ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Спеціальності 8.030201 – Журналістика



 

Запоріжжя


 

Розглянуто кафедрою перекладу за фахом протокол № 8 від 18 лютого 2009 р. Рекомендовано науково-методичною комісією за напрямом освіти “Філологія” протокол № 7 від 18 березня 2009 р.

 

Ухвалено до друку вченою радою

Інституту іноземної філології Класичного приватного університету

протокол № __ від __ __________ 200_ р.

 

Рецензент: О.Е. Кирпиченко, доцент

 

НАУКОВЕ СПІЛКУВАННЯ ІНОЗЕМНОЮ МОВОЮ

Навчальний посібник
для студентів магістратури денної та заочної форм навчання
спеціальності 8.030201 – Журналістика

 

Укладач: Е.Г. Балюта, доцент

 

 


ЗМІСТ

ВСТУП................................................................................................................ 4

Методичні рекомендації щодо виконання
й оформлення контрольної роботи.................................................................. 37

Варіанти контрольних робіт............................................................................ 39

Варіант 1........................................................................................................ 39

Варіант 2........................................................................................................ 44

Варіант 3........................................................................................................ 47

Варіант 4........................................................................................................ 50

Варіант 5........................................................................................................ 53

ЛІТЕРАТУРА.................................................................................................... 58

 


ВСТУП

Навчальнийпосібник розрахований на студентів магістратури спеціальності «Журналістика», що мають певний рівень фахової та мовної підготовки для кваліфікованого сприйняття викладеного матеріалу.

Мета посібника – ознайомити студентів із поглядами науковців і фахівців англомовних країн на різні варіанти обробки публіцистичних, наукових та науково-популярних текстів, а саме: реферати та анотації. Студенти мають змогу виявити спільне та відмінне в підходах до визначення термінів «реферат» та «анотація» вітчизняними та зарубіжними науковцями, проводити дискусії щодо їх еквівалентності, добирати та складати список синонімів до вищезазначених термінів українською та англійською мовами і порівнювати їх адекватність.

У посібнику містяться рекомендації щодо написання статтей англійською мовою, наведені приклади статей різних видів.

Матеріал посібника можна використовувати як на практичних заняттях із студентами денного відділення, так і для самостійного опрацювання студентами заочного відділення, якщо викладач вважає таку роботу необхідною, для індивідуальних завдань. Під час добору матеріалу враховувалася кількість годин, запропонованих для вивчення дисципліни «Наукове спілкування іноземною мовою».

Three writing strategies that will help you understand what you are reading are the paraphrase, summary, and precis. All three ask you to put the information that you're reading into your own words.

Paraphrase

Paraphrase: 1) an expression of a statement or text in other words, esp. in order to clarify; 2) the practice of making paraphrases; 3) to put (something) into other words; restate (something) [8]; 1) переказ, переповідання 2) парафраза [7]

When you paraphrase, you are explaining your source's argument, following its line of reasoning and its sequence of ideas, in your own words. The paraphrase should give the reader an accurate understanding of the author's position on the topic. The purpose of a paraphrase is to convey the meaning of the original message and, in doing so, to prove that you understand the passage well enough to restate it. Remember, your job is not to prove yourself correct, but to uncover and explain all the facts and arguments involved in your subject.

To paraphrase, first substitute synonyms for the passage's more important terms. These synonyms should be accurate both in denotative and connotative meaning. It does not matter yet whether you agree or disagree with the passage; it only matters that you comprehend and show that you understand what the passage says. This restatement preserves both the original meaning of the passage and the author's position on the matter, but it may be difficult to read at some points. Fine tune the sentence construction, possibly even adding a phrase here and there to illustrate a point more clearly or show a connection between two ideas.

The paraphrase alters the wording of the passage without changing its meaning. It retains the basic logic of the argument, its sequence of ideas, and even the examples used in the passage. Most importantly, it accurately conveys the author's meaning and opinion.

Summary

Summary: 1) a brief account giving the main points of something (usually prenominal); 2) performed arbitrarily and quickly, without formality a summary execution; 3) (of legal proceedings) short and free from the complexities and delays of a full trial; 4) – summary jurisdiction; 5) giving the gist or essence [8]; короткий виклад, зведення, резюме, конспект [7]

A summary restates only the author's main ideas, omitting all the examples and evidence used in supporting and illustrating those points. The function of a summary is to represent the scope and emphasis of a relatively large amount of material in an efficient and concise form. In your own words, state the thesis, main arguments and conclusion of the original. In both the paraphrase and summary, the author's meaning and opinion have been retained. However, in the case of the summary, examples and illustrative elements of the passage are omitted. Because they can be used to encapsulate everything from a long narrative passage of an essay, to a chapter in a book, to the entire book itself, summaries can be tremendously helpful.

Writing Your Summary

1. Now begin writing your summary. Start with a sentence naming the writer and article title and stating the essay's main idea. Then write your summary, omitting nothing important and striving for overall coherence through appropriate transitions.

2. Be concise, using coordination and subordination to compress ideas.

3. Conclude with a final statement reflecting the significance of the article – not from your own point of view but from the writer's.

4.Throughout the summary, do not insert your own opinions or thoughts; instead summarize what the writer has to say about the subject.

Revising Your Summary

1. After you've completed a draft, read your summary and check for accuracy.

2. Does your summary make the same point as the article?

3. Have you omitted anything important?

4. Does your summary read smoothly with all parts clearly related?

5. Keep in mind that a summary should generally be no more than one-fourth the length of the original. If your summary is too long, cut out words rather than ideas. Then look for non-essential information and delete it.

6. Write another draft – still a draft for revision – and ask someone to read it critically.

7. Can that person understand the sense of the article by reading your summary?

8. Ask for criticism; then weigh these criticisms and make valid changes.

Editing Your Summary

1. Correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors, looking particularly for those common in your writing.

2. Write a clean draft and proofread for copying errors.

Characteristics of a Good Summary:

A good summary has the following characteristics:

Proper Citation: The summary begins by citing the title, author, source, and, in the case of a magazine or journal article, the date of publication and the text.

Thesis Statement: The overall thesis of the text selection is the author’s central theme. There are several aspects to an effective thesis statement:

- It comprises two parts: a) the topic or general subject matter of the text, and b) the author’s major assertion, comment, or position on the topic.

- This central theme is summarized clearly and accurately in a one sentence thesis statement.

- The thesis statement does not contain specific details discussed in the text.

- The thesis statement is stated at the beginning of the summary.

Supporting Ideas: The author supports his/her thesis with supporting ideas.

Use the following basic guidelines when summarising supporting ideas:

- Cover all of the author’s major supporting ideas.

- Show the relationships among these ideas.

- Omit specifics, such as illustrations, descriptions, and detailed explanations.

- Indicate the author’s purpose in writing: to inform, to persuade, or to entertain. If the passage is a persuasive piece, report the author’s bias or position on the issue.

- Omit all personal opinions, ideas, and inferences. Let the reader know that you are reporting the author’s ideas.

►Grammar and the Mechanics of Writing: Grammar and related concerns ensure that, as a writer, you communicate clearly to your reader. The following are particularly important:

- Restate the ideas in your own words as much as possible. Avoid direct quotations.

- Use transitional words for a smooth and logical flow of ideas.

- Edit and re-write your work.

- Check your grammar, punctuation, and spelling

Length: The length of a summary depends on how long the original document is.

Steps in Writing a Summary:

Initially, summary writing can seem like a challenging task. It requires careful reading and reflective thinking about the article. Most of us, however, tend to skim read without focused reflection, but with time and effort, the steps listed here can help you become an effective summary writer.

►Read the article

►Reread the Article.

- Divide the article into segments or sections of ideas. Each segment deals with one aspect of the central theme. A segment can comprise one or more paragraphs. Note: news magazine articles tend to begin with an anecdote. This is the writer’s lead into the article, but does not contain the thesis or supporting ideas. Typically, a feature lead does not constitute a segment of thought.

- Label each segment. Use a general phrase that captures the subject matter of the segment. Write the label in the margin next to the segment.

- Highlight or underline the main points and key phrases.

►Write One-Sentence summaries.

- Write a one-sentence summary for each segment of thought on a separate sheet of paper.

►Formulate the Thesis Statement.

- Formulate a central theme that weaves the one-sentence segment summaries together. This is your thesis statement.

- In many articles, the author will state this directly. You may wish to take his direct statement of the thesis and restate it in your own words. Note: In news magazine articles, the thesis is often suggested through the article’s title and sub-title.

- In other articles, you may have to write your own one-sentence thesis statement that summarizes this central theme.

►Write Your First Draft.

- Begin with a proper citation of the title, author, source, and date of publication of the article summarised.

- Combine the thesis statement and your one-sentence segment summaries into a one-to-two-paragraph summary.

- Eliminate all unnecessary words and repetitions.

- Eliminate all personal ideas and inferences.

- Use transitions for a smooth and logical flow of ideas.

- Conclude with a “summing up” sentence by stating what can be learned from reading the article.

►Edit Your Draft. Check your summary by asking the following questions:

- Have I answered the who, what, when, why, and how questions?

- Is my grammar, punctuation, and spelling correct?

- Have I left out my personal views and ideas?

- Does my summary “hang together”? Does it flow when I read it aloud?

- Have someone else read it. Does the summary give them the central ideas of the article?

►Write Your Final Draft.

Writing a Summary

A summary is condensed version of a larger reading. A summary is not a rewrite of the original piece and does not have to be long nor should it be long. To write a summary, use your own words to express briefly the main idea and relevant details of the piece you have read. Your purpose in writing the summary is to give the basic ideas of the original reading. What was it about and what did the author want to communicate?

While reading the original work, take note of what or who is the focus and ask the usual questions that reporters use: Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? Using these questions to examine what you are reading can help you to write the summary.

Sometimes, the central idea of the piece is stated in the introduction or first paragraph, and the supporting ideas of this central idea are presented one by one in the following paragraphs. Always read the introductory paragraph thoughtfully and look for a thesis statement. Finding the thesis statement is like finding a key to a locked door. Frequently, however, the thesis, or central idea, is implied or suggested. Thus, you will have to work harder to figure out what the author wants readers to understand. Use any hints that may shed light on the meaning of the piece: pay attention to the title and any headings and to the opening and closing lines of paragraphs.

In writing the summary, let your reader know the piece that you are summarizing. Identify the title, author and source of the piece.

You may want to use this formula:

In "Title of the Piece" (source and date of piece), author shows that: central idea of the piece. The author supports the main idea by using ___________and showing that ___________.

Here is a sample summary:

In the short story "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty," author James Thurber humorously presents a character who fantasizes about himself as a hero enduring incredibly challenging circumstances. In his real life, Walter Mitty lives an ordinary, plain life; he is a husband under the control of an overbearing, critical wife. Thurber uses lively dialogue to give readers an understanding of Mitty's character. The story takes place over a period of about twenty minutes; during this brief time, Mitty drives his wife to the hairdresser and runs errands that his wife has given him while he waits for her. In between he is worrying that he is not doing what she wants him to do, he daydreams about himself as a great surgeon, brilliant repair technician, expert marksman, and brave military captain. This story shows that fantasy is often a good alternative to reality.

Remember:

Do not rewrite the original piece.

Keep your summary short.

Use your own wording.

Refer to the central and main ideas of the original piece.

Read with who, what, when, where, why and how questions in mind.

Do not put in your opinion of the issue or topic discussed in the original piece. Often, instructors ask students to put their opinions in a paragraph separate from the summary.

Writing Summaries

The goal of writing a summary of an article, a chapter, or a book is to offer as accurately as possible the full sense of the original, but in a more condensed form. A summary restates the author’s main point, purpose, intent, and supporting details in your own words.

The process of summarizing enables you to better grasp the original, and the result shows the reader that you understand it as well. In addition, the knowledge gained allows you to better analyze and critique the original.

First, try to find the main idea in the reading; it’s usually in the first paragraph. Next, skim through the article, glancing at any headings and graphics. Then, read the conclusion. The intent here is both to give yourself a review of the work and to effectively engage yourself with it.

Now go back and read the original text carefully, jotting down notes on or highlighting the important points. Write the central idea and the author’s reasons (purpose and intent) for holding this viewpoint. Note the supporting elements the author uses to explain or back up her/his main information or claim.

Make an outline that includes the main idea and the supporting details. Arrange your information in a logical order, for example, most to least important or chronological. Your order need not be the same as that in the original, but keep related supporting points together. The way you organize the outline may serve as a model for how you divide and write the essay.

Write the summary, making sure to state the author’s name in the first sentence. Present the main idea, followed by the supporting points. The remainder of your summary should focus on how the author supports, defines, and/or illustrates that main idea. Remember, unless otherwise stated by your instructor, a summary should contain only the author’s views, so try to be as objective as possible.

As you revise and edit your summary, compare it to the original and ask yourself questions such as: Have I rephrased the author’s words without changing their meaning? Have I restated the main idea and the supporting points accurately and in my own words?

If you are asked to write a critical summary or to include a critique, you may want to ask yourself questions such as: Does the author succeed? How and why or why not? What are the strengths, weaknesses? Why? What did the author do well? Not well? Why?

Summary

A summary or recap is a shortened version of the original. The main purpose of such a simplification is to highlight the major points from the genuine (much longer) subject, e.g. a text, a film or an event. The target is to help the audience get the gist in a short period of time.

Written summary

A written summary starts with a lead, including title, author, text type and the main idea of the text. It has a clearly arranged structure and is written in a logical, chronological and traceable manner. In contrast to a résumé or a review, a summary contains neither interpretation nor rating. Only the opinion of the original writer is reflected – paraphrased with new words without quotations from the text. Unlike a retelling, a summary has no dramatic structure and is written in present tense or historic present. Because summaries should be significantly shorter than the original, minor facts have to be left out. However all major conclusions should remain. In summaries only indirect speech is used and depictions are avoided. Summaries of books or dissertations present the major facts in common scientific language and should be about from a half up to one page long.

Summary in nonfiction

Nonfiction summaries serve to familiarize the reader with an entire work’s subject matter in a short space of time. They are written in a balanced and objective way, mirroring the genre’s aim to portray actual events from the author’s point of view. Generally, nonfiction summaries do not offer analysis or assessment.

Summarizers use their own words to write the shortened versions and draw on the original make-up of the pieces to structure the distillations. They exclude superfluous examples, descriptions and digressions. The opening sentence should introduce the topic, and the final sentence should sum up the theme, taking into account the knowledge gained from the body of the text.

In recent years, a summarizing industry has sprung up. Leading companies in this field are getAbstract and Summaries.com. These firms focus mainly on business literature. They adhere to the nonfiction guidelines mentioned above, but also provide numerical ratings and evaluations of the titles covered. Shorter, more concise nonfiction summaries are called abstracts. They are approx. 5 pages, thus longer than scientific abstracts.

Abstract (summary)

An abstract is a brief summary of a research article, thesis, review, conference proceeding or any in-depth analysis of a particular subject or discipline, and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper's purpose. When used, an abstract always appears at the beginning of a manuscript, acting as the point-of-entry for any given scientific paper or patent application. Abstraction and indexing services are available for a number of academic disciplines, aimed at compiling a body of literature for that particular subject.

Academic abstracts

The abstract of a thesis or article is a short summary that explains the main argument(s), topic(s) or findings. In theses, the abstract normally appears before the table of contents.

In scientific literature

Scientific literature takes widespread advantage of the abstract as the abbreviated style of choice in order to aptly communicate complex research. In science, an abstract may act as a stand-alone entity in lieu of the paper as well. As such, an abstract is used by many organizations as the basis for selecting research that is proposed for presentation in the form of a poster, podium/lecture, or workshop presentation at an academic conference. Most literature database search engines index abstracts only as opposed to providing the entire text of the paper. Full-texts of scientific papers must often be purchased because of copyright and/or publisher fees, and therefore the abstract is a significant selling point for the reprint or electronic version of the full-text.

Abstracts are afforded protections under copyright law just as any other form of written speech is protected. However, publishers of scientific articles invariably make abstracts publicly available, even when the article itself is protected by a toll barrier. For example, articles in the biomedical literature are available publicly from MEDLINE which is accessible through PubMed. It is a common misconception that the abstracts in MEDLINE provide sufficient information for medical practitioners, students, scholars and patients. The abstract can convey the main results and conclusions of a scientific article but the full text article must be consulted for details of the methodology, the full experimental results, and a critical discussion of the interpretations and conclusions. Consulting the abstract alone is inadequate for scholarship and may lead to inappropriate medical decisions.

Abstract length varies by discipline and publisher requirements. Typical length ranges from 100 to 500 words, but very rarely more than a page. An abstract may or may not have the section title of "abstract" explicitly listed as an antecedent to content, however, they are typically sectioned logically as an overview of what appears in the paper (e.g. any one of the following: Background, Introduction, Objectives, Methods, Results, Conclusions).

In journal articles, research papers, published patent applications and patents, an abstract is a short summary placed prior to the introduction, often set apart from the body of the text, sometimes with different line justification (as a block or pull quote) from the rest of the article.

An abstract allows one to sift through copious amounts of papers for ones in which the researcher can have more confidence that they will be relevant to his research. Abstracts help a researcher decide which papers might be relevant to their research. Once papers are chosen based on the abstract, they must be read carefully to be evaluated for relevance. It is commonly surmised that one must not base reference citations on the abstract alone, but the entire merits of a paper.

Example taken from the Journal of Biology, Volume 3, Issue 2. The electronic version of this article is listed as Open Access as of March 30, 2005, and can be found online at: http://jbiol.com/content/3/2/8:

The hydrodynamics of dolphin drafting by Daniel Weihs, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel. Abstract: Background Drafting in cetaceans is defined as the transfer of forces between individuals without actual physical contact between them. This behavior has long been surmised to explain how young dolphin calves keep up with their rapidly moving mothers. It has recently been observed that a significant number of calves become permanently separated from their mothers during chases by tuna vessels. A study of the hydrodynamics of drafting, initiated in the hope of understanding the mechanisms causing the separation of mothers and calves during fishing-related activities, is reported here. Results Quantitative results are shown for the forces and moments around a pair of unequally sized dolphin-like slender bodies. These include two major effects. First, the so-called Bernoulli suction, which stems from the fact that the local pressure drops in areas of high speed, results in an attractive force between mother and calf. Second is the displacement effect, in which the motion of the mother causes the water in front to move forwards and radially outwards, and water behind the body to move forwards to replace the animal's mass. Thus, the calf can gain a 'free ride' in the forward-moving areas. Utilizing these effects, the neonate can gain up to 90% of the thrust needed to move alongside the mother at speeds of up to 2.4 m/s. A comparison with observations of eastern spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) is presented, showing savings of up to 60% in the thrust that calves require if they are to keep up with their mothers. Conclusions A theoretical analysis, backed by observations of free-swimming dolphin schools, indicates that hydrodynamic interactions with mothers play an important role in enabling dolphin calves to keep up with rapidly moving adult school members.

© 2004 Weihs; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL

Graphical abstracts

During the late 2000's, due to the influence of computer storage and retrieval systems such as the Internet, many scientific publications started including graphical abstracts alongside the text abstracts. The graphic is intended to summarize or be an examplar for the main thrust of the article. It is not intended to be as exhaustive a summary as the text abstract, rather it is supposed to indicate the type, scope, and technical coverage of the article at a glance.

Precis

Precis or précis: 1) a summary of the essentials of a text; abstract 2) to make a precis of [8]; 1. 1) краткое изложение, конспект, резюме Syn: summary 2) составление конспектов, резюме, кратких изложений 2. составлять конспект, резюме; подводить итог, резюмировать [7]

The precis (pronounced pray-see) is a type of summarizing that insists on an exact reproduction of the logic, organization, and emphasis of the original texts. It is of particular use in situations in which you want to detail the relative order, proportions, and relationships of the original parts of a text. An effective precis retains the logic, development, and argument of the original in much shorter form. Thus, a precis is useful when you are dealing with lengthy passages that demand careful attention to the logic and organization of an argument.

To write an effective precis, read the passage several times for a full understanding. Note key points. It may, in fact, be helpful to underline these words. Restate each paragraph in one or two sentences. In cases where there are very short paragraphs, combine them in your restatement. Make sure that you retain the precise order of the original points, and combine the sentences into one or more smooth paragraphs. Finally, check your precis against the original to be sure that it is exact and retains the order, proportions, and relationships of the original.

Writing the Precis

As serious academic writers, you will have to read and remember large amounts of prose (and poetry) along with scientific and social-studies articles as well. In many of your college courses, you are probably able to memorize facts and key statements with relative ease, but in English courses and others which also require close, critical reading, you are asked to go a step further, i.e., to present the informing argument of, let's say, an article and to reproduce the logical development of the argument in as cogent a form as possible in your own words. In order to demonstrate that you have assimilated the central argument and proof of another scholar's critical interpretation, you must be able to summarize and even compose a precis of an argument.

A summary or a precis is NOT a personal interpretation of a work or an expression of your opinion of the idea; it is, rather, an exact replica in miniature of the work, often reduced to one-quarter to one-fifth of its size, in which you express the complete argument!

What actually happens when you write a precis? First, you must understand the complete work so that you can abstract the central argument and express it cogently and completely. Next, you must develop the argument exactly as the writer has presented it AND reduce the work by 75-80% of its size. Of course, this is possible when you consider exactly how you "learn" to read the work.

The key word here is assimilation. When you read the material, it is probable that you will understand only those parts which have associations within your own experience (intellectual, emotional, physical, etc.)

Characteristics

Précis do not make any conclusions about the original, its audience, or anything relating to the text. It must provide the reader an accurate, but brief, map of the original. What the writer thinks about the source text or the topic of the text is not relevant when writing a précis.

Précis usually:

State the name of the article/document, the author and the source (is it from a magazine, book, encyclopedia, etc.)

Avoid use of phrases such as "in this article", "throughout history" or other clichés (big, good, bad, little, a lot)

Are written in past tense

Have subheadings which are underlined or in italics

Do not use contractions

How you actually go about writing a precis depends largely on your ability to restate the writer's central ideas after you have assimilated them in your own mind.

Here are the rules of the game:

1. Read the article many times most carefully.

2. Write a precis of the article in which you state the entire argument and present the logical progression (the development) of the argument.

3. Reduce the article to one-fifth to one-quarter of its original length and omit nothing from the essential argument. This is, in reality, the key to the whole enterprise!

4. Type the precis and begin with your abstraction of the central, informing idea of the article. Having understood and written the central idea, present the essential argument in as cogent manner as possible.

(Clue: Once you have assimilated the article through the illustrations and examples the writer uses to make his/her abstract ideas concrete, you do not have to include these in your precis!)

5. Here is a central rule:

Do not copy a single sentence from the article! You may use key words and phrases only when you are expressing ideas which are technically precise or when you feel comfortable using the writer's own words, i.e., you understand exactly he or she means, and there is really no better way to express the concept.

Finally, in order to complete this assignment, you will have to read the work most carefully, ask questions about the work repeatedly, and reach into your own experiences so that you can shape most cogently the writer's concepts!

This assignment is not easy! When you have completed it well, you will never, never forget the argument, the examples, and the development of the article. More than likely you will also be learning that, when you write research papers and other critical papers, you ability to write the precis is central to the basics of analysis, synthesis, comparison, and other key, higher order thinking skills absolutely required for your success in college and in the profession or career you have chosen when you graduate.

STEP #1: Begin with an article that is relevant and interesting, one with meat to it. Read it and make sure that you understand it.

STEP #2: Select the most important points contained in the article. Underline or highlight those points.

STEP #3: Collect your key points.

Salt Lake City

IOC awarded SLC the 2002 Winter Olympics

leak from disgruntled employee of organizing committee

questions from member of IOC

bidders suspected of bribing IOC members

four groups investigating

IOC members heavily courted

members pledge to return gifts of over $150

IRS may investigate

IOC members serve without pay but are allowed to accept plane tickets, accommodations, and lavish meals looks like nearly $400,000 was paid in scholarships and financial aid to 13 students six recipients related to IOC members not accepting blame but citing past practices games will probably still be held in Salt Lake City.

city worried about sponsors pulling out

IOC investigating

some members may be forced to resign

reform is needed

STEP #4: Place your ideas in sentences. Arrange your sentences into one unit, the "Synopsis" :

By an overwhelming margin, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) selected Salt Lake City, Utah, as the site for the 2002 Winter Olympics. But based on leaks from a disgruntled employee of the local organizing committee and questions from a member of the IOC, the Salt Lake City bidders are suspected of bribing IOC members. So far four groups have opened investigations. The IOC members serve without pay and are pledged to refuse gifts in excess of $150; but they are heavily courted and allowed to accept plane tickets, hotel accommodations, and lavish dinners. It now looks like they also took nearly $400,000 in scholarship money and financial aid to 13 students, six of whom were related to IOC members. So far no one is accepting blame; they are only citing past, similar behaviors. While the games will probably still be held in Salt Lake City, local organizers are concerned about the pull-out of sponsors and the possibility that the IRS might begin an investigation. The IOC is investigating and some members may be forced to resign. Reform is needed.

STEP #5: Think about the article and how it relates to the unit we're discussing. Present your ideas in the form of your "Reaction."

If it isn't one thing in sports, it's another. The idea of sport for the sake of competition has gone forever, only to be replaced by competition for the sake of dollars. The Olympics used to represent an ideal, a best of all possible worlds. Now they are nothing more than another money making scheme, where the rich get richer and the average person foots the bill.

STEP #6: Consider what you would like to do or study as a result of this situation. Present your ideas in the form of your "Follow-Up."

I would love to see a grass roots movement begin, a movement to boycott all organized sports. I'd be the first to join.

STEP #7: Add appropriate documentation for the original article. Check your handbook for the correct format.

* Richard Woodbury, Melissa August, Robery Kroon, "The Olympics Turn into A Five-Ring Circus," Time January 11, 1999: 33.

One More Problem in Sports*

Synopsis

By an overwhelming margin, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) selected Salt Lake City, Utah, as the site for the 2002 Winter Olympics. But based on leaks from a disgruntled employee of the local organizing committee and questions from a member of the IOC, the Salt Lake City bidders are suspected of bribing IOC members. So far four groups have opened investigations. The IOC members serve without pay and are pledged to refuse gifts in excess of $150; but they are heavily courted and allowed to accept plane tickets, hotel accommodations, and lavish dinners. It now looks like they also took nearly $400,000 in scholarship money and financial aid to 13 students, six of whom were related to IOC members. So far no one is accepting blame; they are only citing past, similar behaviors. While the games will probably still be held in Salt Lake City, local organizers are concerned about the pull-out of sponsors and the possibility that the IRS might begin an investigation. The IOC is investigating and some members may be forced to resign. Reform is needed.

Reaction

If it isn't one thing in sports, it's another. The idea of sport for the sake of competition has gone forever, only to be replaced by competition for the sake of dollars. The Olympics used to represent an ideal, a best of all possible worlds. Now they are nothing more than another money making scheme, where the rich get richer and the average person foots the bill.

Follow-Up

I would love to see a grass roots movement begin, a movement to boycott all organized sports. I'd be the first to join.

* Richard Woodbury, Melissa August, Robery Kroon, "The Olympics Turn into A Five-Ring Circus," Time January 11, 1999: 33.

The Precis (or Summary) :Class: 7/8 Angela Abbott

Use of the Precis

This technique of writing can be used in several areas – viz.

Essay Preparation

Note-Taking

Document Based Questions

Research Papers

It will take you some time to master the art of writing the precis. However don't give up; this technique is invaluable as you prepare to write a Historical Essay and Document-Based Questions.

Definition: A precis is a clear, compact logical summary of a passage. It preserves only the essential or important ideas of the original. It is a kind of shorthand in your study of history.

Usage: Use of the precis increases skills in reading and in precision and economy of expression. The techniques of the precis are apparent in the following:

A. Newspaper headline

B. Opening paragraph of newspaper story, lecture, notes and lots more.

Requirements:

1. Concentration and alertness

2. Sensitivity to word meanings and the author's viewpoint.

3. Ability to distinguish between major and minor points.

4. A sense of proportion and emphasis.

STEPS IN READING A PASSAGE FOR THE PRECIS. (Also useful for note-taking)

1. Read the whole passage attentively.

2. Begin to recognize the author's tone and viewpoint.

3. Re-read the passage several times if necessary for clear comprehension (understanding) of ideas.

4. Note and disregard parts of the author's work that are introductory.

5. Underline key phrases, make notes in the margin.

6. Observe the emphasis or approach used by the author.

7. Assume the importance of ideas that the author develops with the use of supporting facts and examples.

8. Do not use the specific examples, figures of speech or quotations cited by the author in developing your precis.

9. When you are selecting ideas from a passage, ask yourself the following question: If this idea were omitted, would the fundamental meaning of the passage be changed?

Writing the Precis

1. Try to limit your precis to no more than 1/3 the length of the original passage.

2. Use clear, factual expressions, do not attempt to copy the style of the original source.

3. Do not introduce ideas of your own. Do not criticize or change the author's ideas.

A precis is a condensed restatement of an article, roughly ¼ the length of the original or less. In contrast to a summary, a precis should preserve the article’s logic and emphases, and include main examples where relevant.

A precis of a primary-literature scientific paper should follow the standard format: background/hypothesis, methods, results, conclusion. The precis should be written from the original author’s point of view, without editorializing. A precis demonstrates that you have assimilated the key information provided in an article.

Precis can be used as ‘briefs’, but are also very similar to the first section of manuscript reviews for peer-reviewed journals. Writing a precis (or any summary) of an article is an excellent way of learning material for the long term, and gives you a record to ‘jog your memory’. http://academic.evergreen.edu/curricular/eduvalues/precis.htm

A SAMPLE PRECIS:

By an overwhelming margin, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) selected Salt Lake City, Utah, as the site for the 2002 Winter Olympics. But based on leaks from a disgruntled employee of the local organizing committee and questions from a member of the IOC, the Salt Lake City bidders are suspected of bribing IOC members. So far, four groups have opened investigations. The IOC members serve without pay and are pledged to refuse gifts in excess of $150; but they are heavily courted and allowed to accept plane tickets, hotel accommodations, and lavish dinners. It now looks like they also took nearly $400,000 in scholarship money and financial aid to 13 students, six of whom were related to IOC members. So far no one is accepting blame; they are only citing past, similar behaviors. While the games will probably still be held in Salt Lake City, local organizers are concerned about the pull-out of sponsors and the possibility that the IRS might begin an investigation. The IOC is investigating and some members may be forced to resign. Reform is needed.

There is a difference between a text's facts and the strategy used to present those facts. A "precis" reflects this difference. It is designed to reflect the structure of a text's argument, not just a set of notes on the text's contents. A precis is one typed page long.

No matter what type, a precis has three sections:

1) A statement about the text's FOCUS. This is the main issue that the text addresses.

**You write a concise statement (1-2 sentences) of that focus.

Likely alternatives:

-issues or problems

-representative concerns of a group, or its interlocked set of beliefs

-institutions/systems

-events and their characteristics or repercussions

E.G.: "The structure of the mind and how it relates to behavior in the social world."

What not to do: Do not include journalistic commentary, or examples, or evaluations – just state what the topic is.

2) A statement of LOGIC and GOAL (its Intent), which will introduce a CHART WITH HEADINGS encompassing the text's data in two parallel columns of notes (usually with page references to the reading).

**You write a sentence describing the logic pattern (E.g., "By examining the sources of _________, the author shows the consequences of ____________"; "In order to ____________, the text correlates the ________ and ____________ of social behaviors.")

Typical verbs indicating such logic: compare, contrast, link causally, cause, follow from . . .

**After that, you write two column headings creating classes of information which the author systematically correlates with each other. Under these headings, you typically add three or four examples which fit the content of the text into its form.

Typical categories of information:

- characteristics of a model, role, event

- stages in an event or process

- sources, conditions, or restrictions on a contexts

- participants or interest groups

- effects, impact, consequences

- goals, purposes to be realized.

3) A paragraph (ca. 3 sentences) indicating the IMPLICATIONS of the information pattern. This is not a description of the information pattern or focus, but rather an extension of the covert statement implied by the information and pattern. That is, what is this text/precis good for, especially as seen from the outside? In setting the argument up this way, what is being hidden, asserted, or brushed aside? What is new or old-fashioned about the correlations made? Who would profit most by this arrangement?

Grading

clear focus = + 1

logic statement clear = + 1

information pattern clear and pertinent = + 1

consistency (does logic match information match focus match implication?) = + 1

implications (are they pertinent, well-expressed, well-thought-out? do they follow from the development of the argument, or come from nowhere? = + 1

TOTALS: + 5 = A; +4 = B; + 3 = C; + 2 = D; + 1 = F. Assignments are one page long; top grade is 90 (unless extraordinary synthesis happens in the implications).

––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––





Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-06-22; Нарушение авторского права страницы

infopedia.su Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав. Обратная связь - 35.153.39.7 (0.069 с.)