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Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Why we Love Junk Food to Healthy Food?
Стр 1 из 6Следующая ⇒
Term 6, 2015-2016
Food and meals
My students usually get confused with the words meal and food because they both translate as “comida” in Spanish. To help them understand the difference, I tell them that food is what you eat and the meals are breakfast, lunch, dinner... that is, the portions of food taken at a particular time. Thus, breakfast is eaten in the morning, and as its name suggests, it is the meal that breaks the “fast” or period in which you abstain from food (the night); lunch is eaten at midday and it is usually a light snack; and dinner is the main meal of the day and is eaten between six and eight at night. Some people use the word supper for the main meal of the day, but for others, supper is a light meal eaten shortly before going to bed. Apart from these meals, you can also have a snack in between meals, and on Sunday an American custom that is catching in Britain is the brunch, which is a late breakfast or early lunch that is usually eaten in the late morning, making it perfect for those people that after a long night out want to stay in bed a little longer on a Sunday morning. The word brunch is a portmanteau of “breakfast” and “lunch”. Meals can consist of one, two or three courses (or sometimes more!). These are the parts of the meal that are served in different dishes and one after the other. A good meal can have an appetizer, a first course (soup or salad), a second course (meat or fish with vegetables and potatoes) and the third course, the dessert (sometimes called “pudding”), which is usually something sweet such as ice-cream, cake, trifle... Please, do not confuse dessert /dɪˈzɜːt/ with desert /ˈdɛzət/. Have a look at the pictures. As we have seen in a previous post, you can “have” or “take” a meal, being the verb have more widely used in Britain, while the use of take in this context is more American.
In our country daily meals usually start with breakfast, which consists of something to drink such as tea with sugar and lemon, cold or warm milk or a cocoa. Most people breakfast on several slices of bread, rolls or buns and butter, processed or natural cheese, eggs, ham, salami, jam and so on. We can also have something sweet. Quite a lot of people eat cereal or cornflakes with ingredients like yoghurt, chocolate, stewed fruit, walnuts, hazelnuts and so on. We must always remember that breakfast must be healthy, light and easily digestible. Around noon it is lunchtime. Most people take their meals at the school canteen, or local canteen, but some people prefer going to a restaurant or having fast food in a McDonalds. But I assume that these meals are neither healthy nor substantial. Soups may be either vegetable (potato, tomato, pea, bean, carrot, parsley, celery, mushrooms) or meat teas (beef tea, tripe, chicken, hen). The main dish can be either sweet such as fruit dumplings or pancakes with jam and cream. Or we can have some meat (beef, pork, veal, mutton, lamb) with some vegetables such as potatoes, chips, rice, Czech dumpling, pasta or bread. More healthy fish and poultry are slowly replacing beef and pork. It’s healthy to drink at least one glass of mineral water, juice, tea or beer, after each meal. Scientists recommend drinking at least two litres of water per a day. At six or seven in the evening comes time for dinner. At this time the entire family is usually together. We often prepare warm dishes. On some occasions we even go out to restaurants. There we can choose from a menu of various dishes. Roast pork with sauerkraut and dumplings, chicken with rice, fried pork chops with mashed potatoes, filet of fish with potato salad, roasted sirloin beef in sour cream sauce and Czech dumplings. For variety we can order a vegetable salad prepared from tomatoes or cucumbers, stewed fruits or a dessert. While cooking we may add various spices such as garlic, marjoram, pepper, ketchup, vinegar, mustard, onions, and so on. Inappropriate food is the cause of quite a few diseases. More frequent now are disorders of the digestive track, stomach and small and large intestine. It is noteworthy but not surprising, that young people are now suffering from these diseases. It is because of fast food. So we should always keep in mind also our health and not just listen to our stomach and the fact that we are hungry. When you want to be slimmer you can try to go on a diet, but I don’t believe in them, because when you eat something with more calories, then all the weight you lost will be back again. It is better to eat more vegetables and fruits, cereal, and other low caloric and healthy food. And it is also better to eat your last meal before seven PM. Finally, when you sit and do nothing, then all the calories are turned into fat, so I can recommend that you should be more active.
Healthy food vs junk food
It an age old war between healthy food and junk food. When it comes to choosing between junk food and healthy food, junk food has always won the race!
Whether we admit it or not, although we may start off our day with eating an apple, we’ll end it with two to three slices of extra cheese pizza and coke. But why do we love junk food so much when we know that it is unhealthy for us? There are many reasons to which most of you will agree.
Topic: Traditional British Cuisine
Тема: Традиционная британская кухня
Traditional British cuisine is usually described as plain, conservative and unvaried. There exists a popular joke that it’s the worst cuisine in the world, moreover, the British themselves often say so. Indeed, classic British dishes are not too daintith, but they are nourishing, natural and tasty. Much attention here is paid to the food quality. Residents of Great Britain prefer local food to imported products, so, nearly all fish, milk and meat products are produced within the country, and vegetables are grown by local farmers.
Традиционную британскую кухню обычно характеризуют как простую, консервативную и однообразную. Существует популярная шутка, что это худшая кухня в мире, более того, даже сами британцы иногда так говорят. И действительно, классические британские блюда не отличаются изысканностью, но при этом они питательные, натуральные и вкусные. Жители Великобритании предпочитают местные продукты импортным, поэтому почти все рыбные, молочные и мясные продукты производятся внутри страны, а овощи выращиваются местными фермерами.
Meals during a day in Britain traditionally include breakfast, lunch, dinner and supper. Both lunch and supper sometimes can be replaced by dinner, which is the main meal of the day and can take place either in the afternoon, or in the evening. “Tea” is usually a separate ceremony, which has traditionally been held at 5 p.m. Nowadays this tradition is not strictly observed, so, tea can be had at any time of the day, sometimes even late at night.
Прием пищи в течение в Британии традиционно включает завтрак, ланч, обед и ужин. И ланч, и ужин иногда заменяется обедом, который является основным приемом пищи и может иметь место как днем, так и вечером. «Чай» обычно является отдельной церемонией, которая традиционно устраивалась в пять часов пополудни. В наши дни эта традиция строго не соблюдается, поэтому чай пьют в любое время суток, иногда даже поздно вечером.
So, let’s begin with breakfast. As you have probably guessed, it’s the first morning meal. Classic British breakfast is rather substantial, and it includes not only porridge. Of course, cereals play an important role in the national menu, so they are often cooked for breakfast. But apart from them, in the morning the British often cook omelets and scrambled eggs with cheese, bacon or sausages, toasts, pastries, orange juice, black or white coffee. Sometimes eggs are served with kidney bean, mushrooms and tomatoes. As you see, in Britain you won’t stay hungry in the morning!
Итак, начнем с завтрака. Как вы, наверное, догадались, это первый утренний прием пищи. Классический британский завтрак довольно сытный и включает не только овсянку. Конечно, крупы играют важную роль в национальном меню, и их часто готовят на завтрак. Но кроме них по утрам британцы часто готовят омлет или яичницу с сыром, беконом или сосисками, тосты, выпечку, апельсиновый сок, кофе с молоком или черный. Иногда яйца подают с фасолью, грибами или томатами. Как вы видите, в Британии вы не останетесь голодными утром!
As for lunch, it usually includes light refreshments, such as sandwiches, chips and fish, fruit or chocolate bars. As a rule, lunchtime is 12 a.m. It is worth mentioning that sandwiches with different fillings are a traditional British snack. The most popular fillings are cheese, bacon, chicken, cucumber, tuna and others.
Что касается ланча, то он обычно включает легкие закуски, такие как сэндвичи, чипсы и рыбу, фрукты или шоколадные батончики. Как правило, время ланча – это полдень. Стоит отметить, что сэндвичи с разными начинками являются традиционной британской закуской. Самые популярные начинки – это сыр, ветчина, курица, огурец, тунец и прочие.
Dinner is always the most substantial meal during the day. For dinner the British often have soup and the main course, such as meat, poultry or fish with vegetables or mashed potatoes. It is followed with a dessert, for example an apple pie. Soups are not very popular in Britain. However meat dishes are presented in British cuisine in a large variety. Probably, the most well-known of them is roast beef, which is often served with grilled vegetables, roast potatoes or Yorkshire pudding. Apart from beef, the British cook steaks of pork, lamb and sometimes turkey or chicken.
Обед всегда является самым обильным приемом пищи в течение дня. На обед британцы часто едят суп и второе блюдо, такое как мясо, птицу или рыбу с овощами или картофельным пюре. Вслед за этим идет десерт, например, яблочный пирог. Супы в Британии не слишком популярны. Однако мясные блюда представлены в британской кухне в огромном ассортименте. Наверное, самое известное из них – это ростбиф (цельный кусок запеченной говядины), который часто подают с овощами-гриль, запеченным картофелем или Йоркширским пудингом. Помимо говядины, британцы готовят стейки из говядины, баранины и иногда из индейки или курицы.
Supper in Britain is the last meal of the day, and usually it consists of something light, for example, a bowl of cream soup, or just a cup of tea and bread with butter. Often supper is simply skipped.
Ужин в Британии – это последний прием пищи в течение дня, и обычно он состоит из чего-нибудь легкого, например, чашки супа-пюре или просто чашки чая и кусочка хлеба с маслом. Часто ужин и вовсе пропускается.
Some dishes of British cuisine deserve special mention. This is, for instance, the famous shepherd’s pie – a potato casserole with minced beef. Cornish pasty is also considered a typical English food. It is a layered pie with meat, onion, potatoes, carrots and spices. Finally, one more well-known British (or Scottish, to be more exact), dish is Scotch eggs, which are also called picnic eggs. They are common boiled eggs that are wrapped in minced sausages and breading, and then fried or baked.
Некоторые блюда британской кухни заслуживают отдельного упоминания. Это, например, знаменитый пастуший пирог (Shepherd’s Pie) – картофельная запеканка с фаршем из говядины. Корнуэльский пирог (Cornish pasty) тоже считается типичной английской едой. Это слоеный пирог с мясом, луком, картошкой, морковью и специями. Наконец, еще одно хорошо известное британское (а если быть точнее, — шотландское) блюдо – это яйца по-шотландски, которые также называют «яйца для пикника». Это обычные сваренные вкрутую яйца, которые заворачивают в колбасный фарш, обваливают в панировке, а затем запекают или обжаривают.
As for drinks, of course, it’s impossible to imagine British cuisine without tea. Contrary to popular opinion, tea is not always served with milk. The British drink tea with and without sugar, with lemon, ginger, cinnamon, honey and so on. But tea and milk is a classic combination.
Что касается напитков, конечно, невозможно представить британскую кухню без чая. Вопреки расхожему мнению, чай не всегда подают с молоком. Британцы пьют чай с сахаром и без него, с лимоном, имбирем, корицей, медом и т.д. Но чай и молоко – это классическое сочетание.
Tourists are impressed by Ukrainian national cuisine with its traditional tomato red and sorrel green borsches, several kinds of Ukrainian vareniki (pierogis) stuffed with all kinds of meat, cheese, potatoes with mushrooms; golubtsi or cabbage rolls (cabbage leaves with a mixture of rice, meat, carrot and fried onion inside usually served with sour-cream); jellied meat with horse-radish, suckling pig, delicious stuffed fish and plenty of other Ukrainian specialties.
The traditional Ukrainian cuisine is very rich in natural ingredients. Tomatoes, cucumbers, sweet onion, lettuce, peaches, watermelons, apples, grapes - all vegetable and fruits produced in Ukraine taste really delicious. Ukrainian customs and traditions in cooking are based on a combination of fresh or pickled fruits and vegetables, meat, mushrooms, and herbs.
Borsch is a Ukrainian national soup. It is not just a regular meal. It is one of the Ukraine’s national symbols. Borsch is based on a beet and mixed vegetable broth that comes in dozens of varieties. The most popular version is a clear broth, but sour cream is often added. Each region in Ukraine has its own borsch recipe. Every hostess can change not only borsch ingredients from time to time, but also the way of cooking every time she cooks Borshch.
Holubtsi are cabbage rolls stuffed with seasoned rice and meat or buckwheat. The dish is usually topped with a tomato-based sauce.
Known to the English-speaking world as Chicken Kiev, kotleta po-Kyivsky is a chunk of boneless chicken stuffed with butter, then seasoned, floured, and deep-fried.
Kasha is basically a grain-based cereal. The most common kind is hrechana kasha (buckwheat porridge), seasoned and eaten with a sauce as a side dish or as a stuffing.
Varenyky (pierogis) are small boiled dumplings made with rolled dough and filled with a special type of potato and cheese or some other filling. Almost all restaurants serve them, usually with either cheese or meat, and almost always with sour cream or a buttery sauce.
My favourite dish
One of the most famous dishes from Ukrainian cuisine is Ukrainian Borsch. Its unique taste made it popular all over the world. There are many types and ways of cooking of borsch. In various regions of Ukraine it is cooked in different ways; even each housewife has her own recipe of this tasty dish. But there are some general recipes of cooking traditional Ukrainian Borsch. And we will describe it below.
борщ традиц1 300x214 Ukrainian borsch. Traditional recipe.
Traditional Ukrainian borsch
For3 literof water:
Soup bones with meat (pork, beef or chicken), 0,5 kg.
Beet 2 pieces(approx.200 g.)
2 carrots.(approx.200 g.)
Potatoes 4 pieces. medium
Onion 1 piece.
Sweet pepper 1 piece.
1-2 cloves of garlic
Tomato paste 2 tablespoons.
2 tablespoons of vegetable oil.
Greens of parsley, dill.
As you wish-the roots of parsley, celery
Salt, sugar-to taste.
The way to cook:
For cooking Ukrainian Borsch take bones with meat, wash them and put them into the cold water, bring to boil and remove the foam. Cook the broth for about an hour (until meat is cooked).
Clean all the vegetables.
Carrots and beet cut into thin stripes and put into the broth. Cut potatoes into pieces of 1.5-2 cm. and put them into the pot in 15-20 minutes after the beet.
Cut onion into small cubes, put into a pan with warmed oil and fry until golden brown, add the tomato paste and warm it up a couple of minutes.
Cut cabbage and sweet pepper into stripes and put them into the broth. Then put 2 tablespoons of tomato paste. Boil everything till vegetables are ready. At the end add some salt. Cut parsley or dill and put it into the borsch before turning off the gas.
After the end of cooking you should infuse your borsch. To accelerate this process, put the pot with closed lid on slow fire and bring to a boil again. After this procedure the borscht is even tastier!
Borsch is served with sour cream and garlic. Borsch is very tasty with pampushkas and garlic sauce; it is also very tasty to eat it with black bread and garlic. Bon appetite!
Shops and shopping
SHOPS AND SHOPPING
If you are going to buy some clothes, electrical appliances, souvenirs and so on, the best place to visit is a department store. A department store is a store which sells many different kinds of goods, each in a separate department. Modern department stores serve the needs of the entire family. Usually people enjoy buying goods in such shops as they can make all their purchases under one roof. A typical department store occupies a large building with separate departments, located on a number of floors. Some departments provide special services among them there can be a travel agency or a chemist's for example. These stores started in America more than 50 years ago, and then the idea was brought to European countries. And today we can hardly imagine our life without these stores; people really enjoy shopping there.
If you already know what you’re looking for, shopping online can save you a significant amount of time. With just a few clicks of the mouse, you can place your order and move on to other things.
While shopping online, it is very easy to do price comparisons for a given item. Once you have determined what you want to purchase, you can see if you are getting the best deal with just a few clicks. And making it even easier, there are now search engines specifically designed for price comparisons, and these sites will often even calculate and include any shipping charges, so you get to compare the actual, total cost of the item.
Fuel prices have been up and down in recent years, but no matter how expensive or inexpensive gasoline might be at any given time, shopping online does not require any driving, so it doesn’t consume any fuel, no matter what the cost.
With online retailers, it is much easier to find the item, model number, color, style, and size you want. You can also quickly determine whether the item is "in stock" or not. Also, online shopping does not restrict you geographically -- the pool of products and available inventory for you to choose from is vastly larger than those available to you via local retailers within driving distance.
Online stores are available twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week, all year long. The same claim cannot be made by most (if any) retail stores. Online shopping allows you to shop whenever you want, at your convenience.
When purchasing online, there are no long lines that you are forced to stand in line just to make a purchase. In fact, when you purchase online, your wait time will simply be the time required to display the website ordering page.
Disadvantages Of Shopping Online...
Unless you purchase digital products, there will sometimes be an additional expense to ship your purchases. The shipping cost will often depend on the size and the weight of the item. Many online retailers offer "free" shipping, but only if the cost of your order reaches a certain minimum amount. The additional shipping costs can make the overall cost of purchasing online, especially for larger and heavier items, much less attractive than buying locally.
See It, Touch It, Feel It
Some shoppers like being able to see and feel an item, and to test it or try it on prior to purchasing. By actually seeing the item, and being able to physically feel and inspect the item, the purchaser can often make a far more reasonable assessment of the quality. This is difficult to do if you are just looking at an online photo of the item.
Some people are concerned about the potential security risks of storing and sharing of their personal data and credit card numbers with online retailers. While this risk is also an issue for local retail stores (and some security experts say an even greater risk), many people feel that purchasing online is an added security risk that they are just not willing to take.
When you purchase online, you rarely have the opportunity to build a relationship with the seller. On the other hand, local retail stores are far more likely to form relationships with their customers, simply because of the personal interaction between buyer and seller.
Online support may be limited, or even non-existent, for items purchased online.
When trying to deal with defective items purchased online, quite often the only option is to pack the item up and ship it back to the online retailer for a credit or replacement. And the customer is often responsible for any return shipping costs. After waiting a few days for your item to arrive in the first place, this adds even more time to the overall process.
As you can see, each type of shopping has its advantages and disadvantages, so weigh the pros and cons yourself to decide which type best suits your needs.
About the Author:
My last visit to the shop
A: Hello. Can I help u?
B:Can I see a red dress?
A: Yes u can.
B: Black or brown.
A: Do you want shoes in leather or suede?
B: In leather.
A: Here is about your size. Would u like to try these shoes?
B: Yes I would.
A: How do they fit, madam?
B: What is the price?
A: 20 pounds.
B: Thank u. good buy.
My most successful shopping
Climate of Great Britain
The British Isles which are surrounded by the ocean have an insular climate.
There are 3 things that chiefly determine the climate of the United Kingdom: the position of the islands in the temperate belt; the fact that the prevailing winds blow from the west and south-west and the warm current — the Gulf Stream that flows from the Gulf of Mexico along the western shores of England. All these features make the climate more moderate, without striking difference between seasons. It is not very cold in winter and never very hot in summer.
So, the British ports are ice-free and its rivers are not frozen throughout the year. The weather on the British Isles has a bad reputation. It is very changeable and fickle. The British say that there is a climate in other countries, but we have just weather. If you don't like the weather in England, just wait a few minutes.
It rains very often in all seasons in Great Britain. Autumn and winter are the wettest. The sky is usually grey and cold winds blow. On the average, Britain has more than 200 rainy days a year. The English say that they have 3 variants of weather: when it rains in the morning, when it rains in the afternoon, and when it rains all day long. Sometimes it rains so heavily, that they say «It's raining cats and dogs».
Britain is known all over the world for its fogs. Sometimes fogs are so thick that it's impossible to see anything within a few meters. The winter fogs of London are, indeed, awful; they surpass all imagination. In a dense fog all traffic is stopped, no vehicle can move from fear of dreadful accidents. So, we may say that the British climate has three main features: it is mild, humid and very changeable.
Климат в Великобритании
Британские острова, окруженные океаном, имеют островной климат.
Так что Британские порты не сковываются льдом зимой, а реки не замерзают в течение года. Погода на Британских островах имеет плохую репутацию. Она очень изменчива и непостоянна. Британцы говорят, что в других странах есть климат, а у нас — погода. Если вам не нравится погода в Англии, подождите несколько минут.
В Великобритании дождь идет очень часто и в любое время года. Самые влажные сезоны — осень и 'зима. Небо обычно серого цвета, дуют холодные ветры. В среднем по Англии более 200 дождливых дней в году. Англичане говорят, что у них три погоды: когда идет дождь утром, когда идет дождь днем и когда идет дождь целый день. Иногда идет настолько сильный дождь, что они говорят «дождь льет как из ведра».
Англия известна во всем мире своими туманами. Иногда туманы настолько густы, что невозможно что-либо рассмотреть в нескольких метрах от себя. Зимние туманы Лондона, действительно, ужасны; они превосходят любое воображение. В очень сильном тумане останавливается весь транспорт, из-за страха попасть в ужасную аварию, любая машина вынуждена стоять. Так что мы можем сказать, что британский климат имеет три основных особенности: он умеренный, влажный и очень непостоянный.
LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT
The United Kingdom is situated off the northwest coast of Europe between the Atlantic Ocean on the n and nw and the North Sea on the e, separated from the Continent by the Strait of Dover and the English Channel, 34 km (21 mi) wide at its narrowest point, and from the Irish Republic by the Irish Sea and St. George's Channel. Its total area of 244,820 sq km (94,526 sq mi) consists of the island of Great Britain—formed by England, 130,439 sq km (50,363 sq mi); Wales, 20,768 sq km (8,018 sq mi); and Scotland, 78,783 sq km (30,418 sq mi)—and Northern Ireland, 14,120 sq km (5,452 sq mi), on the island of Ireland, separated from Great Britain by the North Channel. Comparatively, the area occupied by the United Kingdom is slightly smaller than the state of Oregon.
There are also several island groups and hundreds of small single islands, most of them administratively part of the mainland units. The United Kingdom extends about 965 km (600 mi) n–s and about 485 km (300 mi) e–w. Its total boundary length is 12,789 km (7,947 mi), of which 12,429 km (7,723 mi) is coastline. The Isle of Man, 588 sq km (227 sq mi), and the Channel Islands, comprising Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney, and Sark, with a combined area of 194 sq km (75 sq mi), are not part of the United Kingdom but are dependencies of the crown. The 0°meridian of longitude passes through the old Royal Observatory, located at Greenwich in Greater London. The United Kingdom's capital city, London, is located in the southeast part of Great Britain.
England is divided into the hill regions of the north, west, and southwest and the rolling downs and low plains of the east and southeast. Running from east to west on the extreme north Scottish border are the Cheviot Hills. The Pennine Range runs north and south from the Scottish border to Derbyshire in central England. The rest of the countryside consists mainly of rich agricultural lands, occasional moors, and plains. South of the Pennines lie the Midlands (East and West), a plains region with low, rolling hills and fertile valleys. The eastern coast is low-lying, much of it less than 5 m (15 ft) above sea level; for centuries parts of it have been protected by embankments against inundation from gales and unusually high tides. Little of the south and east rises to higher than 300 m (1,000 ft).
The highest point in England is Scafell Pike (978 m/3,210 ft) in the famed Lake District of the northwest. The longest of the rivers flowing from the central highlands to the sea are the Severn (about 340 km/210 mi) in the west and the Thames (about 320 km/200 mi) in the southeast. Other rivers include the Humber, the Tees, the Tyne, and the Tweed in the east, the Avon and Exe in the south, and the Mersey in the west.
Scotland has three distinct topographical regions: the Northern Highlands, occupying almost the entire northern half of the country and containing the highest point in the British Isles, Ben Nevis (1,343 m/4,406 ft), as well as Loch Ness, site of a fabled "monster"; the Central Lowlands, with an average elevation of about 150 m (500 ft) and containing the valleys of the Tay, Forth, and Clyde rivers, as well as Loch Lomond, Scotland's largest lake; and the Southern Uplands, rising to their peak at Merrick (843 m/2,766 ft), with moorland cut by many valleys and rivers.
Wales is largely mountainous and bleak, with much of the land suitable only for pasture. The Cambrian Mountains occupy almost the entire area and include Wales's highest point, Mt. Snowdon (1,086 m/3,563 ft). There are narrow coastal plains in the south and west and small lowland areas in the north, including the valley of the Dee.
Northern Ireland consists mainly of low-lying plateaus and hills, generally about 150 to 180 m (500–600 ft) high. The Mourne Mountains in the southeast include Slieve Donard (852 m/2,796 ft), the highest point in Northern Ireland. In a central depression lies Lough Neagh, the largest lake in the United Kingdom.
The United Kingdom's long and rugged coastline, heavily indented, has towering cliffs and headlands and numerous bays and inlets, among them the deep and narrow lochs and the wide firths of Scotland. Many river estuaries serve as fine harbors.
Despite its northern latitude, the United Kingdom generally enjoys a temperate climate, warmed by the North Atlantic Drift, a continuation of the Gulf Stream, and by southwest winds. Mean monthly temperatures range (north to south) from 3°c to 5°c (37–41°f) in winter and from 12°c to 16°c (54–61°f) in summer. The mean annual temperature in the west near sea level ranges from 8°c (46°f) in the Hebrides to 11°c (52°f) in the far southwest of England. Rarely do temperatures rise in summer to over 32°c (90°f) or drop in winter below -10°c (14°f).
Rainfall, averaging more than 100 cm (40 in) throughout the United Kingdom, is heaviest on the western and northern heights (over 380 cm/150 in), lowest along the eastern and southeastern coasts. Fairly even distribution of rain throughout the year, together with the prevalence of mists and fogs, results in scanty sunshine—averaging from half an hour to two hours a day in winter and from five to eight hours in summer.
In the spring of 1997 there was an intense drought in southern and western England; the previous two years were the driest in England and Wales since reliable record-keeping began in 1767.
FLORA AND FAUNA
With its mild climate and varied soils, the United Kingdom has a diverse pattern of natural vegetation. Originally, oak forests probably covered the lowland, except for the fens and marsh areas, while pine forests and patches of moorland covered the higher or sandy ground. Over the centuries, much of the forest area, especially on the lowlands, was cleared for cultivation. Fairly extensive forests remain in east and north Scotland and in southeast England. Oak, elm, ash, and beech are the most common trees in England. Pine and birch are most common in Scotland. Almost all the lowland outside the industrial centers is farmland, with a varied seminatural vegetation of grasses and flowering plants. Wild vegetation consists of the natural flora of woods, fens and marshes, cliffs, chalk downs, and mountain slopes, the most widespread being the heather, grasses, gorse, and bracken of the moorlands. There are over 1,600 plant species in the country.
The fauna is similar to that of northwestern continental Europe, although there are fewer species. Some of the larger mammals—wolf, bear, boar, and reindeer—are extinct, but red and roe deer are protected for sport. Common smaller mammals are foxes, hares, hedgehogs, rabbits, weasels, stoats, shrews, rats, and mice; otters are found in many rivers, and seals frequently appear along the coast. There are at least 50 species of mammal native to the region. There are few reptiles and amphibians. Roughly 230 species of birds reside in the United Kingdom, and another 200 are migratory. Most numerous are the chaffinch, blackbird, sparrow, and starling. The number of large birds is declining, however, except for game birds—pheasant, partridge, and red grouse—which are protected. With the reclamation of the marshlands, waterfowl are moving to the many bird sanctuaries. The rivers and lakes abound in salmon, trout, perch, pike, roach, dace, and grayling. There are more than 21,000 species of insects.
Government officials and agencies with principal responsibility for environmental protection are the Department of the Environment, the Department of the Environment for Northern Ireland, and the secretaries of state for Scotland and Wales. The National Trust (for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty), an organization of more than 1.3 million members, has acquired some 750 km (466 mi) of coastline in England, Northern Ireland, and Wales. In addition, 127 km (79 mi) of coastline in Scotland are protected under agreement with the National Trust of Scotland. Two countryside commissions, one for England and Wales and one for Scotland, are charged with conserving the beauty and amenities of rural areas. By 1982, the former had designated 10 national parks, covering 13,600 sq km (5,250 sq mi), or 9% of the area of England and Wales. An additional 36 areas of outstanding beauty have been designated, covering 17,000 sq km (6,600 sq mi). Scotland has 40 national scenic areas, with more than 98% of all Scottish lands under the commission's jurisdiction. Northern Ireland has eight designated areas of outstanding natural beauty, seven country parks, and one regional park. There are also seven forest parks in Great Britain and nine in Northern Ireland. England and Wales have 600,000 hectares (1,500,000 acres) of common land, much of which is open to the public. The Nature Conservancy Council manages 214 national nature reserves in Great Britain and 41 in Northern Ireland.
Air pollution is a significant environmental concern for the United Kingdom. In 1992 the nation had the world's eighth-highest level of industrial carbon dioxide emissions, which totaled 566.2 million metric tons, a per capita level of 9.78 metric tons. In 2000, the total of carbon dioxide emissions was at 567.8 million metric tons. In addition, its sulphur contributes to the formation of acid rain in the surrounding countries of Western Europe. Air quality abatement has improved greatly in the United Kingdom as a result of the Control of Pollution Act of 1974 and other legislation. London is no longer densely smog-ridden, and winter sunlight has been increasing in various industrial cities.
Water pollution from agricultural sources is also a problem. The nation has 145 cubic km of water of which 3% of annual withdrawals is used for farming activity and 77% for industrial purposes. The United Kingdom's cities produce an average of 22 million tons of solid waste per year. Pollution of the Thames has been reduced to one-quarter of its level in the 1950s, and more than 80% of the population is served by sewage treatment plants.
The Food and Environment Protection Act of 1985 introduced special controls over dumping and marine incineration in response to the problems of regulation of oil and gas development and of large-scale dumping at sea.
As of 2003, 20.9% of the United Kingdom's total land area is protected, including 163 Ramsar wetland sites and 5 natural UNESCO World Heritage Sites. According to a 2006 report issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), threatened species included 10 types of mammals, 10 species of birds, 12 species of fish, 2 types of mollusks, 8 species of other invertebrates, and 13 species of plants. The European otter, Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic ridley, Eskimo curlew, and Spengler's freshwater mussel are classified as endangered. The great auk has become extinct.
The population of United Kingdom in 2005 was estimated by the United Nations (UN) at 60,068,000, which placed it at number 22 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In 2005, approximately 16% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 18% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 96 males for every 100 females in the country. According to the UN, the annual population rate of change for 2005–10 was expected to be 0.2%, a rate the government viewed as satisfactory. The projected population for the year 2025 was 64,687,000. The overall population density was 245 per sq km (635 per sq mi); in England there were 371 persons per sq km (961 per sq mi), with 4,233 persons per sq km (10,968 per sq mi) in Greater London.
The UN estimated that 89% of the population lived in urban areas in 2005, and that urban areas were growing at an annual rate of 0.36%. The capital city, London, had a population of 7,619,000 in that year. Other major metropolitan areas in England, with estimated populations, were Birmingham, 2,215,000; Manchester, 2,193,000; Leeds, 1,402,000; and Liverpool, 975,000. Other large English towns include Sheffield, 516,000; Bradford, 478,800; Bristol, 406,500; and Coventry, 300,844. The major cities in Scotland are Glasgow (1,099,400) and Edinburgh (460,000). Belfast, the major city in Northern Ireland, had a population of 287,500; and Cardiff, in Wales, 305,000.
From 1815–1930, the balance of migration was markedly outward, and well over 20 million persons left Britain, settling mainly within the British Empire and in the United States. Since 1931, however, the flow has largely been inward. From 1931–40, when emigration was very low, there was extensive immigration from Europe, including a quarter of a million refugees seeking sanctuary; during the 1950s, immigration from the Commonwealth, especially from the Caribbean countries, India, and Pakistan, steadily increased. The net influx of some 388,000 people (chiefly from the Commonwealth) during 1960–62 led to the introduction of the Commonwealth Immigrants Act of 1962, giving the government power to restrict the entry of Commonwealth citizens lacking adequate prospects of employment or means of self-support. Effective 1 January 1983, a new law further restricted entry by creating three categories of citizenship, two of which—citizens of British Dependent Territories and "British overseas citizens"—entail no right to live in the United Kingdom. Those in the last category, consisting of an estimated 1.5 million members of Asian minorities who chose to retain British passports when Malaysia and Britain's East African lands became independent, may not pass their British citizenship to their children without UK government approval.
Immigration is now on a quota basis. From 1986–91, 1,334,000 persons left the United Kingdom to live abroad, and 1,461,000 came from overseas to live in the United Kingdom, resulting in a net in-migration of 127,000. The total number of foreign residents in the United Kingdom was about 1,875,000 in 1990. Of these, more than one-third were Irish (638,000). Indians were second (155,000) and Americans third (102,000). Between the 1990s and 2002, net migration in the United Kingdom rose from 50,000 per year to 172,000. In spite of guest worker programs, the number of unauthorized foreigners grew to around 500,000 in 2003. In addition to these increases, "failed" asylum seekers who were subject to "removal" were a burden, with estimates at 155,000 to 283,000 in the United Kingdom in 2004. In that same year, Prime Minister Tony Blair declared that immigration had reached a "crunch point." Migration became a political issue of the 5 May 2005 elections. Conservative Party leader Michael Howard declared that if he were elected the United Kingdom would stop recognizing the 1951 UN Conventions on Refugees and an annual limit of 20,000 would be placed on immigration. The Labour Party stayed in power and Prime Minister Tony Blair proposed a tiered point system to control immigration. In July 2005 the Home Office estimated that there were 570,000 unauthorized foreigners. A five-tiered guest worker system was introduced: tier one, for highly skilled migrants and investors; tier two, for skilled workers in shortage occupations; tier three, for unskilled workers via accredited recruiters, and tier four, for foreign students, and tier five, for cultural exchange workers. After the death of 52 people in the 2 July 2005 bombings in London tubes and buses by British-born South Asians, tension increased and the far-right British National Party called for revamped laws to restrict immigration.
In response to the Kosovo crisis in 1999, the United Kingdom received 4,346 Kosovar refugees from Macedonia under the UNHCR/IOM Humanitarian Evacuation Programme. As of 1999, the United Kingdom had the second-largest number of asylum applications in Europe, but by 2004 it ranked seventh. In 2004, there were 9,800 asylum seekers. Main countries of origin among 47 countries included Somalia, India, Sri Lanka, Eritrea, Afghanistan, and the DROC. However, in 2004 the United Kingdom hosted refugees in larger numbers, 289,059 refugees from, Iraq, Afghanistan, Somalia, Serbia and Montenegro, Iran, Sri Lanka, Turkey, and DROC. The net migration rate in 2005 was estimated as 2.18 migrants per 1,000 population.
The present-day English, Welsh, Scots, and Irish are descended from a long succession of early peoples, including Iberians, Celts, Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Danes, and Normans, the last of whom invaded and conquered England in 1066–70. According to the 2001 census, about 83.6% of UK residents are English. The Scottish form about 8.6% of the population, Welsh account for 4.9%, and the Northern Irish make up 2.9%. About 1.8% of the population are Indian, and 1.3% are Pakistani. There are about 300,000 persons who belong to a group known as Travellers, a blend of Roma, Irish, and other ethnic groups who maintain an itinerant lifestyle.
Spoken throughout the United Kingdom and by over 456 million people throughout the world, English is second only to Mandarin Chinese in the number of speakers in the world. It is taught extensively as a second language and is used worldwide as a language of commerce, diplomacy, and scientific discourse. In northwestern Wales, Welsh, a form of Brythonic Celtic, is the first language of most of the inhabitants.
Approximately 26% of those living in Wales speak Welsh (up from 19% in 1991). Some 60,000 or so persons in western Scotland speak the Scottish form of Gaelic (down from 80,000 in 1991), and a few families in Northern Ireland speak Irish Gaelic. On the Isle of Man, the Manx variety of Celtic is used in official pronouncements; in the Channel Islands some persons still speak a Norman-French dialect. French remains the language of Jersey for official ceremonies.
There is complete religious freedom in the United Kingdom. All churches and religious societies may own property and conduct schools. Established churches are the Church of England (Anglican) and the Church of Scotland (Presbyterian). The former is uniquely related to the crown in that the sovereign must be a member and, on accession, promise to uphold the faith; it is also linked with the state through the House of Lords, where the archbishops of Canterbury and York have seats. The archbishop of Canterbury is primate of all England. The monarch appoints all officials of the Church of England. The established Church of Scotland has a Presbyterian form of government: all ministers are of equal status and each of the congregations is locally governed by its minister and elected elders.
About 71.6% of the population belong to one of the four largest Christian denominations in the country: the Church of England, the Roman Catholic Church, the Church of Scotland, and the Methodist Church in Britain (originally established as a type of revival movement by the Church of England minister John Wesley, 1703–91). Many immigrants have established community religious centers in the United Kingdom. Such Christian groups include Greek, Russian, Polish, Serb-Orthodox, Estonian and Latvian Orthodox, and the Armenian Church; Lutheran churches from various parts of Europe are also represented. A total of about 2% of the population are Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormons, Christian Scientists, or Unitarians. The Anglo-Jewish community, with an estimated 300,000 members, is the second-largest group of Jews in Western Europe. There are also sizable communities of Muslims, Sikhs, Hindus, and Buddhists.
In Northern Ireland, about 53% of the population are nominally Protestants and 44% are nominally Catholics; only about 30–35% of all Northern Irish are active participants in religious services. The Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland tend to live in self-segregated communities.
In Great Britain, railways, railway-owned steamships, docks, hotels, road transport, canals, and the entire London passenger transport system—the largest urban transport system in the world—were nationalized on 1 January 1948 under the control of the British Transport Commission (BTC). In 1962, the BTC was replaced by the British Railways Board, the London Transport Board, the British Transport Docks Board, and the British Waterways Board. Under the 1968 Transport Act, national transport operations were reorganized, with the creation of the National Freight Corp., the Freight Integration Council, and the National Bus Co. Organization of public transport in Northern Ireland is autonomous.
In 2003, Great Britain had 392,931 km (244,403 mi) roadway, all of it paved, including 3,431 km (2,134 mi) of express motorways. Licensed motor vehicles in Great Britain numbered 32,576,891 as of 2003, including 29,007,820 passenger cars and 3,569,071 commercial vehicles. The Humber Bridge, the world's longest singlespan suspension bridge, with a center span of 1,410 m (4,626 ft), links the city of Hull with a less developed region to the south. Eurotunnel, a British-French consortium, recently built two high-speed 50-km (31-mi) rail tunnels beneath the seabed of the English Channel. The project, referred to as the "Chunnel," links points near Folkestone, England (near Dover), and Calais, France. The Channel Tunnel is the largest privately financed construction project to date, with an estimated cost (in 1991) of $15 billion; it also has the longest tunnel system (38 km/24 mi) ever built under water. In November 1996, a truck aboard a freighter entering the tunnel caught fire, causing serious damage to the tunnel but no loss of life. Partial operations were resumed within a few weeks, and all repairs were completed by May 1997.
There were 17,274 km (10,727 mi) of standard and narrow gauge railway in Great Britain in 2004, including 5,296 km (3,289 mi) of electrified track. Standard gauge accounts for nearly all of the nation's railway system at 16,814 km (10,441 mi). Underground railway systems operate in London, Glasgow, and Liverpool. In London, the Underground consists of some 3,875 cars that operate over about 408 km (254 mi) of track, 167 km (104 mi) of which is underground. The Underground, the oldest part of which dates to 1863, operates 20 hours per day and is comprised of 248 stations on 11 lines that provide 2.7 million rides per day. In early 1997 the government proposed privatizing London's subway system because of lack of funds needed to restore the aging network. Capital investment has been diminished since the 1960s, resulting in increasing failures of signals and rolling stock and the deterioration of stations and track.
Great Britain has about 3,200 km (1,988 mi) of navigable inland waterways, mainly canals dating back to the pre-railroad age, of which as of 2004, some 620 km (386 mi) are still in commercial use. Great Britain has some 300 ports, including the Port of London, one of the largest in the world. Other major ports are Liverpool, Southampton, Hull, Clydeport (near Glasgow), the inland port of Manchester, and Bristol. The British merchant fleet, privately owned and operated, consists of 429 ships of 1,000 GRT or more, totaled 9,181,284 GRT in 2005. In an effort to curb the flagging of British merchant ships to less regulatory foreign nations, a British offshore registry program was initiated in the late 1980s. Under this program, merchant ships registered to the Isle of Man, Gibraltar, the Cayman Islands, and the Turks and Caicos Islands are entitled to fly the Red Ensign as if under the administration of the United Kingdom.
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