Sum up what the text said about the wireless telegraphy.



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Sum up what the text said about the wireless telegraphy.



Radio Engineering Equipment

 

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ

к практическим занятиям по дисциплине

“Английский язык” для студентов II курса

специальности 0907 “Радиотехника”

дневной формы обучения

Севастополь

 

 

УДК 629.123+656.61.052

 

Радиотехнические устройства = Radio Engineering Equipment. Методические указания к практическим занятиям по дисциплине “Английский язык” для студентов II курса специальности 0907 “Радиотехника” дневной формы обучения / Сост. Е.С. Солодова. – Севастополь: Изд-во СевНТУ, 2009. − 36 с.

 

Целью данных методических указаний является:

· привитие навыков понимания литературы по специальности;

· развитие усилий и навыков видов речевой деятельности (говорения, чтения, письма);

· обучение активному владению языковым материалом;

· повторение и закрепление пройденного грамматического материала;

· развитие коммуникативных умений и навыков.

 

Методические указания рассмотрены и утверждены на заседании кафедры ПРГЯ (протокол № 8 от 18.02.2009 г.).

 

Допущено учебно-методическим центром и научно-методическим Советом СевНТУ в качестве методических указаний.

 

Рецензент: Михайлова Е.В., к.ф.н., доцент кафедры Практики романских и германских языков Севастопольского национального технического университета


 

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

Введение………………………………………………………………………………4

1. Lesson 1. Telegraphy Without Wires…………………………………………….5

2. Lesson 2. Radio Direction Finders…………………………………………………8

3. Lesson 3. Radio Beacons………………………………………………………….10

4. Lesson 4. Radio Compass…………………………………………………………14

5. Lesson 5. Radar……………………………………………………………………16

6. Lesson 6. Radar Guns…………………………………………………………… 20

7. Lesson 7. Radio Telescope………………………………………………………..22

8. Lesson 8. Antennas………………………………………………………………. 26

9. Lesson 9. Facsimile………………………………………………………………. 29

10. Lesson 10. Pager…………………………………………………………………..32

Библиографический список………………………………………………………...36

 

 

ВВЕДЕНИЕ

 

Методические указания предназначены для студентов 2-го курса факультета «Радиотехника» дневной формы обучения.

Цель методических указаний состоит в том, чтобы привить навыки чтения и понимания литературы по специальности, сформировать навыки речевой деятельности на английском языке и закрепить грамматический материал, необходимый при переводе текстов с английского языка на русский. Тексты методических указаний взяты из современной технической оригинальной литературы на английском языке, их тематика соответствует дисциплине «Радиотехника».

Методические указания состоят из 10 разделов.

Каждый раздел включает в себя:

· предтекстовые упражнения;

· текст на английском языке;

· послетекстовые упражнения.


LESSON 1. TELEGRAPHY WITHOUT WIRES

 

1. Read the new words:

 

wireless telegraphy беспроволочный телеграф, радиотелеграфия

to deliver снабжать,вырабатывать, производить

rateскорость, темп

electric wave волна электрического вектора (напряжённости)

Hertzian waves радиоволны

to project бросать, отражать

refraction преломление

telephone exchange телефонный узел

telegraphic communication/message телеграфное сообщение

induction электростатическая индукция, магнитная индукция

mainland континент, материк

by means of посредством

parallel wires двухпроводная воздушная линия передачи

insulated wire изолированный провод

to earth заземлять

running stream непрерывный поток

to skirt окружать, окаймлять, обрамлять

overhead wire воздушный провод

to dispatch посылать; отсылать

to set in motion приводить в действие, приводить в движение

inestimable value бесценность

shipping мореплавание, навигация, судоходство

lightship плавучий маяк

lighthouse маяк

 

2. Read the text and translate it:

 

An invention which promises to be of the greatest practical value in the world of telegraphy has received its first public announcement at the hands of Mr. W. H. Preece, the telegraphic expert of the London post office. During the course of a lecture on "Telegraphy Without Wires," recently delivered in London, Mr. Preece introduced to the audience a young Italian, a Mr. Marconi, who, he said, had recently come to him with a system of telegraphy without wires "which depended, not on electro-magnetic, but on electro-static effects, that is to say, on electric waves of a much higher rate of vibration, not less than 250,000,000 a second; that is, Hertzian waves." These vibrations were projected through space in straight lines and, like light, were capable of reflection and refraction, and, indeed, they exhibited all the phenomena which characterized light.

Telegraphing without wires was, of course, no new idea. Mr. Preece stated that in 1884 operators in the telephone exchange, London, were able from sounds heard to read messages that were in transit from London to Bradford by the telegraph wires. The post office wires were underground and the telephone wires above ground, and careful experiment showed that this fact accounted for the telegraphic messages to Bradford being read by the telephone company. In 1893 telegrams were transmitted a distance of three miles across the Bristol Channel by induction, and during a break in the cable connecting the island of Mull with the mainland communication was established by means of parallel wires as follows: On the mainland an insulated wire was laid along the ground, earthed in a running stream at one end, the other end being in the sea. Skirting the coast of the island was an overhead wire suited to the purpose. In the course of four days one hundred and fifty-six messages were dispatched.

The invention of young Marconi solved the problem on entirely different principles. The post office officials had used it successfully on the roof of the general post office, and then made a successful test on Salisbury Plain at a distance of three-quarters of a mile. The great difference between the Marconi and the inductive methods of wireless telegraphy was that the former did away entirely with the wires at each end. Vibrations were set up by one apparatus and received by the other.

The apparatus consisted of two plain boxes which were placed at opposite ends of the hall. The current was set in motion in one box, and immediately a bell was rung in the other.

If the experiments were successful, it would be of inestimable value to shipping, for it would provide another easy way of communicating with lightships and lighthouses, it would make navigation infinitely easier and safer than it now was.

 

3. Answer the following questions:

 

1) Who was Mr. Marconi?

2) Did a system of telegraphy without wires depend on electro-magnetic effects?

3) What waves do we call the Hertzian waves?

4) Was the telegraphing without wires a new idea?

5) How were the telegrams transmitted in 1893?

6) What problem did the invention of young Marconi solve?

7) How did the Marconi’s apparatus work?

 

4. Give the equivalents, using the text:

 

a) публичное объявление, почта, в ходе лекции, система радиотелеграфии, электрические волны, темпы вибрации, отражения и преломления, почтовые провода, индукция, изолированный провод, индуктивный метод, аппарат состоял из двух коробок, успешные эксперименты.

 

b) be of the greatest practical value, the telegraphic expert, public announcement, a system of telegraphy without wires, to depend on electro-static effects, in straight lines, to be capable of reflection and refraction, to exhibit all the phenomena, operators in the telephone exchange, to be transmitted a distance of three miles, to be established by means of parallel wires, the current was set in motion, inestimable value to shipping.

 

5. Select the correct form in parentheses in the following sentences:

1) This invention promised to be one of the (greater, greatest) discoveries in the world of telegraphy.

2) A system of wireless telegraphy depended on electric waves of a much (highest, higher) rate of vibration.

3) The experiment was (more careful, carefuller) than the previous one.

4) The invention of young Marconi showed (much successful, more successful) results.

5) Telegraphing without wires will make navigation infinitely (easier, easiest) and (safer, safest) than it is now.

 

6. Correct the following statements if you find them wrong:

 

1) Mr. W.H. Preece made the first public announcement of his invention which promised to be of the greatest practical value in the world of telegraphy.

2) A system of telegraphy without wires depended not only on electro-magnetic, but on electro-static effects.

3) Hertzian waves exhibited all the phenomena which characterized light.

4) The telephone wires were above ground, the post office wires underground.

5) The inductive methods of wireless telegraphy did away entirely with the wires at each end.

 

7. Choose the correct form of the verb in parentheses in the following sentences:

 

1) The study of the electric waves (were/was) of the greatest practical value in the world of telegraphy.

2) The quality of the boxes and bells (is/are) not very good.

3) If the duties of the telegraphic experts (isn’t/aren’t) reduced; there will not be enough time to finish the project.

4) Mr.Preece, accompanied by Mr. Marconi (is/are) arriving tonight.

5) The use of the inductive methods (have/has) increased in recent years.

6) Hertzian waves as well as light (were/was) capable of reflection and refraction.

7) The rates of vibration (vary/varies) from subject to subject.

 

8. Translate from Russian into English:

1) Мистер Прис провел в Лондоне лекцию, посвященную беспроволочному телеграфу.

2) Радиоволны обладают такими же свойствами, как и световые волны.

3) Провода почтовых отделений проходили под землей, а телефонные линии располагались над землей.

4) Раньше телеграммы передавались на далекие расстояния либо с помощью индуктивного метода либо посредством двухпроводной воздушной линии передачи.

5) Один аппарат отправлял сигналы, в то время как второй их получал.

 

Antenna Types

There are three basic types of antennas which are used for radio communication on board vessels.

(1) Whip antennaThis type is the rigid , usually white , plastic rod , which is mounted vertically. Whip antennas are just about universally used for Very High Frequency radio transmission and reception. As the range of a VHF signal is pretty much dependent on the height of the antenna , so any VHF antenna should be mounted as high as possible. Whip antennas are also sometimes used for Medium Frequency and High Frequency transmission and reception.

(2) Wire Antenna If it is suspended vertically, and the signal is fed at one end, then it behaves exactly like a whip. More often though, a wire antenna is suspended horizontally. The signal can be fed from one end of the wire, but sometimes it is fed from the centre, to make what is called a dipole.

(3) Dish Antenna Whips and wire antennas are more or less omnidirectional. That is, they can transmit and receive equally well in all directions. Some satellite communication systems operate at very low power, and they need a very directional antenna to focus the signal into a beam. Such a system uses a dish antenna. The dish itself is not unlike the receiving dish for domestic satellite television, and indeed, if the ship was fixed firmly in one position, virtually the same antenna could be used. However, ships move around, so a dish antenna must be fitted with motors and sensors to keep the dish pointed at the satellite while the ship moves. To protect the mechanism and to prevent the wind moving the dish, the antenna is encased in a plastic dome.

Antenna Tuning

Antennas which are not the optimum length can be made to operate on a particular band, or on several bands, by adding various coils and capacitors to the end of the antenna. In this way the radio can be fooled into thinking that the antenna is a perfect length for the frequency on which it is being asked to transmit. A tuner unit is used to do this, and it may require manual operation, usually by means of three rotary switches, or it may be automatic, needing just a push of a button to select the best combination of coils and capacitors for a particular frequency.

Antenna Maintenance

On wire antennas, the insulators must be kept clean. A build-up of salt or dirt on the insulators will reduce their ability to insulate, and cause a significant loss of signal. Great care must be taken that the transmitter cannot be activated while anybody is near the ends of the antenna. Extremely high voltages are generated at the ends, and they can cause severe injury, or possibly even death.

Any shackles used in the assembly of the antenna should be kept well greased, so that the antenna can be disassembled if there is a problem without having to fight wish seized shackles.

Whip antennas too should be kept clean. They are made of glass fibre, which is transparent to the radio frequencies.

3. Answer the following questions:

 

1) Whip antennas are used only for Very High Frequency radio transmission and reception, aren’t they?

2) Do lower frequency signals need longer antennas?

3) How can a wire antenna be suspended?

4) What is a dipole?

5) What is the main difference between whips or wire antennas and dish antennas?

6) Could the antenna for domestic satellite television be used in the ship?

7) What makes the dish point at the satellite while the ship moves?

8) Why is the antenna encased in a plastic dome?

9) Is it important to keep the insulators on wire antennas clean?

10) How can the problem of seized shackles be solved?

 

4. Give the English equivalents from the text:

 

Прием и передача радиоволн, диапазон высокочастотного сигнала, зависит от чего-либо, высота антенны, длина провода, подвешивать горизонтально и вертикально, сфокусировать сигнал в один луч, домашнее спутниковое телевидение, защищать механизм, предотвращать, большие яхты, торговые суда, рамки и конденсаторы, ручное управление, автоматическое управление, посредством, нажать кнопку, содержать в чистоте, накопление соли или грязи, значительная потеря сигнала, регулярно чистить, вызывать серьезное повреждение (травму), проницаемый.

 

5. Supply either because or because of as appropriate.

 

1) Any VHF antenna should be mounted as high as possible, ________ the range of a VHF signal depends on the height of the antenna.

2) Wire antenna behaves exactly like a whip _________its vertical suspension.

3) Whips and wire antennas are omnidirectional __________ they can transmit and

receive equally well in all directions.

4) Some satellites communication systems need a very directional antenna _________

their very low power.

5) A dish antenna must be fitted with motors and sensors, __________ wild moving of

the ships.

6) We often encase the antenna in a plastic dome, _________ we want to protect the

mechanism.

7) Some antennas can’t operate on a particular band ________ their length.

8) We call the system automatic ___________ it makes us just push a button to select

the best combination.

9) On wire antennas, the insulators must be kept clean, __________ salt or dirt will

reduce their ability to insulate and cause a loss of signals.

10)The ends of the antenna can cause severe injury ___________ extremely high

voltages which are generated there.

 

6. Translate from Russian into English:

1) Чем ниже частота сигнала, тем выше требуется антенна.

2) Все соединительные скобы при сборке должны быть хорошо смазаны.

3) Антенны служат для приема и передачи радиоволн.

4) Антенну следует устанавливать на большой высоте.

5) Всенаправленная антенна – это антенна, которая передает и получает сигналы одинаково хорошо во всех направлениях.

6) Отражающая антенна должна быть оборудована двигателями и сенсорами.

7) Обычно на больших яхтах и коммерческих кораблях антенна заключается в пластиковый купол.

8) Этот купол антенны служит для защиты механизма.

9) Для того чтобы заставить антенну работать на определенной полосе частот, вам следует добавить конденсаторы и катушки.

10) Автоматическая настройка требует от вас лишь нажатия одной кнопки для выбора наилучшей комбинации.

11) Накопление соли и грязи на изоляторах ухудшит их изолирующую способность.

12) Слишком высокое напряжение может привести к серьезной травме или даже смерти.

13) Штыревая антенна сделана из стекловолокна.

БИБЛИОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ СПИСОК

 

1. Брискина К.Ш. English for technical students / К.Ш. Брискина, М.Ф. Завадская. – Киев; Вища шк., 1977. − 295с.

2. Бутник В.В. Современный англо-русский политехнический словарь / В.В. Бутник. – М.: Вече, 2001. – 512с

3. Чечель Е.Г. Учебник английского языка для технических вузов / Е.Г. Чечель, Е.М. Андреенко. – Киев: Высш. шк., 1988. – 248с

4. Новый Большой англо-русский словарь: В 3 т. / Ю.Д. Апресян, Э.М Медникова., А.В Петрова. и др. – М.: Рус. яз., 2001. – 2496 с.

5. ABBY Linguo 9.0. English – Russian Dictionary on CD-ROM. − 2001.

6. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. 3 rd Ed. with New Words Supplement. – Harlow, Essex: Longman, 2001. – 1668 p

7. http://www.elvees.ru/product/radar.shtml

8. http://way.utairway.com/radio_compass.htm

9. http://www.defensys.ru/mrtz_eng.html

10. http://seua.am/eng/radio/index.html

11. http://ire.kharkov.ua/tcre/index.html

 

 

Заказ № от Тираж экз.

Изд-во СевНТУ

Radio Engineering Equipment

 

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ

к практическим занятиям по дисциплине

“Английский язык” для студентов II курса

специальности 0907 “Радиотехника”

дневной формы обучения

Севастополь

 

 

УДК 629.123+656.61.052

 

Радиотехнические устройства = Radio Engineering Equipment. Методические указания к практическим занятиям по дисциплине “Английский язык” для студентов II курса специальности 0907 “Радиотехника” дневной формы обучения / Сост. Е.С. Солодова. – Севастополь: Изд-во СевНТУ, 2009. − 36 с.

 

Целью данных методических указаний является:

· привитие навыков понимания литературы по специальности;

· развитие усилий и навыков видов речевой деятельности (говорения, чтения, письма);

· обучение активному владению языковым материалом;

· повторение и закрепление пройденного грамматического материала;

· развитие коммуникативных умений и навыков.

 

Методические указания рассмотрены и утверждены на заседании кафедры ПРГЯ (протокол № 8 от 18.02.2009 г.).

 

Допущено учебно-методическим центром и научно-методическим Советом СевНТУ в качестве методических указаний.

 

Рецензент: Михайлова Е.В., к.ф.н., доцент кафедры Практики романских и германских языков Севастопольского национального технического университета


 

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

Введение………………………………………………………………………………4

1. Lesson 1. Telegraphy Without Wires…………………………………………….5

2. Lesson 2. Radio Direction Finders…………………………………………………8

3. Lesson 3. Radio Beacons………………………………………………………….10

4. Lesson 4. Radio Compass…………………………………………………………14

5. Lesson 5. Radar……………………………………………………………………16

6. Lesson 6. Radar Guns…………………………………………………………… 20

7. Lesson 7. Radio Telescope………………………………………………………..22

8. Lesson 8. Antennas………………………………………………………………. 26

9. Lesson 9. Facsimile………………………………………………………………. 29

10. Lesson 10. Pager…………………………………………………………………..32

Библиографический список………………………………………………………...36

 

 

ВВЕДЕНИЕ

 

Методические указания предназначены для студентов 2-го курса факультета «Радиотехника» дневной формы обучения.

Цель методических указаний состоит в том, чтобы привить навыки чтения и понимания литературы по специальности, сформировать навыки речевой деятельности на английском языке и закрепить грамматический материал, необходимый при переводе текстов с английского языка на русский. Тексты методических указаний взяты из современной технической оригинальной литературы на английском языке, их тематика соответствует дисциплине «Радиотехника».

Методические указания состоят из 10 разделов.

Каждый раздел включает в себя:

· предтекстовые упражнения;

· текст на английском языке;

· послетекстовые упражнения.


LESSON 1. TELEGRAPHY WITHOUT WIRES

 

1. Read the new words:

 

wireless telegraphy беспроволочный телеграф, радиотелеграфия

to deliver снабжать,вырабатывать, производить

rateскорость, темп

electric wave волна электрического вектора (напряжённости)

Hertzian waves радиоволны

to project бросать, отражать

refraction преломление

telephone exchange телефонный узел

telegraphic communication/message телеграфное сообщение

induction электростатическая индукция, магнитная индукция

mainland континент, материк

by means of посредством

parallel wires двухпроводная воздушная линия передачи

insulated wire изолированный провод

to earth заземлять

running stream непрерывный поток

to skirt окружать, окаймлять, обрамлять

overhead wire воздушный провод

to dispatch посылать; отсылать

to set in motion приводить в действие, приводить в движение

inestimable value бесценность

shipping мореплавание, навигация, судоходство

lightship плавучий маяк

lighthouse маяк

 

2. Read the text and translate it:

 

An invention which promises to be of the greatest practical value in the world of telegraphy has received its first public announcement at the hands of Mr. W. H. Preece, the telegraphic expert of the London post office. During the course of a lecture on "Telegraphy Without Wires," recently delivered in London, Mr. Preece introduced to the audience a young Italian, a Mr. Marconi, who, he said, had recently come to him with a system of telegraphy without wires "which depended, not on electro-magnetic, but on electro-static effects, that is to say, on electric waves of a much higher rate of vibration, not less than 250,000,000 a second; that is, Hertzian waves." These vibrations were projected through space in straight lines and, like light, were capable of reflection and refraction, and, indeed, they exhibited all the phenomena which characterized light.

Telegraphing without wires was, of course, no new idea. Mr. Preece stated that in 1884 operators in the telephone exchange, London, were able from sounds heard to read messages that were in transit from London to Bradford by the telegraph wires. The post office wires were underground and the telephone wires above ground, and careful experiment showed that this fact accounted for the telegraphic messages to Bradford being read by the telephone company. In 1893 telegrams were transmitted a distance of three miles across the Bristol Channel by induction, and during a break in the cable connecting the island of Mull with the mainland communication was established by means of parallel wires as follows: On the mainland an insulated wire was laid along the ground, earthed in a running stream at one end, the other end being in the sea. Skirting the coast of the island was an overhead wire suited to the purpose. In the course of four days one hundred and fifty-six messages were dispatched.

The invention of young Marconi solved the problem on entirely different principles. The post office officials had used it successfully on the roof of the general post office, and then made a successful test on Salisbury Plain at a distance of three-quarters of a mile. The great difference between the Marconi and the inductive methods of wireless telegraphy was that the former did away entirely with the wires at each end. Vibrations were set up by one apparatus and received by the other.

The apparatus consisted of two plain boxes which were placed at opposite ends of the hall. The current was set in motion in one box, and immediately a bell was rung in the other.

If the experiments were successful, it would be of inestimable value to shipping, for it would provide another easy way of communicating with lightships and lighthouses, it would make navigation infinitely easier and safer than it now was.

 

3. Answer the following questions:

 

1) Who was Mr. Marconi?

2) Did a system of telegraphy without wires depend on electro-magnetic effects?

3) What waves do we call the Hertzian waves?

4) Was the telegraphing without wires a new idea?

5) How were the telegrams transmitted in 1893?

6) What problem did the invention of young Marconi solve?

7) How did the Marconi’s apparatus work?

 

4. Give the equivalents, using the text:

 

a) публичное объявление, почта, в ходе лекции, система радиотелеграфии, электрические волны, темпы вибрации, отражения и преломления, почтовые провода, индукция, изолированный провод, индуктивный метод, аппарат состоял из двух коробок, успешные эксперименты.

 

b) be of the greatest practical value, the telegraphic expert, public announcement, a system of telegraphy without wires, to depend on electro-static effects, in straight lines, to be capable of reflection and refraction, to exhibit all the phenomena, operators in the telephone exchange, to be transmitted a distance of three miles, to be established by means of parallel wires, the current was set in motion, inestimable value to shipping.

 

5. Select the correct form in parentheses in the following sentences:

1) This invention promised to be one of the (greater, greatest) discoveries in the world of telegraphy.

2) A system of wireless telegraphy depended on electric waves of a much (highest, higher) rate of vibration.

3) The experiment was (more careful, carefuller) than the previous one.

4) The invention of young Marconi showed (much successful, more successful) results.

5) Telegraphing without wires will make navigation infinitely (easier, easiest) and (safer, safest) than it is now.

 

6. Correct the following statements if you find them wrong:

 

1) Mr. W.H. Preece made the first public announcement of his invention which promised to be of the greatest practical value in the world of telegraphy.

2) A system of telegraphy without wires depended not only on electro-magnetic, but on electro-static effects.

3) Hertzian waves exhibited all the phenomena which characterized light.

4) The telephone wires were above ground, the post office wires underground.

5) The inductive methods of wireless telegraphy did away entirely with the wires at each end.

 

7. Choose the correct form of the verb in parentheses in the following sentences:

 

1) The study of the electric waves (were/was) of the greatest practical value in the world of telegraphy.

2) The quality of the boxes and bells (is/are) not very good.

3) If the duties of the telegraphic experts (isn’t/aren’t) reduced; there will not be enough time to finish the project.

4) Mr.Preece, accompanied by Mr. Marconi (is/are) arriving tonight.

5) The use of the inductive methods (have/has) increased in recent years.

6) Hertzian waves as well as light (were/was) capable of reflection and refraction.

7) The rates of vibration (vary/varies) from subject to subject.

 

8. Translate from Russian into English:

1) Мистер Прис провел в Лондоне лекцию, посвященную беспроволочному телеграфу.

2) Радиоволны обладают такими же свойствами, как и световые волны.

3) Провода почтовых отделений проходили под землей, а телефонные линии располагались над землей.

4) Раньше телеграммы передавались на далекие расстояния либо с помощью индуктивного метода либо посредством двухпроводной воздушной линии передачи.

5) Один аппарат отправлял сигналы, в то время как второй их получал.

 

Sum up what the text said about the wireless telegraphy.

LESSON 2. RADIO DIRECTION FINDERS

 

1. Read the new words:

radio direction finder радиопеленгатор

the Allies Антанта; Тройственный союз ( Англия, Франция и Россия )

to track следить, прослеживать; выслеживать

U-boat немецкая подводная лодка

to sense опознавать; воспринимать, измерять; контролировать

radiogoniometer радиопеленгатор

loop aerial рамочная антенна

to wire соединять [монтировать] проволокой

field coil катушка возбуждения; обмотка возбуждения

search coil измерительная катушка

to rotate вращать(ся)

to resonate резонировать

aerial circuit антенный контур , воздушная линия ( электропередачи )

to diminish уменьшать(ся), сокращать(ся)

magnetic flux магнитный поток, поток магнитной индукции

automatic direction finder автоматический радиопеленгатор

solenoid соленоид

to spin крутить(ся), вертеть(ся)

peak высшая точка, максимум , пик

trough самая глубокая точка, низшая точка

compass rose девиационный круг компаса

а string ряд, цепочка

VOR ( very-high-frequency omnidirectional range) всенаправленный курсовой радиомаяк УKB-диапазона

GPS (Global Positioning System) глобальная система навигации и определения положения

user-friendly ориентированный на пользователя, удобный для пользователя

 

2. Read the text and translate it:

 

Due to radio's ability to travel very long distances "over the horizon", it makes a particularly good navigation system for ships and aircraft that might be flying at long distances from land.

High frequency radio direction finders (known as HF/DF or huff-duff) were employed by the Allies to track German U-boats during WWII.

The earliest radio direction finder was the radiogoniometer invented by Bellini and Tosi in 1907. In the BT radiogoniometer, two loop aerials (one positioned North-South and the other East-West, or Fore-Aft and Port-Starboard on a boat) were each wired to a field coil (which were mounted at right angles to each other). A rotating ‘search coil’ (which was attached to the receiver) was then placed between the two field coils. A loop aerial resonates best when the radio wave approaches it from the side, and so the degree to which an electric current is induced in the aerial circuit diminishes as the wave’s angle of approach increases. Each field coil will then produce a magnetic field proportional to the current induced in the aerial. The search coil receives a proportion of the magnetic flux from each field coil depending on the direction it faces. The search coil achieves maximum magnetic flux when it favors the coil with the greater magnetic field, and it is at this position that the search coil points in the direction of the radio transmission.

In more recent times the task of finding the signal has been automated in the automatic direction finder, or ADF. In this system the antenna consists of a small cylinder of wire, a solenoid that is highly directional, which is spun by a motor. The electronics listen either for the repeated "peak" in the signal, or just as commonly, the "trough" when the signal drops to zero when the antenna is at right angles to the signal. A small lamp attached to a disk is timed to spin at the same speed as the antenna, so when the peak or trough is detected the lamp flashes briefly. To the human eye it appears to be a single spot of light on top of a compass rose.

RDF was once the primary form of aircraft navigation, and strings of beacons were used to form "airways" from airport to airport. In the 1950s these systems were generally being replaced by the VHF omni range (VOR) system, in which the angle to the beacon can be measured from the signal itself, with no moving parts.

Today all such systems are being generally removed in favour of the much more accurate and user-friendly GPS system. However the low cost of ADF systems today has meant something of a comeback, whereas the expensive VOR systems will likely all be switched off before 2010.

3. Answer the following questions:

1) What are the radio direction finders used for?

2) Who was the inventor of the earliest radio direction finder?

3) What elements did the radiogoniometer consist of?

4) How did the radiogoniometer work?

5) What is ADF?

6) Why did GPS system remove ADF and VOR systems?

4. Give the equivalents, using the text:

 

a) путешествовать на далекие расстояния, навигационная система, направление передачи, нос, корма, левый борт , правый борт, вращающаяся измерительная катушка, прикреплять к приемнику, электрический ток уменьшается, создавать магнитное поле, зависеть от направления, максимальный магнитный поток, сигнал понижается до нуля, человеческий глаз, воздушная навигация, заменить систему, более точный и удобный для пользователя.

 

b) to travel very long distances, navigation system for ships and aircraft, two loop aerials, to be wired to a field coil, rotating ‘search coil’, electric current is induced, to produce a magnetic field, a proportion of the magnetic flux, direction of the radio transmission, signal drops to zero, to spin at the same speed as the antenna, the lamp flashes briefly, a single spot of light, more accurate and user-friendly GPS system.

 

5. Put the questions to the underlined words:

 

1) High frequency radio direction finders are known as HF/DF or huff-duff.

2) The earliest radio direction finder was the radiogoniometer.

3) Two loop aerials were each wired to a field coil.

4) The degree to which an electric current is induced in the aerial circuit diminishes.

5) The search coil receives a proportion of the magnetic flux from each field coil.

6) In the ADF system the antenna consists of a small cylinder of wire.

 

6. Translate from English into Russian, paying special attention to the “Complex Subject” Construction:

 

1) Radio direction finders are assumed to be good navigation devices for ships and aircraft.

2) RDF was known as a primary form of aircraft navigation.

3) RDF system is likely to be widely used in the 1930’s and 1940’s.

4) In WWII, ship-based huff-duff was found to be implemented with a number of changes to the original BT radiogoniometer design.

5) True direction was found either by incorporating an antenna into the huff-duff unit.

6) Wires from each dipole seem to be looped together into a single field coil.

7) For a long time the general concept of the original radiogoniometer was thought to be unchangeable.

8) The above mentioned text is certain to be very interesting.

 

7. Translate from Russian into English:

1) Любой прибор, излучающий электромагнитные волны, можно не только легко

обнаружить, но и зафиксировать его координаты.

2) Во времена ВМВ радиопеленгация служила для выявления местоположения вражеских радиомаяков.

3) Радиопеленгатор представляет собой систему, состоящую из радиопередатчика и антенны.

4) Радиопеленгаторы применялись для отслеживания немецких подводных лодок.

5) Первый радиопеленгатор был изобретен в 1907 году.

6) Две рамочные антенны прикреплялись к катушке возбуждения.

7) На сегодняшний день система GPS связи является наиболее точной и удобной для пользователей, поэтому она вытесняет своих предшественников.

8.Sum up the information about radio direction finders.

LESSON 3. RADIO BEACONS

 

1. Read the new words:

radio beacon радиомаяк

aid помощь

overcast сплошная облачность, облачный, пасмурный

to distract отвлекать

urban sprawl неконтролируемая застройка прилегающих к городу территорий

handicap помеха, препятствие

to hasten ускорять ( какой-л. процесс и т. п.)

to space располагать с промежутками

Morse-code signal сигнал кода Морзе

beam луч света, луч

to merge сливать(ся), соединять(ся)

steadyравномерный, ровный

drift смещение, отклонение | отклоняться

to strayсбиться с пути, отклониться

ILS ( instrument landing system) система посадки по приборам

compass locator радиостанция приводная

to orient ориентировать, выравнивать, определять местонахождение

glideslope глиссада , наклон (склонение) глиссады

to guide вести, регулировать, направлять курс

homing beacon приводной радиомаяк

homing aids средства самонаведения

VFR ( visual flight rules) правила визуального полёта

voice circuit цепь передачи речевых сигналов

preflight предполётный

homing signal сигнал самонаведения

obsoleteустарелый

backupвспомогательные средства, резервное устройство

artefact (любой) продукт, сделанный человеком, артефакты, памятники материальной культуры

 

2. Read the text and translate it:

 

While early flashing beacons were economical and a great aid for night-time navigation in clear weather, they were of no value in overcast conditions, or during the day when they weren’t even turned on. And they were sometimes difficult to locate in the distracting light of urban sprawl. These handicaps hastened the development of the LF (low frequency) navigation system.

Radio beacons in the 190 to 535 kHz radio band had formed the earliest LF navigation system. These powerful, 1500-watt beacons were spaced about 200 miles apart and defined electronic airways.

The beacons transmitted two Morse-code signals: the letter "A," • – , and its opposite, the letter "N," – • . When the aircraft was centered on the airway, or electrical beam, these two opposite Morse-code signals merged into a steady tone.

If the aircraft drifted off course to one side, the Morse code for the letter "A" could be faintly heard. The greater the drift, the stronger the "A" Morse code signal. Straying to the opposite side produced the "N" Morse code signal.

The low frequency beacon system developed the early 1950's, still in use today, consists of four main types of beacons, listed below in the order of lowest to highest transmitter power:

A) ILS APPROACH BEACONS

Sometimes called compass locators, these beacons are generally 25 watts or less.

The beacons help the pilot find and orient himself to the ILS course, so the localizer and glideslope transmissions can then take over and guide the pilot into the airport. They can be distinguished from other beacons on the air because they have 2 letter Morse code identifiers.

B) AIRPORT HOMING BEACONS

These beacons are used at airports that do not have a ILS system to serve as a general homing aid to that airport. As such they are primarily a benefit to small plane pilots, and can only be used under VFR conditions. They are most commonly also 25 watts, but some airport beacons can be up to 100 watts.

C) CROSS COUNTRY/WEATHER BROADCAST BEACONS

These beacons were put about 200 miles apart, and had a transmitter power of up to 400 watts typically. They had voice circuits to broadcast weather, usually with continuous tapes. Being on low frequencies, they could be heard on the ground, for preflight use.

D) LONG RANGE WATER CROSSING BEACONS

Most powerful and rare type of beacon. They are generally of 2000 watts and were established mainly on coastlines and islands to provide a homing signal for planes flying in from a transoceanic crossing or crossing a body of water for a few hundred miles.

All forms of low frequency homing beacons are technically obsolete in relation to VOR's and now GPS, and are largely no longer used by most pilots.

In any case, because low frequency beacons are so cheap and easy to operate as a backup, they may never completely disappear. Perhaps, similar to lighthouses, which have also been obsoleted by GPS, we should preserve a few radiobeacons for the future as historical artifacts, coming as they do from the earliest days of radio.

 

3. Give the equivalents, using the text:

a) проблесковый маяк, навигация в ночное время, отвлекающий свет, ускорить развитие, располагаться на расстоянии 200 миль друг от друга, передавать сигналы кода Морзе, сливаться в один звук, сбиться с курса в сторону, помочь пилоту определить свое местоположение, основное средство самонаведения, цепи передачи речевых сигналов, предполетное использование, пересечение водоемов, технически устаревшие, полностью исчезнуть.

 

b) flashing beacon , great aid for night-time navigation, to be of no value, to be turned on/off, to locate in the distracting light, to define electronic airways, merged into a steady tone, to drift off course, straying to the opposite side, compass locators, to be distinguished from, to serve as a general homing aid, continuous tapes, in relation to, to be no longer used by, to preserve radio beacons for the future.

4. Answer the following questions:

 

1) What are the advantages and disadvantages of the early flashing beacons?

2) What beacons does the earliest LF navigation system include?

3) How were the Morse-code signals transmitted?

4) When was the low frequency beacon system developed?

5) What is the main function of the ILS approach beacon?

6) What kind of beacons can serve as a general homing aid to the airport, which doesn’t have a ILS system?

7) Long Rang Water Crossing Beacons were established mainly on coastlines and islands to broadcast weather, weren’t they?

8) Will low frequency beacons disappear soon?

5. Match each word in the left-hand column with the best meaning in the right-hand column.

 

1. The beacons were economical and a) Long Range Water Crossing

of great value in clear weather in Beacons

night-time.

 

2. The beacons had the lowest b) Flashing Beacons

transmitter power they

had 2 letter Morse code

identifiers.

 

3. The beacons helped small plane c) ILS Approach Beacons

pilots and often had “T” type

antennas.

 

4. The most interesting class of beacons d) Cross Country/Weather

being on low frequencies, people were Broadcast Beacons

able to tune the beacon band on their

portable radios just to get the weather.

 

5. These powerful beacons could e) Airport Homing Beacons

provide a homing signal for

planes flying too far for a VHF

range.

6. Translate from Russian into English:

 

1) Первые маяки были не только экономичны, но и необходимы для навигации в темное время суток.

2) Радиомаяки мощностью от 190 до 535 кГц образовали первую навигационную

систему на низких частотах.

3) Маяки системы ILS отличаются самой низкой мощностью до 25 кГц.

4) Некоторые маяки используют в аэропортах, где они служат основным

средством самонаведению

5) Хотя низкочастотные системы радиомаяков уже достаточно устарели и

практически не используются пилотами, следует все же сохранить их в

качестве памятников материальной культуры для последующих поколений.

 



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