choose a purchase?

What can you advise a person who wants to buy many things (clothes, foodstuffs, etc.) but has little time?

Parents usually give pocket money to their children. How do you usually spend your pocket money?

 

I 1.Let’s talk about shopping and money. What do you know about the history of money?

The use of money is as old as the human civilization. Money is basically a method of exchange, and coins and notes are just items of exchange. But money was not always the same form as the money today, and is still developing.

The basis of all early commerce was barter, in other words the direct exchange of one product for another, with the relative values a matter for negotiation. Subsequently both livestock, particularly cattle, and plant products such as grain, come to be used as money in many different societies at different periods. The earliest evidence of banking is found in Mesopotamia between 3000 and 2000 B.C. when temples were used to store grain and other valuables used in trade.

Various items have been used by different societies at different times. Aztecs used cacao beans. Norwegians once used butter. The early U.S. colonists used tobacco leaves and animal hides. The people of Paraguay used snails. Roman soldiers were paid a "salarium" of salt. On the island of Nauru, the islanders used rats. Human slaves have also been used as currency around the world. In the 16th century, the average exchange value of a slave was 8000 pounds of sugar.

Gradually, however, people began exchanging items that had no intrinsic value, but which had only agreed-upon or symbolic value. An example is the cowrie shell. Metal tool money, such as knife and spade monies, was also first used in China. These early metal monies developed into primitive versions of round coins at the end of the Stone Age. Chinese coins were made out of copper, often containing holes so they could be put together like a chain. The Chinese invented also paper money during the T'ang Dynasty.

Outside of China, the first coins developed out of lumps of silver. They soon took the familiar round form of today, and were stamped with various gods and emperors to mark their authenticity. These early coins first appeared in the Kingdom of Lydia (now in Turkey) in the 7th century B.C.. Paper money was adopted in Europe much later than in Asia and the Arab world -- primarily because Europe didn't have paper.

The Bank of Sweden issued the first paper money in Europe in 1661, though this was also a temporary measure. In 1694 the Bank of England was founded and began to issue promisory notes, originally handwritten but later printed. To make travelling with gold less dangerous, goldsmiths, or people who made jewelry and other items out of gold, came up with an idea. The goldsmiths started writing out notes on pieces of paper that said the person who had the note could trade the note in for gold. These promissory notes were the beginning of paper money in Europe. If you look at a British bank note today, you'll see it still says: I promise to pay the bearer on demand the sum of twenty pounds.

I 2.Do you like shopping? Why (not)?

Variant I

Some people hate shopping. So they make a list of what they need and run through stores. Others make a hobby of shopping tours. They go from store to store looking for goods of better quality and lower price. Like most girls I like shopping.

Modern shopping centres do their best to prove to you that shopping may be fun. That’s why they tend to combine shopping and leisure. A modern shopping centre often looks like a city under one roof. Besides a great variety of stores, shops and outlets one can find there theme parks with rides, amusements and games. If you are tired you can enjoy delicious food in a restaurant or just have a snack in a cafeteria or a café. Information desk will help you not to be at a loss and to save your time.

To make shopping convenient for all, shopping centres offer you free of charge: late night shopping, recreation areas, special facilities for the elderly and disabled and shopping trolleys and baskets.

Variant II

I can’t say that I’m very fond of shopping, but it is a part of our daily life and it is a chore that needs to be done. What I really enjoy doing is calling at the confectionary department. I have a sweet tooth and I nearly always manage to talk mother into buying me some sweets, a bar of chocolate, some biscuits or the like.

 

I 3.What questions will you ask a shop assistant to help you to choose a purchase?

Could you help me, please?

What goods can I purchase in you shop? Are there any discounted goods to buy there?

May I look at it?

How much does it cost?

Have you got anything else?

 

I 4.What can you advise a person who wants to buy many things (clothes, foodstuffs, etc.) but has little time?

Variant I

It’s a common problem. We always have little time to do everything we need. I think that buying online can be a solution to this problem. It will not take you a lot of time to choose what you want from a catalogue on the Internet. Just a few clicks! They will be delivered by post. Isn’t it convenient? Unfortunately, it is not all that simple. You can’t see what you are buying. You should consider everything carefully before you make an order.

Variant II

I’m sure that a supermarket is a good place for those who want to buy many foodstuffs but have little time. They can buy bread and buns at the baker’s counter; milk, cottage cheese or sour cream at the dairy department; pork or beef at the butcher’s; and potatoes, onions and cabbage at the greengrocery.

Those who want to buy clothes or other things can go to the Central Department Store. You can buy everything you need there.

 

I 5.Parents usually give pocket money to their children. How do you usually spend your pocket money?

Variant I

Some people think that teenagers become more responsible and sensible getting pocket money. Others claim that young people can not deal with money and believe they waste it on useless things. I would like to express my opinion on this situation.

I think that pocket money helps teenagers to learn how to plan their budget. There are a lot of things they want to spend their money on, but the amount of money is limited. Moreover, teenagers get information about the cost of living. It helps them to realize what kind of job to choose in future to earn enough money for everything they want to get.

On the other hand, many people say that teenagers waste money. I do not agree with this statement, because we spend a lot of money on food as most of us spend our time at school or courses. We spend money on clothes because looking smart and fashionable is very important today. We pay for mobile phones and the Internet. However, some people argue that teenagers have no idea of how difficult money is earned. I disagree, because many teenagers have part time jobs and realize that to make good money they have to be hardworking, reliable and intelligent.

All things considered, there are two points of view on this problem. I believe that parents should give teenagers pocket money because sensible spending of it teaches them a lot of.

Variant II

Nearly all teenagers can afford to buy small things because parents give them pocket money. I think it is quite reasonable. We spend a lot of time at school and we need money to buy something to eat during the day. We can also buy some small things for ourselves, like exercise-books, toothpaste, or perfume.

Variant III

I usually spend my pocket money on different entertainments, such as going to a cafe or a disco or I buy something tasty at our school canteen.

 

№2

Let’s talk about shopping. Who does the shopping in your family?

Is Minsk a shopper’s paradise? Why (not)?

What questions will you ask your friend who has bought an expensive telephone?

What can you advise a teenager who wants to buy a birthday present for his/her friend?

Variant I

Well, it goes without saying that we can’t do without shopping. My mother usually does the shopping in our family because she does most of the cooking, so she knows what she needs to buy. But when it concerns everyday things like bread and milk it is usually me who buys them. There is a supermarket near our house, so it doesn’t take me much time to do the shopping.

Variant II

My parents do most of the shopping in our family. They usually drive to the supermarket where they go to the grocery, greengrocery, meat and fish departments and buy all the food we need for our family. They usually do it once a week.

Shopping is also a chore for me. There is a small supermarket near our house so when my mum asks me I go there to buy bread or milk or something we’ve run out.

Sometimes shopping is a kind of pastime and even entertainment for me and my mother. We can spend hours walking from one shop to another in search of something special.

Variant III

Shopping is a part of our daily life. And we have to deal with it whether we like it or not. There are people who hate going shopping. So they make a list of what they need and run through stores buying the needed things. Sometimes they even don’t care about the price. And there are people who go from store to store looking for goods of better quality and lower price. They don’t worry about the time they spend shopping.

Modern technology affects people’s lifestyles and daily routine. Now we can do our shopping not only in stores or markets but also on the Internet. No doubt shopping online is more convenient and less time consuming but on the other hand buying clothes without trying them on or perfume without smelling it may not seem a good idea. My family buys only big things like TV-sets, notebooks or wardrobes on the Internet.

Variant IV

Some people hate shopping. So they make a list of what they need and run through stores. Others make a hobby of shopping tours. They go from store to store looking for goods of better quality and lower price. Like most girls I like shopping.

Modern shopping centres do their best to prove to you that shopping may be fun. That’s why they tend to combine shopping and leisure. A modern shopping centre often looks like a city under one roof. Besides a great variety of stores, shops and outlets one can find there theme parks with rides, amusements and games. If you are tired you can enjoy delicious food in a restaurant or just have a snack in a cafeteria or a café. Information desk will help you not to be at a loss and to save your time.

To make shopping convenient for all, shopping centres offer you free of charge: late night shopping, recreation areas, special facilities for the elderly and disabled and shopping trolleys and baskets.

 

Variant I

To my mind, a birthday present isn’t only something valuable in terms of money but both useful and memorable for the person to whom it will be presented. A useful thing which won’t be put away immediately will always bring the memories about the celebration back making a person smile at the thought of the event. Choosing a present we should take into consideration likes and dislikes of the person who will get the gift. Maybe the present ought to have something to do with his hobby. Before giving a present you are expected to make a speech. Try to come up with the one that will highlight the best things about your present and the person who will get it.

Variant II

First I should say, buying gifts for teens is not easy. Secondly, I advise you to find out as much as possible about his or her hobbies, interests, likes and dislikes. Nowadays teens are much into communication so an inexpensive gadget will be a good idea.

At the same time teenagers like surprises so if you are a creative person think of something unusual.

Be practical!

 

See II 1.

Let’s talk about shopping and money. What do you know about the history of money?







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