Drama as a genre of literature



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Drama as a genre of literature



Drama is the specific mode of narrative, typically fictional, represented in performance.[1] The term comes from the Greek wordδρᾶμα, drama, meaning action, which is derived from the verb δράω, draō, meaning to do or to act.

The term "the drama" refers to "the dramatic branch of literature; the dramatic art".Two symbolic masks are traditionally associated with drama to represent the generic division between comedy and tragedy. They are symbols of the ancient Greek Muses, Thalia and Melpomene, the Muse of comedy represented by the laughing face, and the Muse of tragedy represented by the weeping face, respectively.

Drama is defined in this modern usage as "a genre of narrative fiction (or semi-fiction) intended to be more serious than humorous in tone"[5]which focuses on in-depth development of realistic characters who must deal with realistic emotional struggles.

A dramatic work can include music and dance. Opera is generally sung throughout, and can include ballet; musicals generally include both spoken dialogue, and songs, and may also include dancing; and some plays, melodrama.[8] In certain periods of history, including ancient Rome and the nineteenth century, some dramas were written to be read rather than performed.[9] In improvisation there is no script and performers devise their performance spontaneously before an audience.

Drama is studied by Aristotel’s “Poetics”. Drama occurred in England between 16-17th century. English dramatists: Christopher Marlow, Ben Johnson, Shakespare, Kazakh dramatists: G.Musyrepov “ Ақан сері ақтоқты», Ауезов «Қара қыпшақ қобыланды».

Drama is divided into comedy and tragedy

Comedy

Sometimes, scholars distinguish between high comedy, which appeals to the intellect (comedy of ideas) and has a serious purpose (for example, to criticise), and low comedy, where greater emphasis is placed on situation comedy, slapstick and farce. There are further sub-genres of comedy:

Romantic Comedy: A pair of lovers and their struggle to come together is usually at the centre of romantic comedy. Romantic comedies also involve some extraordinary circumstances, e.g., magic, dreams, the fairy-world, etc. Examples are Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream or As You Like It.

Satiric Comedy: Satiric comedy has a critical purpose. It usually attacks philosophical notions or political practices as well as general deviations from social norms by ridiculing characters. In other words: the aim is not to make people ‘laugh with’ the characters but ‘laugh at’ them. An early writer of satirical comedies was Aristophanes (450-385 BC), later examples include Ben Jonson’s Volpone and The Alchemists.

Comedy of Manners: The comedy of manners is also satirical in its outlook and it takes the artificial and sophisticated behaviour of the higher social classes under closer scrutiny. The plot usually revolves around love or some sort of amorous intrigue and the language is marked by witty repartees and cynicism. reached its peak with the Restoration comedies of William Wycherley and William Congreve.

Farce: The farce typically provokes viewers to hearty laughter. It presents highly exaggerated and caricatured types of characters and often has an unlikely plot. Farces employ sexual mix-ups, verbal humour and physical comedy, and they formed a central part of the Italian commedia dell’arte. In English plays, farce usually appears as episodes in larger comical pieces, e.g., in Shakespeare’s The Taming of the Shrew.

Comedy of Humours: Ben Jonson developed the comedy of humours, which is based on the assumption that a person’s character or temperament. In the comedy of humours, characters are marked by one of these predispositions which cause their eccentricity or distorted personality. An example is Ben Jonson’s Every Man in His Humour.

Tragedy

Tragedy, branch of drama that treats in a serious and dignified style the sorrowful or terrible events encountered or caused by a heroic individual. By extension the term may be applied to other literary works, such as the novel.

1. Senecan tragedy: precursor of tragic drama were the tragedies by roman poet Seneca ( 4 BC-65 AD). His tragedies were recited rather than staged but they became model for English playwrights entailing 5 act structure, a complex plot and elevated style of dialog.

2. Revenge tragedy:This type of tragedy represented a popular genre in the Elizebethan age and made extensive use of certain elements of the Senecan tragedy such as murder, revenge, mutilations, ghosts. Typical examples of this sub-genre are Christopher Marlow’s “The Jew of Malta”, Shakespeare’s “Titus Andronicus”

3. Domestic tragedy: In line social system where the middle class gained increasing importance and power , tragedies from the 18th century onward shifted their focus to protagonists from the middle or lower classes and were written in prose. The protagonist typically suffers a domestic disaster which is intended to arouse empathy rather than pity and fear in the audience. An example is George Lillo’s The London Merchant, The History of George Barnwell.

4. Tragicomedy:The boundaries of genres are often blurred in drama and occasionallythey lead to the emergence of new sub-genres e.g. the tragicomedy. Tragicomedies, as the name suggests, intermingle conventions concerning plot, character and subject matter derived from both tragedy and comedy. Thus, characters of both high and low social rank can be mixed as in Shakespear’s The Merchant of Venice, or a serious conflict, which is likely to end in disaster, suddenly reaches a happy ending. Plays with multiple plots which combine tragedy in one plot and comedy in the other referred as tragicomedy.

Classicism

The Classic Age. 1700-1780

- Kenneth Clark studied “ A study in Ideal Form”

- Originated in france

- Main features are to obey 3 rules: time, place, event.

- Brought Moral value

- Abai, Jumabaev, Auezov

- Daniel Defoe, Jonathon Swift, Samuel Richardson

- The name Classic Age is more often heard; but in using it we should remember clearly these three different ways in which the word "classic" is applied to literature: (1) The term "classic" refers, in general, to writers of the highest rank in any nation. it was first applied to the works of the great Greek and Roman writers, like Homer, the Bible and the Avestas, as well as the Iliad, are called classics. (2) Every national literature has at least one period in which an unusual number of great writers are producing books, and this is called the classic period of a nation's literature. Thus the reign of Augustus is the classic or golden age of Rome; the generation of Dante is the classic age of Italian literature; the age of Louis XIV is the French classic age; and the age of Queen Anne is often called the classic age of England. (3) The general tendency of literature was to look at life critically, to emphasize intellect rather than imagination, the form rather than the content of a sentence. Writers strove to repress all emotion and enthusiasm, and to use only precise and elegant methods of expression. This is what is often meant by the "classicism" of the ages of Pope and Johnson. In this period the revolt against classicism is shown in the revival of romantic poetry under Gray, Collins, Burns, and Thomson, and in the beginning of the English novel under Defoe, Richardson, and Fielding. These poets and novelists, who have little or no connection with classicism, belong only chronologically to the period we are studying. To avoid this critical difficulty we have adopted the term Augustan Age, a name chosen by the writers themselves, who saw in Pope, Addison, Swift, Johnson, and Burke the modern parallels to Horace, Virgil, Cicero, and all that brilliant company who made Roman literature famous in the days of Augustus.

Daniel Defoe ( 1660- 1731)

- trader, writer, journalist,pamphleteer, orator and debator

- Studied history, economics, geography

- 1st satire An essay on Projects

- For his work The shortest way he was imprisoned

- 1719 published the strange and surprising adventure of Robinson Crusoe

Jonathon swift

- Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish[1] satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for theWhigs, then for the Tories), poet and cleric who became Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin.[2]

- Swift is remembered for works such as Gulliver's Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, Drapier's Letters, The Battle of the Books, An Argument Against Abolishing Christianity and A Tale of a Tub. He is regarded by the Encyclopædia Britannica as the foremost prose satirist in the English language,[1] and is less well known for his poetry.

- His deadpan, ironic writing style, particularly in A Modest Proposal, has led to such satire being subsequently termed "Swiftian"

Samuel Richardson

Samuel Richardson (19 August 1689 – 4 July 1761)

- was an 18th-century English writer and printer.

- He is best known for his threeepistolary novels: Pamela: Or, Virtue Rewarded (1740), Clarissa: Or the History of a Young Lady (1748) and The History of Sir Charles Grandison (1753).

- Richardson was an established printer and publisher for most of his life and printed almost 500 different works, including journals and magazines.

- He knew leading figures in 18th-century England, including Samuel Johnson and Sarah Fielding. In the London literary world, he was a rival of Henry Fielding, and the two responded to each other's literary styles in their own novels.

 

- 36.Romantism..By the late 18th century in France and Germany, literary taste began to turn from classical and neoclassical conventions. The generation of revolution and wars, of stress and upheaval had produced doubts on the security of the age of reason. Doubts and pessimism now challenged the hope and optimism of the 18th century. Men felt a deepened concern for the metaphysical problems of existence, death, and eternity. It was in this setting that Romanticism was born.

- Origins
Romanticism was a literary movement that swept through virtually every country of Europe, the United States, and Latin America that lasted from about 1750 to 1870. However, the Romantic Movement did not reach France until the1820's. Romanticism's essential spirit was one of revolt against an established order of things-against precise rules, laws, dogmas, and formulas that characterized Classicism in general and late18th-century Neoclassicism in particular. It praised imagination over reason, emotions over logic, and intuition over science-making way for a vast body of literature of great sensibility and passion. In their choice of heroes, also, the romantic writers replaced the static universal types of classical 18th-century literature with more complex, idiosyncratic characters. They became preoccupied with the genius, the hero, and the exceptional figure in general, and a focus on his passions and inner struggles and there was an emphasis on the examination of human personality and its moods and mental potentialities. Romanticism first appeared in Germany in the circle of writers and philosophers of the Jena school (VG Vakkenroder Ludwig Teak, Novalis, the brothers F. and A. Schlegel). Romantic philosophy was systematized in the writings of F. Schlegel and F.Shellinga. In the further development of German romanticism distinguished interest in fairy-tale and mythological motifs that most clearly expressed in the work of Wilhelm and Jacob Grimm brothers, Hoffmann. Heine, from his creativity in the framework of romanticism, and later subjected him to a critical review.

- The Romantic Style
The term romantic first appeared in 18th-century English and originally meant "romancelike"-that is, resembling the fanciful character of medieval romances. But a mood or movement whose central characteristic is revolt, and whose stress is on self-expression and individual uniqueness, does not lend itself to precise definition. Among the characteristic attitudes of Romanticism were the following:

- Libertarianism
Many of the libertarian and abolitionist movements of the late 18th and early 19th centuries were engendered by the romantic philosophy-the desire to be free of convention and tyranny, and the new emphasis on the rights and dignity of the individual. Just as the insistence on rational, formal, and conventional subject matter that had typified neoclassicism was reversed, the authoritarian regimes that had encouraged and sustained neoclassicism in the arts were inevitably subjected to popular revolutions. The general romantic's dissatisfaction with the organization of society was often channeled into specific criticism of the Bougeois society and the feeling of oppression was frequently expressed in poetry. Political and social causes became dominant themes in romantic poetry and prose throughout France and other parts of Europe, producing many vital human documents that are still pertinent.

- Romanticism stresses on self-expression and individual uniqueness that does not lend itself to precise definition. Romantics believed that men and women ought to be guided by warm emotions rather than the cold abstract rules andrituals established by Bourgeois society. The bourgeois, who promoted, defended, and openly profited by the Revolution of 1830, brought with them, when they rose to power, certain social customs. No doubt all the Romantics would have furiously denied that they were bourgeois, and many of them would indignantly have repudiated Napoleon III, rather than declare allegience to whom Victor Hugo went into exile for 18 years. In the period of its most active fermentation, the Romantic Movement was nothing more than a protest against bourgeois conventions, bourgeois society and morality. To be extreme and flamboyant and unusual and violent even at the risk of becoming grotesque was the desire of every young Romantic. The Romantics were, in fact, bourgeois origins, who were trying hard to escape from their own shadows.

-
Nature
The Romantic association of nature and spirit expressed itself in one of two ways. The landscape was, on one hand regarded as an extension of the human personality, capable of sympathy with man's emotional state. On other hand, nature was regarded as a vehicle for spirit just as man; the breath of God fills both man and the earth. (Shroder, 80). Delight in unspoiled scenery and in the (presumably) innocent life of rural dwellers was a popular literary theme. Often combined with this feeling for rural life is a generalized romantic melancholy, a sense that change is imminent and that a way of life is being threatened.

- The Decline of Romanticism
By about the middle of the 19th century, romanticism began to give way to new literary movements: the Parnassians and the symbolist movement in poetry, and realism and naturalism.

- The most primitive European works of the following literary works are considered to be in the spirit of Romanticism:

- - The treatise "Genius of Christianity", the story "Atala" and "Rene" Chateaubriand;

- - Manifesto "Preface" to the product, "Cromwell", the novel "Notre Dame de Paris" Hugo;

- - Drama "Henry III and his court", a series of novels about the Musketeers, "The Count of Monte Cristo" and "Queen Margot" Dumas;

- - Novels "Indiana", "Wayfarer", "Horace", "Consuelo" George Sand;

- - Manifesto "Racine and Shakespeare" Stendhal; - The poem "The old sailor" and "Kristabel" Coleridge;

- - "Eastern poem" and "Manfred" Byron;

- - A collection of works of Balzac;

- - Novel "Ivanhoe" by Sir Walter Scott;

- - Tale "Hyacinth and Rose" novel "Heinrich von Ofterdingen" Novalis;

- - Collections of short stories, novels and tales of Hoffmann.

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- 37. Language and Speech

- Language is different from speech.

- Languageis made up of socially shared rules that include the following:

- What words mean (e.g., "star" can refer to a bright object in the night sky or a celebrity)

- How to make new words (e.g., friend, friendly, unfriendly)

- How to put words together (e.g., "Peg walked to the new store" rather than "Peg walk store new")

- What word combinations are best in what situations ("Would you mind moving your foot?" could quickly change to "Get off my foot, please!" if the first request did not produce results)

- Speechis the verbal means of communicating. Speech consists of the following:

- Articulation

- How speech sounds are made (e.g., children must learn how to produce the "r" sound in order to say "rabbit" instead of "wabbit").

- Voice

- Use of the vocal folds and breathing to produce sound (e.g., the voice can be abused from overuse or misuse and can lead to hoarseness or loss of voice).

- Fluency

- The rhythm of speech (e.g., hesitations or stuttering can affect fluency).

- When a person has trouble understanding others (receptive language), or sharing thoughts, ideas, and feelings completely (expressive language), then he or she has alanguage disorder.

- When a person is unable to produce speech sounds correctly or fluently, or has problems with his or her voice, then he or she has a speech disorder.

- In our example, Tommy has a speech disorderthat makes him hard to understand. If his lips, tongue, and mouth are not moved at the right time, then what he says will not sound right. Children who stutter, and people whose voices sound hoarse or nasal have speech problems as well.

- In linguistics, speechiscommunication through spoken words.

- The study of speech sounds (or spoken language) is the branch of linguistics known asphonetics. The study of sound changes in a language is phonology.

- Language is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, particularly thehuman ability to do so, and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics.

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- 38.Author’s remarks and their role.

Short thanks and dedications are author’s remarks but not every author does that. It can be either in front or at the end of the book. Some of them provides background information on the book that makes the book more intrigue.
I personally love it when an author takes the time to put an "author's note" into the book. it makes it feel so much more like they're writing it for you. if you are going to put a writer's note in the book, it should always be at the back. Why, you ask? Because if you put it in the front, you may ruin the ending for the reader.


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