ТОП 10:

The roots of the union between England, Scotland, Wa1es and Northern Ireland.



The roots of the union between England, Scotland, Wa1es and Northern Ireland.

Victorian AgeI. The United Kingdom is a union of four countries: England. Northern Ireland. Scotland and Wales. England and Scotland had existed as separate sovereign and independent states with their own monarchs and political structures since the 9th century. Wales fell under the control of English monarchs by the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284. The Welsh tried to regain their independence but failed, and in 1536-1543 two Acts of Parliament were passed which completely united England and Wales.

England, Ireland and Scotland were brought into a personal union by the Union of the Crowns in 1603, when James VI, King of Scots inherited the Kingdoms of England and Ireland and moved his court from Edinburgh to London, although all three kingdoms retained their separate political institutions.

The Treaty of Union was agreed a century later, in 1707. The Acts of Union, passed b> the Parliaments of England and Scotland respectively, created a political union in the form of a United Kingdom of Great Britain. The Act of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland, which had been gradually brought under English control between 1541 and 1691, to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801.


Тhe history of the British parliament. The British parliament from the Middle Аges uр to the рresent day.

The British Parliament is the oldest in the world. In 1215 Magna Carta, an English legal charter was issued. It established that the king may not collect any taxes without consent of his royal council, which slowly developed into a parliament. In 1265. Simon de Montfort summoned the first elected Parliament. In 1295 Edward I adopted the so-called Model Parliament B> the reign of Edward II, Parliament had been separated into two Houses.

The British Parliament consists of the House of Lords and the House of Commons and the Queen as its head. The House of Commons plays the major role in law-making It is pceskkvi over by the Speaker who is chosen by a vote of the entire House. The House of Commons consists of Members of Parliament (called MPs for short). Each of them represents an area in England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland. The British parliamentary system depends on political parties. The party which wins the majority of seals forms the government and its leader usually becomes Prime Minister, The Prime Minister chooses about 20 MPs from his pait> to create the cabinet of ministers. Each minister is responsible for a particular area in the government. The second largest party becomes the official opposition with its own leader and "shadow cabinet*. The leader of the opposition is a recognized post in the House of Commons. The parliament and the monarch have different roles in the government and they only meet together on symbolic occasions, such as coronation of a new monarch or the opening of the parliament.

Members of the House of Lords are mostly appointed by the Queen, a fixed number are elected infernally and a limited number of Church of England archbishops and bishops sit in the House.

The Lords act as a revising chamber for legislation and its work complements the business of the Commons. The House of Lords is also the highest court in the land: the supreme court of appealParliament is an essential part of UK politics. It is the supreme legislative body of the state.

2 The British Parliament in Britain is an ancient institution dating the beginning of the 13th century though it was established in 1265 by Simon de Montfort. Now the home of the British Parliament is the Palace of Westminster. It’s called a palace because until the reign of Henry the 8th it was one of the Homes of the kings of England. The name Westminster means Minister or Monastery (монастырь) to the West of London. There used to be a small church and monastery in the 11th century on the side of which Westminster Abbey now stands. In the 11th century king Edward the Confessor built a palace. Later his successor extended it and made it the Home. Government and the Court (двор) moved into the neighborhood and central seat of power was established.

For nearly 500 years Westminster served as a royal residence, seat of power and monastery.

Parliament of legislature and the Supreme (высший) Assort (класс) – it consists of 3 elements: The Monarch, The House of Lords and The House of Commons.

They meet together only on occasions of ceremonial significance (for example, the opening of Parliament).

Parliament has the following functions:

- Passing or abolishing Laws

- Voting on taxation in order to provide money for carrying government , debating government policy and administration and any other major issues

The House of Commons consists of 650 elected members – Members of Parliament (MPs), age of whom represents an area or constitutions of the UK and is elected.

The government which is the part of Parliament is formed by the political party which has the majority in the House of Commons. It’s leader the Prime-Minister (PM).

The second largest party becomes the official position with its leader and ‘Shadow Cabinet”.

The House of Commons is presided (контролировать) over by the Speaker. MPs are paid for their work and have to attend to seats which usually begin at 10 a.m.

New Laws may be proposed in Parliament either by the Government or by Private Impeach (???) or by members of the House of Lords. The proposed Law is known as a bill (законопроект).

When it has been finally past, bill becomes an Act of Parliament.

The House of Lords has more then 1,200 members now who have the right to sit and vote in the House of Lords. Most of them are hereditary besides the queen grants Peerages to certain outstanding individuals. Amount members of Lords are Archbishop of Canterbury and York and 24 Anglican Senior Bishops, hereditary Peers, 11 Judges and 1085 live Peers .And unlike impeers (члены парламента) they dо not receive a salary (за даром).

The powers of the Lords are limited by Law and Convention. The debating persuade of two Houses are very similar (3 readings) and bills approved at all stages and then to the royal Assent (санкция) and become the Acts of Parliament.

The Lords have the power to right public laws but rarely do it. It’s most important role is to review laws proposed by the House of Commons.

The House of Lords is the only non-elected second chair member (2 палата) among all the democrats in the world and some people in Britain would like to abolish it.


 

The war of independence and its reasons.

In 1764 there was a serious quarrel over taxation between the British

government and its colonies in America. In 1700 there had been only 200,000

colonists, but by 1770 there were 2.5 million. Such large numbers needed to be

dealt with carefully.

 

In 1773 a group of colonists at the port of Boston threw a shipload of tea into

the sea rather than pay tax on it. The event became known as "the Boston

Teaparty". The British government answered by closing the port. But the colonists

then decided to prevent British goods from entering America until the port was

opened again. This was rebellion, and the government decided to defeat it by force.

The American War of Independence had begun.

The war in America lasted from 1775 until 1783. The government had no

respect for the politics of the colonists, and the British army had no respect for

their fighting ability. The result was a disastrous defeat for the British government.

It lost everything except for Canada


 

 

Civil War I

Motivations On the side of the King were enlisted:[1]

 

a deep-seated loyalty resulting from two centuries of effective royal protection;

a pure cavalier spirit, foreshadowing the courtier era of Charles II, but still strongly tinged with the old feudal indiscipline;

the militarism of an expert soldier nobility, well represented by Prince Rupert; and

a widespread mistrust of extreme Puritanism, which appeared unreasonable to the Viscount Falkland and other philosophic statesmen, and intolerable to every other class of Royalists.

 

The other side of the war saw the causes of the quarrel primarily and apparently as political, but ultimately and really felt them as religious. Thus, the elements of resistance in Parliament and the nation were at first confused, and, later, strong and direct. Democracy, moderate republicanism, and the simple desire for constitutional guarantees could hardly make head of themselves against the various forces of royalism, for the most moderate men of either party were sufficiently in sympathy to admit compromise. But the backbone of resistance was the Puritan element, and this waging war at first with the rest on the political issue, soon (as the Royalists anticipated) brought the religious issue to the front.

Aftermath

 

The close of the First Civil War left England and Scotland in the hands potentially of any one of the four parties or any combination of two or more that should prove strong enough to dominate the rest. Armed political Royalism was indeed at an end, but Charles, though practically a prisoner, considered himself and was, almost to the last, considered by the rest as necessary to ensure the success of whichever amongst the other three parties could come to terms with him. Thus he passed successively into the hands of the Scots, Parliament and the New Model, trying to reverse the verdict of arms by coquetting with each in turn. The Presbyterians and the Scots, after, Cornet George Joyce of Fairfax's horse seized upon the person of the King for the army (3 June 1647), began at once to prepare for a fresh civil war, this time against Independency, as embodied in the New Model Army and after making use of its sword, its opponents attempted to disband it, to send it on foreign service, to cut off its arrears of pay, with the result that it became exasperated beyond control, and, remembering not merely its grievances but also the principle for which it had fought, soon became the most powerful political party in the realm. From 1646 to 1648 the breach between the New Model Army and Parliament widened day by day until finally the Presbyterian party, combined with the Scots and the remaining Royalists, felt itself strong enough to begin a second civil war.

The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. King Charles I was in constant conflict with the Parliament. He claimed his “divine right” to rule the country, he dissolved the Parliament and summoned it again. Finally, after his attempts to arrest 5 members of the House of Commons, the war broke out. The first civil war lasted from 1642 to 1646. The battles of the Civil War took place not in London, but in the counties. The King's standard was first raised at Nottingham in 1642 and, when he could not get to London, Oxford became his tem­porary capital. The first part of the war was more or less successful for the Royalists, but then in 1645 Parliament re-organized its main forces into the New Model Army, under the command of Sir Thomas Fairfax, with Oliver Cromwell as his second-in-command. Charles I was captured by the Scots who handed him over to the Parliamentarians. This marked the end of the first civil war.

But Charles escaped and made agreements with the Scots. A new series of conflicts and uprisings took place in the country. The Scots who fought on the side of the King were later defeated by the Parliamentar­ian Army. Charles I was brought to trial for High Treason and in 1649 he was beheaded.

The House of Lords was abolished, some famous Royalists were captured and beheaded. A Council of State was created to gov­ern the country, and Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector.

 


 

The roots of the union between England, Scotland, Wa1es and Northern Ireland.

Victorian AgeI. The United Kingdom is a union of four countries: England. Northern Ireland. Scotland and Wales. England and Scotland had existed as separate sovereign and independent states with their own monarchs and political structures since the 9th century. Wales fell under the control of English monarchs by the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284. The Welsh tried to regain their independence but failed, and in 1536-1543 two Acts of Parliament were passed which completely united England and Wales.

England, Ireland and Scotland were brought into a personal union by the Union of the Crowns in 1603, when James VI, King of Scots inherited the Kingdoms of England and Ireland and moved his court from Edinburgh to London, although all three kingdoms retained their separate political institutions.

The Treaty of Union was agreed a century later, in 1707. The Acts of Union, passed b> the Parliaments of England and Scotland respectively, created a political union in the form of a United Kingdom of Great Britain. The Act of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland, which had been gradually brought under English control between 1541 and 1691, to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801.







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