Complex « Astana – Baiterek »




ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Complex « Astana – Baiterek »



Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan, officially Republic of Kazakhstan, has the population of 17 million people and territory 2,719,500 sq km, is situated in central Asia. It borders on Siberian Russia in the north, China in the east, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan in the south, and the Caspian Sea and European Russia in the west. Astana is the capital and Almaty (Alma-Ata) is the largest city. Other major cities include Shymkent, Semey, Aktobe, and Oskemen.

Kazakhstan consists of a vast flatland, bordered by a high mountain belt in the southeast. It extends from the lower Volga and the Caspian Sea in the west to the Altai Mts. in the east. It is largely lowland in the north and west, hilly in the center (Kazakh Hills), and mountainous in the south and east (Tian Shan and Altai ranges). Kazakhstan is a region of inland drainage; the Syr Darya, the Ili, the Chu, and other rivers drain into the Aral Sea and Lake Balkash. Most of the region is desert or has limited and irregular rainfall.

The population of Kazakhstan consists mainly of Muslim Kazakhs and Russians; there are smaller minorities of Ukrainians, Germans, Uzbeks, and Tatars. Kazakh, a Turkic language, is the official tongue, but Russian is still widely used.

Despite Kazakhstan's largely arid conditions, its vast steppes accommodate both livestock and grain production. Wheat, cotton, sugar beets, and tobacco are the main crops. The raising of cattle and sheep is also important, and Kazakhstan produces much wool and meat. In addition, there are rich fishing grounds, famous for their caviar-producing sturgeon, in the Caspian, although these have been hurt by overfishing.

The Kazakh Hills in the core of the region have important mineral resources. Coal is mined at Karaghandy and Ekibastuz, and there are major oil fields in the Emba basin. The country's industries are located along the margins of the country. Steel, agricultural and mining machinery, superphosphate fertilizers, phosphorus acids, artificial fibers, synthetic rubber, textiles, and medicines are among the manufactured goods. Temirtau is the iron and steel center. The Baikonur (Bayqongyr) Cosmodrome in central Kazakhstan was the Soviet space-operations center and continues to serve Russian space exploration through an agreement between the two nations. The main trading partners are Russia, Belarus, China and Uzbekistan.

Active vocabulary: officially, north, major, include, consist, flatland, bordered, extends, drain, minorities, arid, caviar-producing sturgeon, coal, steel, agricultural, mining machinery, superphosphate fertilizers, phosphorus acids, artificial fibers, synthetic rubber, textiles, manufactured goods, iron, steel, space exploration.

Answer the questions:

Where is the Republic of Kazakhstan situated?

What is the size of the area of Kazakhstan?

What can you say about the population of the Republic?

What is the capital of Republic?

Where is it situated?

How many kilometers does the area of the country extend from the West to the East and from the North to the South?

What is there in the southwest of the country?

What river is there near the northwestern border of the country?

Look at the map of Kazakhstan and say what states Kazakhstan borders

 

 

Kazakstan is my Motherland

I want to tell you about my homeland. My homeland is Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan is an independent Republic. It is situated in the Central Asia. Its population, is 17 million. All people of Kazakhstan have equal rights and duties. Astana is the capital of Kazakhstan. The territory of Kazakhstan is huge. It borders on China in the East and the Caspian Sea in the West, Russian in the North and the states of Asia in the South. The republic occupies the territory of more than 2 million square kilometers. Kazakhstan has 14 regions, 84 cities.

The earth of Kazakhstan is full of iron and gold, coal, nickel and raw materials. Also Kazakhstan is rich in mineral resources. These reserves formed a solid base for the development of heavy industry. The leading branch of agriculture is the production of wheat, sheep rising, and horse breeding. Kazakh - is the official language of the country, but Russian and other languages are spoken here too. Kazakhstan has hundreds of nationalities that's why all people speak their native language.

Great attention is paid to the development of culture and education the Kazakhstan University, the Opera and Ballet Theater named after Abai Kunanbayev are well known.
There are many big industrial centers in Kazakhstan such as Karaganda, Almaty, Semey, and Shymkent.

Kazakhstan is the place where space dreams and projects have come into reality. The name of Baikonur is known all over the world. We are proud of Kazakhstan and hope it will have a great future. Our president now is Nursultan Nazarbayev. The president is elected every seven years.

The climate is strongly continental. Kazakhstan has its own flag, anthem and national traditions and holidays. I think the most important holiday in our country is - Nayris. The Independence Day of Republic is on the 16th of December. I'm proud of my country.

Our country as a sovereign state has its own national flag, emblem and anthem.

 

Active vocabulary: homeland, independent, situated, rights, duties, huge, borders, iron, raw, mineral resources, reserves, solid heavy industry, leading branch, agriculture, wheat, sheep rising, horse breeding, dreams, proud, hope anthem, national traditions, proud.

 

Answer the questions.

1. When is the birthday of the state symbols?
2. What do know about the emblem of our country?
3. What does the Red Star symbolize?
4. How many parts do Tulpars horns consists of?
5. What do you know about the flag of our country?
6. What does the eagle symbolize?
7. What does the sun symbolize?
8. What do know about our anthem?

 

Astana

Astana is the capital of the Republic of Kazakhstan. It is the third largest city in the country with population over 800 000. In 1999 Astana was awarded a Prize of UNESCO “City of Peace”. Astana is the northernmost capital of Asia. The city is situated in the central Kazakhstan on the banks of the Ishim River. It is located in steppe and has an extreme continental climate – the summers here are hot, while winters are very dry and cold. Astana is the second coldest capital city in the world. The city was founded in 1830 and its first name was Akmolinsk, then in 1961 it was renamed Tselinograd. In 1992 the city’s name was changed to Akmola. Akmola became the capital of Kazakhstan in 1997 and in 1998 the city received its present name Astana. The economy of the city is based on trade, transport and construction. It is a special economic zone. Astana is an important centre for business and trade. The most important branches of industry are food processing industry, mechanical engineering and production of construction materials. The city is centre for culture, sport, healthcare and education. Astana is a beautiful modern city. The author of the Master Plan of Astana is the famous Japanese architect Kisho Kurokawa. There are a lot of modern futuristic buildings, skyscrapers and monuments. “Baiterek” memorial is the symbol of Astana; it is also the geographical centre of all Eurasia.

There are a lot of beautiful parks and fountains in Astana, the most famous of which is “Tree of Life” fountain. In the city there are also some theatres and museums, concert halls and trading and entertainment centres. As Astana is the capital of the country there are government buildings and the residence of the president.

 

Active vocabulary: awarded, located, extreme, dry, founded, renamed, trade, branches, processing, mechanical engineering, production, construction, healthcare, education, modern futuristic buildings, skyscrapers, monuments, trading, entertainment, government, residence. .

 

THE HISTORY OF ASTANA

The history of Astana began in the year 1830. Astana was founded in 1830 on the bank of the Ishim River by Colonel Phyodor Kuzmich Shubin as a fortress.

In 1939 was formed Akmola region and Akmola became the center of this region.

In 1954 in Akmola region the development of virgin and unused lands began. In honour of this event the town of Akmola was renamed in Tselinograd in 1961.

In 1994 Tselinograd was renamed in Akmola again.

In 1997 by Decree of President of Kazakhstan Akmola became the capital of our country.

In 1998 Akmola was renamed un Astana.

(Before listening the teacher may practice some difficult words).

LOTO:

1830 – the foundation of Astana.
1939 – the formation of Akmola region
1954 – the beginning of the development of virgin and unused lands
1961 – Akmola was renamed in Tselinograd
1994 – Tselinograd was renamed in Akmola
1997 – the capital of Kazakhstan
1998 – Akmola was renamed in Astana

Answer the questions:

1. When was Astana founded?

2. When was Akmola region formed?

3. When did the development of virgin and unused lands begin?

4. When was Akmola renamed in Tselinograd?

5. When was Tselinograd renamed in Akmola again?

6. When did Akmola become the capital of Kazakhstan?

7. When was Akmola renamed in Astana?

 

Sightseeings of Astana

Astana is a wonderful eastern city and a center of cultural, state and social life of Kazakhstan. Year after year Astana becomes more popular and attractive for tourists, because here you can see not only historical and architectural sights, but also find numerous new entertainment centers and wonderful restaurants. New colorful trading districts and picturesque markets appear in Astana very quickly. This city has got many awards due to numerous religious monuments. In 1999 Astana got the status of “The city of the world”.

The central part of the city is called Water-Green Boulevard and is made for pedestrians only. The main facility and decoration here is a unique three-level bridge – a real masterpiece of modern architects. The lowest level of the bridge is used as a car parking. The central level is a place for offices, exhibition halls, shops and restaurants. The third level is a pedestrian street decorated with wonderful street lamps, sculptures and decorative trees.

Among modern buildings the one that is definitely worth visiting is Duman entertainment center. Its territory contains endless attractions, a cinema, a casino, a bowling, several trading halls, restaurants and a hotel. Here you can even visit an oceanarium, which attracts hundreds of visitors every day! During the excursion in this magnificent place you will be able to get acquainted with underwater life and see one of the most breathtaking activities – shark feeding.

If you’re into visiting religious sights, then don’t neglect Beit Rachel – Habbad Lyubavich synagogue and the central mosque Nur-Astana. Both buildings are quite unusual according to architectural traditions of East and their inner decoration is also wonderful.

Old English (500-1100 AD)

West Germanic invaders from Jutland and southern Denmark: the Angles (whose name is the source of the words England and English), Saxons, and Jutes, began to settle in the British Isles in the fifth and sixth centuries AD. They spoke a mutually intelligible language, similar to modern Frisian - the language of the northeastern region of the Netherlands - that is called Old English. Four major dialects of Old English emerged, Northumbrian in the north of England, Mercian in the Midlands, West Saxon in the south and west, and Kentish in the Southeast.

These invaders pushed the original, Celtic-speaking inhabitants out of what is now England into Scotland, Wales, Cornwall, and Ireland, leaving behind a few Celtic words. These Celtic languages survive today in the Gaelic languages of Scotland and Ireland and in Welsh. Cornish, unfortunately, is, in linguistic terms, now a dead language. (The last native Cornish speaker died in 1777) Also influencing English at this time were the Vikings. Norse invasions and settlement, beginning around 850, brought many North Germanic words into the language, particularly in the north of England. Some examples are dream, which had meant 'joy' until the Vikings imparted its current meaning on it from the Scandinavian cognate draumr, and skirt, which continues to live alongside its native English cognate shirt.

Global English

English has now inarguably achieved global status. English is used in over 90 countries as an official or semi-official language. English is the working language of the Asian trade group ASEAN. It is the de facto working language of 98 percent of international research physicists and research chemists. It is the official language of the European Central Bank, even though the bank is in Frankfurt and neither Britain nor any other predominantly English-speaking country is a member of the European Monetary Union. It is the language in which Indian parents and black parents in South Africa overwhelmingly wish their children to be educated. It is believed that over one billion people worldwide are currently learning English.

As part of the European Year of Languages, a special survey of European attitudes towards and their use of languages has just published. The report confirms that at the beginning of 2001 English is the most widely known foreign or second language, with 43% of Europeans claiming they speak it in addition to their mother tongue. Sweden now heads the league table of English speakers, with over 89% of the population saying they can speak the language well or very well. However, in contrast, only 36% of Spanish and Portuguese nationals speak English. What's more, English is the language rated as most useful to know, with over 77% of Europeans who do not speak English as their first language, rating it as useful. French rated 38%, German 23% and Spanish 6%. English has without a doubt become the global language.

 

Active vocabulary:broad, invaders, settle, mutually, intelligible, emerged, pushed , inhabitants, survive, invasions, settlement, particularly, current, conques,considerable, increasingly, albeit wave, revival, scholarship, separate, understandable, literacy, exclusively, beyond, predominantly, attitudes, towards, claiming, rated, doubt.

 

 

French

Number of speakers: 129 million

Often called the most romantic language in the world, French is spoken in tons of countries, including Belgium, Canada, Rwanda, Cameroon, and Haiti. Oh, and France too. We’re actually very lucky that French is so popular, because without it, we might have been stuck with Dutch Toast, Dutch Fries, and Dutch kissing (ew!).

To say “hello” in French, say “Bonjour” (bone-JOOR).

Malay-Indonesian

Number of speakers: 159 million

Malay-Indonesian is spoken – surprise – in Malaysia and Indonesia. Actually, we kinda fudged the numbers on this one because there are many dialects of Malay, the most popular of which is Indonesian. But they’re all pretty much based on the same root language, which makes it the ninth most-spoken in the world.

Indonesia is a fascinating place; a nation made up of over 13,000 islands it is the sixth most populated country in the world. Malaysia borders on two of the larger parts of Indonesia (including the island of Borneo), and is mostly known for its capital city of Kuala Lumpur.

To say “hello” in Indonesian, say “Selamat pagi” (se-LA-maht PA-gee).

Portuguese

Bengali

Arabic

Number of speakers: 246 million

Arabic, one of the world’s oldest languages, is spoken in the Middle East, with speakers found in countries such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, and Egypt. Furthermore, because Arabic is the language of the Koran, millions of Moslems in other countries speak Arabic as well. So many people have a working knowledge of Arabic, in fact, that in 1974 it was made the sixth official language of the United Nations.

To say “hello” in Arabic, say “Al salaam a’alaykum” (Ahl sah-LAHM ah ah-LAY-koom).

Russian

Spanish

Hindustani

English

Mandarin

Number of speakers:1 billion+

Surprise, surprise, the most widely spoken language on the planet is based in the most populated country on the planet. Beating second-place English by a 2 to 1 ratio, but don’t let that lull you into thinking that Mandarin is easy to learn. Speaking Mandarin can be really tough, because each word can be pronounced in four ways (or “tones”), and a beginner will invariably have trouble distinguishing one tone from another. But if over a billion people could do it, so could you. Try saying hello!

To say “hello” in Mandarin, say “Ni hao” (Nee HaOW). (“Hao” is pronounced as one syllable, but the tone requires that you let your voice drop midway, and then raise it again at the end.)

Active vocabulary: allows, sustenance, virtually, an adult, entertainment through literature, summarizes, including, kinda fudged the numbers, fascinating place, expanded, explorers, virtually surrounded, expect, not to mention, particular, including, crowded population, encompasses a huge number of dialects, surpass, prominence, prevents, surpassing, hail, widely trouble distinguishing, tone requires, drop midway.

 

Kazakh literature

The modern Kazakh literature began to from in the beginning of the XX century. During this period modern Kazakh language was being formed, new stylistic forms appeared. Kazakh writers to master new genres.

One of the outstanding authors in the literature of the beginning of the XX century was Akhmet Baitursynov. He was busy with pedagogical and literary activity. His first works were the translation of Krylov’s fables, a collection of poems “Kyryk mysal” published several times was very popular among Kazakh people. He wrote some articles about the Kazakh language. The name of Abai Kunanbayev (1845-1904) is signed with golden letters into the history of world literature. He is called “the greatest poet among the Kazakh”. He was also an outstanding thinker. He shares his thoughts and sympathies in the prosaic telling “Kara soz”.

The noticeable figure in the Kazakh literature was Mirzhakyp Dulatov (1885-1931). He is known as a poet and a prosaic. Dulatov is the author of the first Kazakh novel “The Unhappy Zhamal”.

The 30s brought away many representatives of the Kazakh intelligentsia. Saken Seifullin, Beyimbet Mailin were repressed; among these people was also Shakarim Kudaibergenov. The special role in the development of the Kazakh philosophical thought belongs to him. Shakarim wrote letters to Leo Tolstoi, translated Pushkin’s works into Kazakh. Among modern writers of Kazakhstan Mukhtar Auezov (1897-1961) has a special place. His writing activity his life he wrote more than 20 plays, novels and many short stories. His best work in considered to be the epic novel “Abai”. The novel was translated into many languages. M.Auezov was a also a great translator. His translations of Tolstoi, Chehov, Shakespeare, and London enriched the Kazakh literature.

 

Ilyas Yesemberlin

Ilyas Yesenberlin was the great Kazakh writer and author of the historical trilogy "Nomads". He left only 15 novels during his short life.

He was born on January 10, 1915 in the town of Atbasar of Akmola region. He loved reading world literary classics and drawing. After his marriage to the daughter of an "enemy of the people" and "companion of S. Seyfullin" he was chased by the authorities. He lost his job and then was sent to the construction of the Karakum Canal. After Stalin’s death Ilyas Yesenberlin was released and rehabilitated. Later, with his wife Ilyas went to work in the mines of the Semipalatinsk region. He began to write during the war time. His first poems were published in 1945. Only after the war, he realized that literature was his calling. Having moved to Alma-Ata and working as an ordinary editor, he worked on his first novel "Pesnya o cheloveke" (The song about the person). Later Yesenberlin moved to the studio, where he was in surrounded by his close friends Kapan Satybaldin, Shaken Aimanov, Olzhas Suleimenov and other famous masters of art and literature. He edited many films, wrote dozens of plays and screenplays. Although, he admitted that he was able to become a professional playwright.

Ilyas Yeseberlin is the first and largest Kazakh writer of historic theme. He managed to unravel many mysteries of the past of the Great Steppe and create a timeline of events during several centuries by highlighting the most significant figures such as Zhanibek Khan, Kerey Khan, Zhangir Khan, Abylay Khan, abulhair Khan, Kasim Khan, Kenesary Khan, and three famous bies, three famous batyrs, three wise zhyraus and other historical figures. Works of Ilyas Yesemberlin have external policy value. His books have been translated into many languages and published in millions of copies. Due to translation into other languages, people all over the world learn about the Kazakh people, their heroic history and unique culture. In 1965, in three months I. Yesenberlin wrote the first book from his well-known trilogy "Kakhar" and later the whole trilogy, given the name to it — "Nomads". His main historical trilogy is “Nomads”, which has not only about five centuries of a history of Kazakh statehood.

After the trilogy "Nomads" the historical works "Golden Horde", "Dangerous Crossing", novels on present subjects "A gold bird", "Flight" and many others were created. Ilyas Yesenberlin’s works differ in relevance of the lifted problems and courage of their decisions and colorfulness of the characters.. Historical novels of Ilyas Yesenberlin are a significant event in the culture of Kazakhstan. On October 5, 1983 Ilyas Esenberlin died of a rupture of heart, at that day when his son brought just published five-volume edition of his works.


Abai Kunanbaev

The great Kazakh poet was born in 1845 in the Chinghis Mountains in Semipalatinsk Region. His father, Kunanbai, a stern and willful steppe ruler, was an elder of the Tobykty clan.

Abai`s mother, Ulzhan, was a wonderful woman, and with her innate reserve, tolerance, and soundness of reasoning. She loved Abai best of all her children, and affectionately called him Abai (which means thoughtful, circumspect) instead of Ibraghim – the name given the boy by his father.

Abai became an ardent champion of friendship and brotherhood between the Russian and Kazakh cultures. He loved Pushkin, Lermontov, Krylov, Saltykov – Shedrin and Tolstoi, and after that memorable summer of 1886 when he opened embarked on his poetic career Abai started translating Krylov, Pushkin and Lermontov into Kazakh, acquainting countrymen for the first time with these great writers.

Having an excellent knowledge and understanding of Kazakh folk music, Abai composed several melodies. He also wrote music for his translations from Eugene Onegin. By this time the name of Abai himself – a poet, thinker and composer – had earned countrywide popularity and esteem. He composed about twenty melodies.

The greatest poet Abai Kunanbaev was died in 1904. The glory of Abai, the real founder of modern Kazakh culture and the greatest Kazakh classical poet, shall never dim.

My favourite Kazakh writer

My favorite Kazakh writer, Mukhtar Auezov, was born in 1897. He is a man of encyclopedic knowledge and erudition. Mukhtar Auezov is a significant person both in his life and creative activity. He wrote more than twenty plays and many magnificent stories. The top of his activity was the epopee about Abai. The first 20 years of Auezov’s life resemble the childhood, youth and young years of his favourite poet and spiritual teacher- Abai. Later in his famous work he described the same steppe, the same aul, the same social atmosphere.
With his works, Mukhtar Auezov raised the Kazakh literature up to the highest level. Many works of different genres belong to him.

His brilliant translations of world literary classics confirm his great talent. He published many interesting articles, made reports, composed textbooks and read lectures in colleges and universities. His professional researches became basis for some new branches in studying folklore, epos, history and linguistics of the Turks. He was elected as a professor of the Moscow State University.

His main work is closely connected with the image of the great son of the Kazakh people Abai. He devoted more than 15 years of his life to writing this book. This book was the most significant for him. As the writer said, the process of writing the novels about Abai turned into the most fascinating business of all his life. This book was called the original encyclopedia of many-sided features of the Kazakh people mode of life. It opened a vivid variety of culture and history of the ancient land and showed the riches of its customs and traditions to the whole world.

The works written by Mukhtar Auezov are still popular even now and are considered the original classics of the Kazakh literature. His name remained eternally in the memory of many people.

 

 

SAKEN SEYFULLIN

Seyfullin Saken was the founder of the modern Kazakh literature. He was also a poet and a writer, a statesman and a prominent member of the Communist Party of (Bolsheviks). He was born in winter quarters named Karashilik of modern Shet area, Karagandy region. He received education at the Nildin Russian-Kazakh School (1905 — 1908) and primary parochial school (1908 −1910). Saken graduated from the Akmola College in 1913 and the Omsk Teachers Seminary in 1916. Saken Seyfullin published his first collection of poems in 1914 in the city of Kazan under the name "Otken Kunder" ("The Past Days"). Seyfullin worked as the teacher of Russian Language in the village of Silety-Bugyly, wrote poems in support of national liberation movement in 1916 in Kazakhstan. In 1917 after the February Revolution he moved to Akmolinsk (today the city of Astana), wrote poems, created an organization named "Zhas Kazakh" ("Young Kazakh"), participated in publishing a newspaper "Tirshilik" ("Life"). He was a member of youth organization "Birlik" ("Unity"). He wrote one of the first works about the destiny of Kazakh woman — narrative under the name "Zhubatu" ("Consolation", 1917). In December 1917 he was elected a member of the Akmola Council of Deputies and appointed Commissar of Education. In 1917 he published a play named "Bakyt Zholynda" ("The Path to Happiness", 1917). It was a work of drama calling people for revolutionary struggle.

In June 1918 after the military coup he was arrested and thrown into "the carriage of death" of Ataman Annenkov. He was sent to a prison in the city of Omsk from which he escaped on April 3, 1919. After that he returned to his native village and then moved to Aulie-Ata (today the city of Taraz). In 1920 Saken Seyfullin came back to Akmolinsk where he was appointed Deputy Chairman of the Executive Committee and Head of the Administrative Division. At the first Founding Congress of Soviets of Kazakhstan (on October 4, 1920 in the city of Orenburg) Seyfullin was elected member of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. In the 1920s Seyfullin became editor at the Yenbekshi Kazakh (Working Kazakh) Newspaper, at the Kyzyl Kazakhstan (Red Kazakhstan) Journal. He was also appointed Deputy People’s Commissar for Education. In 1920 his play under the name "Kyzyl Sunkarlar" ("Red Eagles") was issued. In 1922 at the third congress of Soviets of Kazakhstan Seyfullin was elected Chairman of Committee of Soviet Commissars of the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. He also became a member of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and of the Presidium of the Kazakh Central Executive Committee. In 1925 Seyfullin was appointed Chairman of the Research Centre under the People’s Commissariat of Education of the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.

He worked as editor at the Adebiet Maydany (Literary Front) Journal. He also taught student at the Kyzylorda Institute of People’s Education, Institute of Journalism in Tashkent and Kazakh Pedagogical Institute in Alma-Ata. In the 1920s Saken Seyfullin wrote several articles, related to world and Kazakh literature, which are still popular and interesting for readers. In 1922 a collection of poems under the name "Asau Tulpar" ("Indomitable Horse") was issued in Orenburg. The poems "Dombyra" ("Dombra", 1924), "Sovetstan" (1924) and "Express" (1926) were published in separate books. Saken Seyfullin was an innovator in poetry. Having analyzed poetic traditions of Kazakh people, he renovated form and character of Kazakh poetry, introduced new themes and images in it. The poet also changed structure of strophes, rhythmic, syntax and intonation of Kazak poems. His historical and memoir novel "Tar Zhol, Taygak Keshu" ("Thorny Path") was published in 1927. In this work, Seyfullin showed the struggle of Kazakh nation against the Tsarism, participation of Kazakhs in revolution and their fight for establishment of Soviet power in Kazakhstan. Throughout his creative work Saken Seyfullin paid much attention to collection, analysis, classification and publication of monuments of Kazakh folklore.

The writer made a significant contribution to preparation of several works, including "Kazakhtyn Yeski Adebiety Nuskalary" ("Samples of Ancient Kazakh Literature", 1931), Kazakh version of the poem "Leyli and Majnun", book "Kazakh Adebiety" ("Kazakh Literature", 1932), and so on. Written in the 1930s poems "Albatros" ("Albatross", 1933) and "Kyzyl At" ("Red Horse", 1934) demonstrated Seyfullin’s position concerning occurred social phenomena. In his poem named "Kyzyl At" Seyfullin assessed all excesses committed during agricultural collectivization in Kazakhstan in the 1930s. In the 1930s Saken Seyfullin took part in discussions on the current problems of literature life. He even gave a report at the First Congress of Writers of Kazakhstan (1934) and the First All-Union Congress of Soviet Writers (1934). In 1935 he issued the prose "Aysha" and narrative "Zhemister" ("Fruitage"). The writer also participated in preparation of school textbook on Kazakh literature. Seyfullin played a crucial role in education of literary men. He supported such writers as B. Maylin, S. Mukanov, G. Musrepov, G. Mustafin, T. Zharokov, and to name but a few. He assisted them in publishing their first works. Seyfullin edited and wrote prefaces for their books. M. Karataev, K. Bekkhozhin, Zh. Sain and many others took lessons from Saken Seyfullin. Seyfullin’s works were published in many languages. He was the first Kazakh writer who was awarded the Order of Red Banner of Labor. Unfortunately, he didn’t finished his novels "Bizdin Turmys" ("Our Life") and "Sol Zhyldarda" ("At that time") which told about the life of his contemporaries. In 1938 Saken Seyfullin was repressed. The writer was executed by shooting in Almaty.

In 1958 Seyfullin was rehabilitated (posthumously). In 1985 the Memorial Museum of Saken Seyfullin was opened in Tselinograd (today the city of Astana). In Kazakhstan there are theatres, schools, libraries and streets named after him. There is a monument in Akmola (Astana) created and placed in honour of the writer. The State Agrarian University, which situated in Astana, was named after Saken Seyfullin. Many artistic works were dedicated to him, including Mukanov’s play "Saken Seyfullin", Musrepov’s narrative "Kezdespey Ketken Bir Beyne" ("Once and Forever"), poems of A. Tazhibaev, A. Tokmagambetov, K. Bekkhozhin. Research papers of M. Karataev, B. Ismailov, S. Kirabaev, T. Kakishev, G. Serebryakova and others were focused on Seyfullin’s life and creative work.

 

Magzhan Zhumabayev

Magzhan Zhumabayev is the great Kazakh writer, poet, and publicist, one of the founders of new Kazakh literature. His poems, tales and stories are written with acute tragic element, which expresses the feeling of responsibility for the people and appeal to sources and crucial moments in history. At the same time, Magzhan accepted common to all mankind artistic and scientific heritage from Shakespeare, Pushkin, and Solovyev to symbolism, technocracy and Schpengler. Popular nowadays existential motifs can be clearly seen in his creating work. After so many years of concealment, we revealed Magzhan Zhumabayev anew.

Magzhan Bekenuly Zhumabayev was born on 25 June 1893 in Sassykkul Tract if Sary-Aigyr volost in Petropavlovsky uezd. He died on 19 March 1938 in Alma-Ata. Magzhan comes from a rich family; his father was bii, the head of the volost. When he was four, he started to learn oriental languages and literature. Magzhan’s early poems were not preserved. He continued mastering the Arabic, Persian and Turkish languages in Begishev madrasah in Kzyl-Orda having obtained there secondary Moslem education. In 1910, he entered Galiya madrasah, the higher Islamic educational institution in Ufa City. But following the advice of his teacher, Galymzhan Ibragimov, who became the classicist of Tatar literature, Magzhan started looking for other ways of education. With Ibragimov’s help, young Magzhan’s works were published for the first time in 1912 in Kazan. In the same period with the support of Mirzhakyp Dulatov and Akmet Baitursynov, he started learning Russian, getting acquainted with Russian and European literature, and cooperates with “Kazakh” newspaper. In 1913, Magzhan entered Omsk Pedagogic Seminary. During these years in Omsk Magzhan took part in the creation of “Birlik” (Unity) Society; he was the editor of the hand-written magazine “Balapan”.

With his first steps in poetry, Magzhan reveals his unique talent. He gained wide recognition thanks to his poetic collection “Sholpan” (1912). The first stage of the creating way covers the period from 1910 to February 1917. His poems based on the historical facts appealed to the national fight for liberty. In his poem “Past” Magzhan called the names of fight heroes against Zhungar conquerors. The real hero for him was the one who “remembered about his nation”.

He dealt with journalism; he worked in the area of enlightenment, published in 1922 the book named “Pedagogy”. For certain time Magzhan was the editor of the newspaper “Bostandyk Tuy” (“Freedom Flag”) published in Omsk and after 1921 in Petropavlovsk.

Intensive and fruitful life period of Zhumabayev is related to Tashkent where he moved in 1922 and where he created his tale “Batyr Bayan”, poems about Turkestan, articles about Akan Sery, Bukhar Zhyrau, and Abubakir Divayev. He cooperated with the newspaper “Ak Zhol” and the magazine “Sholpan”. Here, in Tashkent, and in Kazan in 1922-23 he published two collections of poems where he had revealed his gifts. Magzhan belonged to the generation of the poets, which for the first time in the regions Central Asia and Kazakhstan joined two directions of spiritual development of the nations in East and West.

 

 

My favourite Kazakh poet

Makataev Mukagali Kazakh Soviet poet, writer and translator was born on February 9, 1931, in the village of Karasaz, in Alma-Ata region, in the foothills of the Great Khan Tengri. He graduated from the Literary Institute named by Gorky.

He worked as a secretary and head of the red yurt, an employee of the Komsomol, the literary staff of the local newspaper. In 1954-1962 he worked as a radio announcer on Kazakh, a teacher, in the years 1962-1972 - head of department of newspapers "Sotsialistіk Kazakstan", "Kazakh әdebietі" magazines "Madeniet zhane turmys", "Zhuldyz", in the years 1972-1973 - the literature consultant of the Union of Writers of Kazakhstan.

He was a author of "Life is a legend," "Life is a river", "Mozart's Requiem", "Favorites." Song of his poem "Sarzhaylyau" became popular. He was translated into Kazakh Russian classics, foreign literature, including Walt Whitman, "The Divine Comedy" by Dante. His name is put in front of them, Abay Auezova and other classics of Kazakh literature. He was a laureate of the State Prize of Kazakhstan ... Mukagali and his peers have become the main labor force and replaced the adult men who had gone to the front. They grazed cattle and plowed land, harvest and threshing. Along with the women and old men they considered themselves to be responsible for a life in the rear and very proud of it.

 

Create an article outline.

Your outline, and subsequently your article, should be structured for like an inverted triangle. The inverted triangle allows you to build your story so that the most important information is at the top.

Whatever forum you’re writing for, be it print or for the web, a lot of readers don’t make it to the end of the article. When writing a news article you should focus on giving your readers what they want as soon as possible.

Write above the fold. The fold comes from newspapers where there’s a crease because the page gets folded in half. If you look at a newspaper all the top stories are placed above the fold. The same goes for writing online. The virtual fold is the bottom of your screen before you have to scroll down. Put the best information at the top to engage your readers and encourage them to keep reading.

4. Know your audience.In order to write a great news article you need to know exactly who you are writing for. Your audience will dictate the voice and tone of your article and help you to know what you should include.

Ask yourself the “5W’s” again, but this time in relation to your audience.

Questions like what is the average age you are writing for, where is this audience, local or national, why is this audience reading your article, and what does your audience want out of your article will inform you on how to write.

Once you know who you are writing for you can format an outline that will get the best information to the right audience as quickly as possible.

5. Find an angle. Why is this article unique to you? What is your voice? These questions will help you to make your news article unique and something that only you could write.

Even if you are covering a popular story or topic that others are writing about, look for an angle that will make this one yours.

Do you have a personal experience that relates to your topic? Maybe you know someone who is an expert that you can interview.

6. Interview people. When writing a news article, interviewing people and getting a first hand source on your topic can be invaluable. And while reaching out to people and asking for an interview may seem daunting, it can greatly affect the credibility and authority of your article.[4]

People usually like to talk about personal experiences, especially if it will be featured somewhere, like your news article. Reach out through a phone call, email, or even social media and ask someone if you can interview them.

When you do interview people you need to follow a few rules: identify yourself as a reporter. Keep an open mind. Stay objective. While you are encouraged to ask questions and listen to anecdotes, you are not there to judge.

Record and write down important information from the interview, and be transparent with what you are doing and why you are doing this interview.

 

 

What do journalists do?

Within these different media, there are specialist tasks for journalists. In large organisations, the journalists may specialise in only one task. In small organisations, each journalist may have to do many different tasks. Here are some of the jobs journalists do:

Reporters gather information and present it in a written or spoken form in news stories, feature articles or documentaries. Reporters may work on the staff of news organisations, but may also work freelance, writing stories for whoever pays them.
General reporters cover all sorts of news stories, but some journalists specialise in certain areas such as reporting sport, politics or agriculture.

Sub-editors take the stories written by reporters and put them into a form which suits the special needs of their particular newspaper, magazine, bulletin or web page. Sub-editors do not usually gather information themselves. Their job is to concentrate on how the story can best be presented to their audience. They are often called subs. The person in charge of them is called the chief sub-editor, usually shortened to chief sub.

Photojournalists use photographs to tell the news. .i.photojournalists;They either cover events with a reporter, taking photographs to illustrate the written story, or attend news events on their own, presenting both the pictures and a story or caption.

The editoris usually the person who makes the final decision about what is included in the newspaper, magazine or news bulletins. He or she is responsible for all the content and all the journalists. Editors may have deputies and assistants to help them.

The news editor is the person in charge of the news journalists. In small organisations, the news editor may make all the decisions about what stories to cover and who will do the work. In larger organisations, the news editor may have a deputy, often called the chief of staff, whose special job is to assign reporters to the stories selected.

Feature writers work for newspapers and magazines, writing longer stories which usually give background to the news. In small organisations the reporters themselves will write feature articles. The person in charge of features is usually called the features editor. Larger radio or television stations may have specialist staff producing current affairs programs - the broadcasting equivalent of the feature article. The person in charge of producing a particular current affairs program is usually called theproducer and the person in charge of all the programs in that series is called theexecutive producer orEP.

Specialist writers may be employed to produce personal commentary columns or reviews of things such as books, films, art or performances. They are usually selected for their knowledge about certain subjects or their ability to write well. Again, small organisations may use general reporters for some or all of these tasks.

There are many other jobs which can be done by journalists. It is a career with many opportunities.

 

Zhambyl Zhabayev

Zhambyl Zhabayev was a Kazakh traditional folksinger According to a family legend, his mother, Uldan, gave birth to him near Mt. Jambyl, close to the headwaters of the Chu River while fleeing an attack on her village. His father, Dzhabay, then named his son after the mountain. As a boy, Jambyl learned how to play the dombura and at age 14, left his home to become an akyn. He learned the art of improvisation from the akyn Suyunbai Aronuly. Jambyl sang exclusively in the Kazakh language . Jambyl Jabayev died June 22, 1945, eight months before his 100th birthday. He was buried in Alma-Ata in a garden which he cultivated with his own hands. Many patriotic, pro-revolution and pro-Stalin poems and songs were attributed to Jambyl in the 1930s and were widely circulated in the Soviet Union. The Kazakh city of Taraz was named after Jambyl from 1938 to 1997. Jambyl Province, in which Taraz is located, still bears his name. It has been claimed that the actual authors of published poems of Jambyl were actually Russian poets, who were officially credited as "translators." Poet Andrey Ignatievich Aldan-Semenov claimed that he was the "creator" of Jambyl, when in 1934, he was given the task by the Party to find an akyn. Aldan-Semenov found Jambyl on the recommendation of the collective farm chairman, the only criterion of choice was that the akyn be poor and have many children and grandchildren. After Aldan-Semenov's arrest, other "translators" wrote Jambyl's poems. In a different account, according to the Kazakh journalist Erbol Kurnmanbaev, Jambyl was an akyn of his clan, but until 1936 was relatively unknown. In that year, a young talented poet Abilda Tazhibaev "discovered" Jambyl. He was directed to do this by the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan, Levon Mirzoyan, who wanted to find an akyn similar to Suleiman Stalsky, the Dagestani poet. Tazhibaev then published the poem "My Country", under Jambyl's name. It was translated into Russian by the poet Pavel Kuznetsov, published in the newspaper "Pravda" and was a success. After that, a group of his "secretaries" - the young Kazakh poets worked under Jambyl's name. In 1941-1943, they were joined by the Russian poet Mark Tarlovsky. 1994 — «Жамбыл: Адамзатың ұлы жыршысы» Zhambyl: The Great singer of mankind film director Kalila Umarov.

 

Сабақтың тақырыбы: Korqyt Ata

Сабақтың мақсаты: Практикалық сабақтарда алған білімдерін тексеру

Өткізілу формасы:мәтінді айтып беру

Тапсырмалар: мәтінді оқу, аудару, түсінгенін айту

Korqyt Ata

The great thinker of the Turkic peoples, the famous bard, storyteller, kobyzshy. Known as a historical figure, who left a rich literary and musical heritage. Korkut or crust - the legendary Turkic-songwriter and composer of the IX century, a native of the steppes along the Syr Darya. Creator kobyz bard, storyteller, patron of poets and musicians. Legends about Korkyt found in Kipchak Turkic peoples (Kazakhs, Karakalpaks), and especially the southern Oguz branch: Turkmen, Azeris and Turks. They almost all common folk epic "Oguzname." Legend of Korkyt Legend has it that the crust from the youth could not come to terms with the transience of human life, so I decided to fight against the inevitable death. Tormented by his thoughts and driven by the dream of immortality, the crust moves away from the people, but everywhere he sees death: in the forest - rotten and fallen down tree tells him about her death and the inevitable end for the most Korkyt, in the desert - feather grass, the sun burning out tells him the same thing, even high mountains have told him about their pending destruction, consistently adding that the same end awaits Korkyt.

Seeing and hearing all this, the crust in his solitary anguish hollowed out tree shirgay - the first kobyz pulled the strings and began to play it, pouring out his painful thoughts and feelings. He put his whole soul into these tunes, and the wonderful sound of his strings sounded for all the world came to the people captured and captivated them. Since then, the music he created and Korkyt kobyz go walk the earth, and the name Korkyt remain immortal in the strings kobyz and in the hearts of people. "The Legend of Korkyt deeply optimistic sense of it is that the crust is found immortality in the service of humanity art created by him" (Valikhanov Ch Ch Collected Works. - Alma-Ata, 1961, Vol I).

Tribute to The monument in the Memorial Korkyt ata Karmakshy near Kyzyl-Orda region of Kazakhstan, 1980 According to legend, at the request of the Korkyt, his grave was laid kobyz the soft sounds in the wind at all times. A landmark in the form of kobyz after Korkyt-ata was built in 1980 in Kyzyl-Orda region Karmakchinskom region of Kazakhstan. Authors - B. Ybyraev architect and acoustician physicist S. Issatayev. When the wind blows it starts to sound much and passing all can hear the melody of wind. The monument can be seen from the windows of passing and immediately trains running from Moscow to Tashkent and Almaty. In place of burial Korkyt on the banks of the river Syr about the X-XI centuries. mausoleum was erected "Korkyt-Tube", which means in common - Singin 'in the pipe. Over the centuries, it has come to destruction. In 1997 he carried out the restoration of the monument Korkyt. Created a whole architectural ensemble - a complex with amphitheater, hotel and other objects. And in 2000, when it was a museum. In 2001, Kazakhstan established the Public Fund "skin" for the purpose of dissemination of knowledge in the community about the impact of culture of the nomadic Turks in world music. Since 2006, the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Kazakhstan and Akimat KyzylordaHotels hosts the International Festival "Music of Cork and the Great Steppe". In 2008, in Astana, Kazakhstan broken Square and the monument is the composition "Korkyt kobyz." Korkyt name called Kyzylorda State University, the airport "Korkyt-ata" in Kyzyl-Orda, the streets in the cities of Kazakhstan.

Сабақтың тақырыбы: Akhmet Baitursynov

Сабақтың мақсаты: Практикалық сабақтарда алған білімдерін тексеру

Өткізілу формасы:мәтінді айтып беру

Тапсырмалар: мәтінді оқу, аудару, түсінгенін айту

Akhmet Baitursynov

In 1895-1909 he was teaching in aul volost colleges in Aktubinsky, Kostanaisky and Karkaralinsky uezds. In 1905 he starts taking part in the political activity. He was one of the authors of “Karkaralinsky petition”. For the critics of tsar administration in 1909 Baitursynov was imprisoned. In 1913 Baitursynov opened the newspaper “Kazakh”. After the establishment of Soviet authority Baitursynov deals with the enlightenment activity. Since 1919 he was the member of Kirrevkom, he became the national enlightenment commissar, the member of Soviet Central Executive Committee and Kazakh Central Executive Committee. In those years, study materials on Kazakh language, textbooks in order to increase literacy, ABC book written by Akmet Baitusynov. The ABC book had several editions in the twenties. However as a former member of Alash-Orda in 1920 he was arrested and exiled to Arkhangelsk and his wife with his daughter Sholpan were exiled to Tomsk oblast. But in 1934 thanks to the intercession of Peshkova (wife of Maxim Gorky) who worked in the Red Cross Commission, Akmet Baitursynov was freed. However, in October 1937 he was again arrested and shot.

He was a poet, the founder of the first national newspaper, translator, teacher and one of the organizers of the autonomous republic Alash-Orda. He had the positions of the deputy chairman of Kazakh revolutionary committee, the first national enlightenment commissar; he was also a member of Kazakh Central Executive Committee. Together with hundred thousands of innocent Soviet citizens Baitursynov was declared the enemy of the nation.

For the first time he was repressed in 1929. He was in the exile in Arkhangelsk oblast till 1934. He came back to Almaty. In 1937 he was repressed for the second time. On 25 November 1937 he was executed by shooting. He was rehabilitated only in 1988.

 

Сабақтың тақырыбы: Chokan Valikhanov

Сабақтың мақсаты: Практикалық сабақтарда алған білімдерін тексеру

Өткізілу формасы:мәтінді айтып беру

Тапсырмалар: мәтінді оқу, аудару, түсінгенін айту

Chokan Valikhanov

Chokan Chingisovich Valikhanov (his full name is Mohamed-Khanafiya and Chokan is his nickname given by his mother) was born in November 1835. His childhood passed in the steppes, amongst the people. He received his primary education in his native village of Kushmurun in a Kazakh private school where he learnt Arabic, got the idea about the oriental poetry and studied painting. The latter was his real passion and Chokan’s sketches show that he was a very talented artist. His father was attracting Chokan to collect the materials regarding legends and introduced him to the highly-educated Russian scientists, engineers and officers.

Chokan’s further career was predetermined by the family tradition and by the education he had received: he was a Russian officer, intelligence officer, diplomat and a functionary fulfilling various orders from the tsar administration. In the cadet corps he started to love travelling and he had the dream “to open unknown Asia to the world”. The global science received his notes about the brilliant extract from “Manas” – “Death of Kukotai Khan and His Commemoration”.

The most ancient and stable roots of Kazakh mentality were reflected in his several studies, in particular, in the articles “Shamanism Traces of Kyrgyz (Kazakhs)”, “On Islam in Steppe”. In the study of Zoroastrian shamanism nature Chokan is the undisputable leader.

He devoted his articles “Ancient Legends of Great Kyrgyz-Kaisats Horde”, “Zhungar Essays” and others to Kazakh oral folklore. Emphasizing the poetical and musical soul of people, Valikhanov tells us the legend according to which there is a magic bird that, when flying over the earth, provides people in the shade of its wings with the small part of its ingenuity. The legend is like that: the bird flew over the Kazakhs so low that they received the musical talent. Valikhanov underlines also that the poetical folk creating work of Kazakh people gives the “full picture” of its “historical and spiritual life”. His comments about features of the akyn-improvisers, about the types of songs, about the rhythm of Kazakh poems are very interesting. He wrote down the folk epic poem “Kozy-Korpesh and Bayan-Sulu”.

Сабақтың тақырыбы: Sultanmakhmut Toraigyrov

Сабақтың мақсаты: Практикалық сабақтарда алған білімдерін тексеру

Өткізілу формасы:мәтінді айтып беру

Тапсырмалар: мәтінді оқу, аудару, түсінгенін айту

Sultanmakhmut Toraigyrov

Sultanmakhmut Toraigyrov is a great Kazakh poet-democrat. He was born on 29 October 1893 in Kzyl-Tau rayon of Kokshetau oblast; he died on 21 May 1920.

When he was four Sultanmakhmut lived in Bayan-Aul rayon of Pavlodar oblast. When he was thirteen he started writing poems. He wanted to study in the cultural centres; he read a lot striving to obtain modern complete education. However he had to start working. First he worked as a school teacher, and then since the autumn of 1913 he was a secretary in the editorial staff of the first Kazakh magazine “Aikap”. In the magazine he published his poems, publication and essays. Since 1914 he worked as a teacher again in Bayan-Aul and Katonkaragai, in the autumn of 1916 he managed to take courses in Tomsk. Those years he formed his writing credo.

“Having entered the way of the search for truth I will not recede, I will bear all the difficulties, I will overcome the fatigue and I will go through all the misunderstanding. And I will be faithful to my ideas”, says the poet. After the February revolution in 1917, trying to be closer to the people he came to Semipalatinsk. He had joyful feelings like all the other intellectual people of the Kazakh society during that period. “I want to be the sun, which would shine through the darkness for my people”. Sultanmakhmut supposes that the era of freedom has come and it is the time for each nation to live independently and to create its own country. Toraigyrov starts contacting the people from Alash-Orda Party, publishes their articles in “Sary-Arka” newspaper. Supporting the ideas of the “Alash” leaders he admires them in his poems.

Sultanmakhmut wrote about the destiny of Kazakh women and promoted their emancipation. His lyrics are rich with the philosophical thoughts but his poetry quality was revealed especially in poems “Life of Wandring” (“Adaskan Omir”) and “Poor Man” (“Kedei”, 1922). It is the first poem, in which each chapter is related to a certain life period of a man and which criticizes social injustice and violence together with general philosophical and didactic thoughts. But more clearly the critique of social injustice and violence is expressed in the second poem, in which he showed the specific life of a poor Kazakh man. Toraigyrov is the author of one of the first Kazakh novels “Beautiful Kamar” (1933), one of the founders of this genre in Kazakh literature.

Thinking about what Kazakh people need, Sultanmakhmut gives the priority to education, culture, science and engineering. In his opinion, education and training must pay great attention not only to body care but also to conscience, soul and spirituality. Without this, none of the technical achievements will make people happy. Can Kazakh people adopt the level of European civilization? With great optimism Sultanmakhmut forecasts that at most in 30-40 years Kazakh people will reach the European level of education, science and engineering. Level of Toraigyrov’s philosophical thoughts during that period can be judged by the titles of his articles and poems: “Socialism”, “Is This Justice?”, “Why do I Live?”, “Lost Life”, “During the storm”, “Belief”, “Who Is God?”. In these articles the philosopher leans on the works of Russo, Tolstoy and Marxists.

The last unfinished poem of Sultanmakhmut was poem “Aitys” with the subtitle “Competition of Urban and Steppe Akyns”. In the form of a dialogue the poet wanted to show the change of the old mode of life.

 

Сабақтың тақырыбы: Ilyas Zhansugurov

Сабақтың мақсаты: Практикалық сабақтарда алған білімдерін тексеру

Өткізілу формасы:мәтінді айтып беру

Тапсырмалар: мәтінді оқу, аудару, түсінгенін айту

Ilyas Zhansugurov

Ilyas Zhansugurov Ilyas Zhansugurov was a Kazakh poet and writer. The town of Zhansugirov in Almaty Province is named after him and he is commemorated in Taldykorgan and Almaty. A friend of another classic writer Mukhtar Auezov, Zhansugurov was the First President of the Writers' Union of Kazakhstan from 1934 to 1936. He wrote the novel "Comrades" (1933), targeted against the Soviet power, but wrote loving poems such as "The Steppe" (1930) and "Kulager" (1936). He was repressed in 1937 as his writing was seen as a threat and fuel for Kazakh nationalism and he was shot on February 26, 1938.

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan, officially Republic of Kazakhstan, has the population of 17 million people and territory 2,719,500 sq km, is situated in central Asia. It borders on Siberian Russia in the north, China in the east, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan in the south, and the Caspian Sea and European Russia in the west. Astana is the capital and Almaty (Alma-Ata) is the largest city. Other major cities include Shymkent, Semey, Aktobe, and Oskemen.

Kazakhstan consists of a vast flatland, bordered by a high mountain belt in the southeast. It extends from the lower Volga and the Caspian Sea in the west to the Altai Mts. in the east. It is largely lowland in the north and west, hilly in the center (Kazakh Hills), and mountainous in the south and east (Tian Shan and Altai ranges). Kazakhstan is a region of inland drainage; the Syr Darya, the Ili, the Chu, and other rivers drain into the Aral Sea and Lake Balkash. Most of the region is desert or has limited and irregular rainfall.

The population of Kazakhstan consists mainly of Muslim Kazakhs and Russians; there are smaller minorities of Ukrainians, Germans, Uzbeks, and Tatars. Kazakh, a Turkic language, is the official tongue, but Russian is still widely used.

Despite Kazakhstan's largely arid conditions, its vast steppes accommodate both livestock and grain production. Wheat, cotton, sugar beets, and tobacco are the main crops. The raising of cattle and sheep is also important, and Kazakhstan produces much wool and meat. In addition, there are rich fishing grounds, famous for their caviar-producing sturgeon, in the Caspian, although these have been hurt by overfishing.





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