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Комп’ютер в нашому житті. Present Perfect.



Unit.10.

Комп’ютер в нашому житті. Present Perfect.

Ex. 1. Дайте відповідь на запитання:

1. What is computer?

2. What is the main purpose of all computers?

3. Where are computers used?

 

Ex. 2. Прочитайте та запам’ятайте наступні слова та вирази:


> electronic device – електронний пристрій

> to receive – одержувати, приймати

> set of instructions – набір/звід інструкцій

> to carry out - виконувати

> society - суспільство

> storage - збереження

> handling -обробка

> transaction - операція

> to enhance – підвищувати, збільшувати

> essential - істотний

> tool – інструмент, знаряддя

> network - мережа

> source -джерело

> analog - аналоговий

> digital - цифровий

> ability – здатність, можливість

> to determine - визначати

> voltage - напруга

> discrete operation –дискретне дія

> to perform – виконувати, здійснювати
> defense – оборона, захист

> to attain - досягати

> amount of data – обсяг даних

> except – за винятком, крім

> processing unit – обчислювальний пристрій


 

Ex. 3. Прочитайте та перекладіть текст:

COMPUTERS

Computer is an electronic device that can receive a set of instructions called program and then carry out them. The modern world of high technology could not be possible without computers. Different types and sizes of computers find uses throughout our society. They are used for the storage and handling of data, secret governmental files, information about banking transactions and so on. Computers have opened up a new era in manufacturing and they have enhanced modern communication systems. They are essential tools in almost every field of research, from constructing models of the universe to producing tomorrow's weather reports. Using of different databases and computer networks make available a great variety of information sources.

There are two main types of computers, analog and digital, although the term computer is often used to mean only the digital type, because this type of computer is widely used today.

That is why I am going to tell you about digital computers. Everything that a digital computer does is based on one operation: the ability to determine: on or off, high voltage or low voltage or - - in the case of numbers - - 0 or 1 or do-called binary code. The speed at which the computer performs this simple act is called computer speed. Computer speeds are measured in Hertz or cycles per second. A computer with a «clock speed» of 2000 MHz is a fairly representative microcomputer today. It is capable of executing 2000 million discrete operations per second. Nowadays microcomputers can perform from 800 to over 3000 million operations per second and supercomputers used in research and defense applications attain speeds of many billions of cycles per second.

Digital computer speed and calculating power are further enhanced by the amount of data handled during each cycle.

Except two main types of computers, analog and digital there are eight generations of digital computers or processing units. The first generation was represented by processing unit Intel 8086. The second generation central processing unit was represented by processing unit Intel 80286, used in IBM PC AT 286. The third generation is Intel 80386, used in IBM PC AT 386. The microprocessors of the fourth generation were used in computers IBM PC AT 486. There are also central processing units of the fifth generation, used in Intel Pentium 60 and Intel Pentium 66, central processing units of the sixth generation, used in computers Intel Pentium 75, 90, 100 and 133. Few years ago appeared central processing units of seventh and eighth generations. They are much more powerful and can perform from 2000 to over 3000 million operations per second.

Ex. 4. Доповніть речення::

  1. Computers have opened up a new era in manufacturing and … .
  2. Using of different databases and computer networks make available a great variety of … .
  3. The speed at which the computer performs this simple act is … .
  4. The first generation was represented by … .
  5. They are much more powerful and can perform from 2000 to over 3000 million … .

Ex. 5. Прочитайте та перекладіть діалог:

- Why do most people want to have a PC at home?

- For the last 5 year personal computers (PC) are becoming more and more popular in our country. There are computers in offices, schools, institutions and universities. More and more people want to have a PC at home. No wonder PC gives us new opportunities, open a new wonderful world of interactivity that will change the way we learn, play and communicate with others.

- What does the computer industry include?

- The computer industry is one of the largest in modern world. It includes companies

that manufacture, sell and lease computers, as well as companies that supply

products and services for people working with computers.

- How is computer used in business?

- A computer is now more involved in business operations as an essential tool in making decisions at the highest administrative level.

Ex. 6. Пригадайте правила вживання Present Perfect:

Пeрфектні часи
(Perfect Tenses)
1 Перфектні часи виражають дію, що закінчилась (відбулась) до певного моменту чи періоду
В теперішньому часі (Present Perfect)
В минулому часі (Past Perfect)
В майбутньому (Future Perfect)
В майбутньому по відношенню до минулого ( Future Perfect – in –the- past)
2 Перфектні часи відображають на явність результату дії.
3 формула утворення групи: Have + III(форма)

Вживання Present Perfect
Запам’ятайте: Present Perfect часто використовується замість Past Indefinite і навпаки.
Обставина часу (yesterday, last week, already, just) допоможуть використати потрібний час
1. Вживається для вираження дії, що закінчилась і видно результатна момент мовлення
e. g. I have bought a book. - Я (вже) купив книгу
Це основне значення часу
Для Present Perfect важливий результат, а не процес дії
e. g. What have you done? - Що ти зробив?
2. Present Perfect вживається з такими обставинами часу
а). що означають період часу, що почався в минулому і триває до моменту мовлення:

 


Up to now до цього часу
Up to the present до цього часу
Lately нещодавно, за останній час
Recently останнім часом
So far до цього часу
Since від тоді
Not yet ще не


 


e. g. I have know him since 1980
Я його знав з 1980 року
I have read this book up to now
Я прочитав цю книгу до цього часу.
I have not seen him recently
Я його не бачив останнім часом.

 


б). що означає період часу, який ще не закінчився

 


Today сьогодні
This week цього тижня
This month цього місяця
This year цього року
Та інші

 


e. g. He has not done it today
Він не зробив це сьогодні
Have you seen her this week?
Ти бачив її на цьому тижні?

 


в). з прислівниками неозначеного часу і

 


Ever коли – небудь
Never ніколи
Often часто
Seldom рідко
Already вже
Just щойно


 


e. g. I have just finished this job
Я щойно закінчив цю роботу
Have you ever been in London?
Ти коли – небудь був у Лондоні?
I have never been in London.
Я ніколи не був у Лондоні

 


3. Present Perfect вживається для вираження дії, що триває з якогось моменту в минулому аж до моменту мовлення.(В цьому значенні Present Perfect вживаються переважно з дієсловами, що не мають форми Continuous)

 


e. g. I have known her for 2 years.
Я знав(знаю) її два роки.
I have not worked there since last year.
Я не працював там з минулого року.

 


Період тривалості позначається прикметником for ( for an hour for one month, for 20 year та інші)
Початок дії позначається словом since ( since Monday, since last year, since two o’ clock та інші)
Present Perfect не вживається:
а). З обставинами часу які вживаються в Past Indefinite

 


Yesterday вчора
The day before yesterday позавчора
Last week (month, year) минулого тижня
Two day ago два дні назад
On Monday в понеділок
In August в серпні



б). В питальному реченні із словами When. Для цього вживається Past Indefinite.
When did you see him?
Коли ти його бачив?

Ex. 7. Розкрийте дужки, вживаючи дієслова у Present Perfect:


1. Alan (not to have) his breakfast.

2. Cathy (not to get) up yet.

3. He (to pay) for pizza.

4. Martin (not to wash) up yet.

5. Dan (to do) his homework by 6 o’clock.

6. We (not to tell) him the truth.

7. You (to mention) my name?

8. We (to begin) the work.

9. Your mother already (to come)?

10.Where Martin (to go)?

11.I (to watch) this film.

12.Why John (to take) this book?

13.The boy (not to return) from school yet.

14.Jane (to be) at the theatre this week?

15.Carol and Sam (to play) two games of chess today.


 

Ex. 8. Змініть час дієслів на Present Perfect. Перекладіть речення українською мовою:


1. She is watering the flowers.

2. He is taking his examination.

3. Beth is opening the window.

4. I am dusting the furniture.

5. John is washing his car.

6. The teacher is explaining the rule.

7. Mary is reading a letter.

8. We are having dinner.

9. I am cleaning my teeth.

 

10. Jane is translating the article.

11. Little Frank is breaking his toy.

12. He is having breakfast.

13. Nick is drawing a picture.

14. My daughter is having lunch.

15. He is putting on his coat.


Ex. 9.Визначте, в яких випадках скорочення 's вжито на заміну Present Perfect, а в яких – на заміну Present Simple. Перекладіть речення українською мовою:

 


1. She's tired.

2. He's stopped reading.

3. He's worried.

4. She's died.

5. He's ill.

6. She's come.

7. He's angry.

8. He's had dinner.

9. It's escaped.

10. She's surprised.

11. She's stopped working.

12. He's scared.

13. He's gone.

14. He's embarrassed.

15. She's frightened.


Домашнє завдання:

The Internet

Ex. 1. Прочитайте та запам’ятайте наступні слова та вирази:


Separate – окремий

Interconnected – взаємозалежний

capacity – потенціал

access – доступ

assembled – зібраний

software - програмне забезпечення

Obviously – очевидно

compatible - сумісними

continuously – постійне

rate per – ціна за


 

Ex. 2. Прочитайте та перекладіть текст:


How it works - The Internet


 


 


The Internet is an incredibly large number of separate, local computer networks (LANs -Local Area Networks), online services, newsgroups and e-mail addresses all interconnected by the global telephone network. The network consists of a hierarchy of high-capacity lines connected by exchanges. Figure 1 shows the different types of lines and their frequencies.

 

Modem 28.8 Kbps 1 .8 days
ISDN 64 Kbps 1 2 hours
Tl 1 .54 Mbps 31 minutes
T3 45 Mbps 1 minute
ATM 155 Mbps 1 8 seconds
Backbone 622 Mbps 4.8 seconds
Super-backbone 2.4 Gbps 1 .2 seconds

Figure 1: Operating frequencies for lines and how long they would take to transmit the complete 33-volume Encyclopedia Britannica.

To access the Internet, you need a modem or ISDN adapter to convert the digital data into a format suitable for the telephone lines. The data is broken down into small packages which can be sent and then assembled again by another computer. The method the software uses to do this is called a 'protocol'.


Obviously, with so many different computer systems on the market there are many different protocols, which have to be converted if all of the Net users are to be compatible.

Next, you have to subscribe to either an Internet Service Provider (ISP) or an online service. These companies lease continuously open, high-capacity telephone lines to send the information to the subscriber's computer. The subscriber pays the ISP a flat rate per month and/or an hourly online charge (not including the telephone charges for connection to the ISP). It's important that your ISP has a local connection (PoP - Point of Presence), otherwise your online telephone charges will be at long distance rates.

Online services, such as CompuServe, America Online (AOL) or T-Online, are actually services providing news, magazines, chat forums, e-mail and entertainment, and are not really part of the Internet. However, all of them now offer their customers access to the Net as well.

Perhaps the most well-known network on the Internet is the World Wide Web (WWW). The Web uses its own HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) format which enables sophisticated graphics to be transmitted at high-speed. Almost every major company is now on the Web, which is growing at a rate of about 1,000 new sites a month.

 

 


Ex. 3. Заповніть пропуски:

1. The network ……. of a hierarchy of high-capacity ….. connected by exchanges.

2. The data is broken down into small …… which can be sent and then assembled again by another……. .

3. The method the software uses to do this is called a……. .

4. Next, you have to ……. to either an Internet Service Provider (ISP) or an online service.

5. Perhaps the most well-known network on the ……. is the World Wide Web (WWW).

6. Almost every major ……. is now on the Web, which is growing at a rate of about 1,000 new …… a month.

Ex. 4. Складіть 4 запитання до тексту «Інтернет».

Ex. 5. Висловіть свою думку:

How do you think technology is going to change the following areas of our lives?

Ex. 6. Пригадайте правила вживання Past Perfect:

Post Perfect вживається для вираження минулої дії, яка вже відбулася до певного моменту в минулому. Post Perfect перекладається українською мовою минулим ча­сом дієслова доконаного виду. Момент мовлення, до яко­го відбулася дія в Post Perfect, може бути виражений:

а) наступними позначеннями часу: : by 7 o'clock — до
7 години, by Sunday — до неділі i, by the 28th of March — до 28 березня, by the end of the week (month, year) — до
кінця тижня (місяця, року), by that time — до того часу.

He hadn't finished reading that book by 7 o'clock. Він не закінчив читання книги до 1 години.

б) іншою, більш пізньою минулою дією, вираженою в Past Simple

He had finished his work when we came. - Він закінчив роботу, коли ми прийшли.

в) Past Perfect в складнопідрядних реченнях з підряд­ними, які починаються сполучниками after — після того як, before — перш ніж, доти (до того як), when — коли, а також за наявність складного сполучника, hardly (scarcely) ... when— ледве (тільки-но) ... як, no sooner ... than — не встиг ... як

I had finished my work before he returned. Я (вже) закінчив свою роботу, перш ніж він повернувся.

We had hardly entered the house when it began to rain. Ледве ми зайшли в дім, як пішов дощ.

He had no sooner come than he fell ill. Не встиг він приїхати (тільки-но він приїхав), як захворів.

Ex. 7. Розкрійте дужки, вживаючи дієслова в Past Perfect:

1. I (to translate) the text before the bell.

2. She (to do) her lessons by the evening.

3. He (to clean) his room by five o'clock.

4. We (to speak) to him before the meeting.

5. Mother (to cook) dinner by seven o'clock.

6. Her son (not to do) the home task by nine o'clock.

7. She (not to make) a dress before party.

8. What they (to do) by three o'clock?

9. Who (not to write) the exercise before the bell?

10. Why you (not to sweep) before your mother's coming?

11. Your child (to go) to bed by ten o'clock?

12. You (to reach) your house before the sunset?

13. They (to receive) the telegram by that time?

14. Why they (not to have) lunch by twelve o'clock ?

15. We (to have) dinner by eight o'clock.

 

Ex. 8. Поставте наступні речення у запитальній та заперечній формі:

1. The pupils had translated the text before the bell rang. 2. Alice had shown me her paintings before. 3.I had come to the department store by 3 o'clock. 4. You had forgotten about her request. 5. Kate had done her lessons by eight o'clock. 6. He had watched this TV programme before his parents came home. 7. Mary had booked the tickets before. 8. Peter had studied English before he entered the institute. 9. We had told about the time of the meeting, 10. We had been to this exhibition. 11. The eruption of the volcano had stopped by the end of last week. 12. Our bus had reached Birmingham by 9 o’clock yesterday.

Домашнє завдання:

Ex. 6. Вивчіть правило.

Ex. 9. Поставте наступні речення у запитальній та заперечній формі:

  1. We had agreed about our trip before your departure.
  2. Emma had completed the survey by 4 o’clock yesterday.
  3. You had informed us about the seminar before last Tuesday.
  4. Gordon had downloaded those photos by 8 o’clock yesterday.
  5. She had spoken to the doctor before our meeting.

Ex. 10. Розкрійте дужки, вживаючи дієслова в Past Perfect або Past Simple:

1. When the police (to arrive), the car (to go).

2. George (to finish) doing his homework at eight o'clock.

3. When she (to get) to the shop, it (to close).

4. The train (to leave) when he (to come) to the station.

5. We (to eat) everything by the time he (to arrive) at the party.

6. I (to know) that he (not to learn) the poem.

7. When they (to leave) the beach, the rain already (to start).

8. Arthur (not to know) that we already (to arrive).

9. When I (to come), I (to see) that mother (to cook) dinner.

10. My friend (to study) English before he (to enter) the institute.

Mass media in Ukraine.

Ex.1. Підберіть до англійських слів переклад українською мовою:


1) mass media

2) periodicals

3) free distribution

4) advertising

5) ethnic minorities

6) libel

7) censorship

8) independent

9) complaints

10)intrusion into privacy

11) impartiality

12)prevention

13) competition

14) choice

15)satellite TV

16) pastime

17)programme content

18) controversy

19) circulation

20)TV network

21)unbiased information

22)subscription

23)current news

 

 

а) скарги

b) безсторонність, справедливість, неупередженість

c) незалежний

d) втручання в особисте життя

е) засоби масової інформації

f) періодичні видання

g) запобігання

h) безкоштовне розповсюдження

і) реклама

j) цензура

k) наклеп

1) етнічні меншості

m) безстороння, неупереджена інформація

n) передплата

o) телевізійна мережа
р) сучасні події

q) проведення часу

r) суперництво, змагання

s) зміст програм

t) вибір

u) супутникове телебачення

v) звернення

w) суперечність


Ex.2. Серед поданих груп слів знайдіть зайве слово:

1) local newspaper magazine weekly

2) radio press television news

3) view opinion circulation comment

4) politician publisher editor journalist

5) popularity public audience readers

Ex.3. Прочитайте та перекладіть текст:

Mass media in Ukraine

Ukrainian mass media, which include press, radio and television, are independent, and the state guarantees their economic independence. There are more than 4,000 periodical editions in Ukraine now, and new radio and TV channels, newspapers and magazines appear practically every year.

The role of mass media in our everyday life is enormous. Where do we get most of the news? From TV or radio news programmes, or from newspapers. What forms public opinion? Mass media. So they bear great responsibility and should always give truthful and unbiased information to their readers and viewers.

In Ukraine there are several information agencies that supply the population of the country with the latest news. These agencies are: the "UKRINFORM" - "Ukrainian National Information Agency", the "UNIAR" — "The Ukrainian Independent Information Agency "Respublica", the UNIAN — the Ukrai­nian Independent News Agency Interfax- Ukraina" and some others. These agencies have reporters in every administrative region of our country and in all major foreign countries. They collect most interest­ing and important information for the readers of newspapers and magazines and for the TV viewers.

There are newspapers and magazines for the readers of all ages and professions, with different interests, tastes and hobbies. For example, those who are interested in politics can read the newspa­pers "Day", "Today", "Facts", "Grany", "Kyivsky Vidomosty". In these newspapers the readers can also find information about home affairs, culture and sports. These publications deal with the burning problems of our present life and history, and at the same time there you can find amusing stories, crosswords and puzzles that can entertain you in your spare time. Enthusiastic sports fans of Ukraine like the newspapers "Sportyvna Gazeta" and "Komanda" (The Team"). There is a special newspaper for those who live in the country and are interested in farming — "Silske Zhutya" ('The Rural Life"). Doctors, nurses and people who are interested in medicine prefer reading the "Medical Newspaper". There are also magazines for businessmen and businesswomen, for scientists and gardeners, etc. Those who like to learn about the new publications in literature can read the magazines "Dnipro" and "Vsesvit". Teachers have their own newspaper "Vchitelska Gazeta", and specialists of different sub­jects can buy journals in their special fields. Young people like to read the newspapers "Kosa", "Artmozaica", "Telenedelya" and others.

Some people buy newspapers and magazines every day, others prefer to subscribe to them, and in this case these periodicals are delivered to their homes. Payment for a subscription to newspapers and magazines is accepted at every post-office.

Ukrainian learners of English can find a lot of interesting information in the newspapers and maga­zines published in English — "Kyiv Post", "News from Ukraine", "Digest".

Some magazines are published every month, and they are called monthlies; if they are published every 3 months, they are called quarterlies. Newspapers are usually published daily or weekly.

Television and radio networks in Ukraine are divided into government-run companies and private TV and radio companies. The State TV and Radio Company operates two channels and includes edito­rial services that specialize in political analysis, socio-political programmes, current information, youth and sports programmes. Private channels tend to broadcast music and news programmes, a lot of adver­tising and talk shows.

 

Ex.4. Дайте відповіді на подані нижче запитання:

 

1. Does your family subscribe to any newspapers or magazines? If yes, which?

2. Do all the members of your family read newspapers and magazines? Do they have any preferences?

3. Do your friends and acquaintances prefer to subscribe to periodicals or buy them in the news-stands/ news agents?

4. If you read a newspaper or a magazine, do you begin reading from the very first page or from your favourite sections?

5. Do you have a favourite TV channel? What attracts you in it? Does it have any specialisation, like a music channel?

6. If you are listening to your favourite radio music channel, are you irritated when the music is inter­ rupted by news?

7. Do you like to read gossip in the celebrity columns? Do you think that it is an intrusion into privacy?

8. What is your opinion about advertising in mass media? Do you like it? Is it necessary?

9. Some people say that they prefer not to watch or listen to the news programmes and not to read newspapers because they feel very many negative emotions afterwards? What is your opinion?

 

Ex. 5. Пригадайте правила вживання Future Perfect:

Future Perfect вживається для вираження дії, яка відбудеться до певного моменту в майбутньому. Future Perfect перекладається українською мовою майбутнім часом дієслова доконаного виду. Момент позначається:

а) показниками часу: by 6 o'clock, by Sunday, by the 7th of December, by the end of the week (month, year), by that time тощо.

I shall have finished my work by Saturday. - Я закінчу свою роботу до суботи.

б) іншою дією в майбутньому, що виражена дієсловом у Present Simple, або в Future Perfect у підрядних речен­нях часу й умови (в яких замість майбутнього часу вжи­вається теперішній час).

The train will have left by the time we get to the station. - Поїзд відійде вже до того часу, як ми приїдемо на вокзал.

Ex. 6. Розкрійте дужки, вживаючи дієслова в Future Perfect:

1. Unfortunately, Sam (not to return) from his business trip by next Wednesday.

2. The bookkeeper (to pay) all the bills by next Friday?

3. Jack and Monica (to send) all the invitations by next Tuesday.

4. We (in build) a new house by the end of the year.

5. How many pages you (to read) by five o'clock tomorrow?

6. Mother (not to cook) dinner when we come home.

7. Cindy (to prepare) her speech by Monday?

8. You (to do) your homework by seven o'clock?

9. They (not to arrive) by the evening.

10. I (to write) a shopping list for you by tomorrow morning.

11. Why she (not to come) by five o'clock?

12. I’m afraid Molly (not to make) photocopies of all the documents by the end of the working day.

Ex. 7. Перекладіть наступні речення українською мовою:

1. "I will go there", she said. "I will live there quietly till the money comes through. I will be sensible, this time, I won't let it get burned, I'll find out first where it's needed, where it can be used. And then I will have done what I must do. And by then, I will know how to make myself useful. And by then, also, I will have travelled further than I will ever travel here. I will see what it is like, that other world. Not many people go there, but to that place I shall go".

2. "Who knows", he thought, "perhaps when I am fifty / will have forgotten the extreme gloom into which I sank".

3. I suppose you will have finished typing before the cleaner goes, Miss Murchison. If not, please remember to extinguish the light and to hand the key to Mrs. Hodges in the basement.

Ex. 8. Поставте наступні речення в Future Perfect:

1. They had built the new school by the first of September.

2. The teacher had looked through our exercise-books by that time.

3. I had done my homework by 9 o 'clock.

4. We had discussed the report by four o'clock in the afternoon.

5. The pupils had read three English books by the end of the year.
5.1 had written the composition by 9 o'clock.

 

Ex. 9. Розкрійте дужки, вживаючи дієслова в Future Simple, Future Perfect:

1. He (to receive) the telegram tomorrow. 2. He (to receive) the telegram by tomorrow. 3.1 (to do) the exercises by seven o'clock. 4.1 (to do) the exercises in the afternoon. 5. By this time you (to take your examination). 6. You (to take) your examination next week. 7. The teacher (to correct) our dictations in the evening. 8. The teacher (to correct) our dictations by the next lesson.

Домашнє завдання:

Ex. 5. Вивчіть правило.

Ex. 10. Розкрійте дужки, вживаючи дієслова в Future Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfect:

1. He (to write) a letter tomorrow.

2. He (to write) a letter at seven o'clock tomorrow.

3. He (to write) a letter by seven o'clock tomorrow.

4. When I come home tomorrow, he (to write) a let in

5. Where she (to go) to buy a new dress?

6. What language he (to speak) by the next year?

7. They (to write) the test from two till three.

8. We (to have) supper by half-past seven.

9. What time he (to come) this evening? - He (to come) by seven o'clock.

10. I (to meet) you at the station at nine o'clock tomor­row. — My train already (to arrive) by that time.

11.You (to finish) everything by this evening?

12.We (to do) washing-up by the time mother comes.

13.What you (to buy) him for his birthday?

14.What dress she (to buy) by the party?

15.He (to have) his French lesson at ten o'clock.

Ex. 11. Перекладіть англійською мовою, вживаючи дієслова в Future Perfect:

1. Він не перекладе цю статтю до третьої години.

2. Вона виконає цю роботу до кінця місяця.

3. Чому твій друг не напише статтю до вечора?

4. Ти закінчиш читати цю книжку до завтра?

5. Чи здійсниться моє бажання до Нового року?

6. Вони до того часу вже поїдуть.

7. Чому вона не почне працювати до дев'ятої ранку?

8. Чи закінчиться ця телепередача до четвертої

9. Вчитель до завтра перевірить всі роботи.

10. До того часу діти вже приберуть в кімнаті?

 

Питання дня самоконтролю:

4. Які види засобів масової інформації ви знаєте?

5. Як утворюється Future Perfect?

6. Коли вживається Future Perfect?

 

Б) З сусідом по парі обговоріть, з якими з цих тверджень ви погоджуєтес,ь а з яким ні.

What do you think?

I. A: I hate watching TV. It's such a waste of time, and most of the programs are quite boring.

B: Really? I love TV. I watch quite a lot for relaxation — and I've learnt quite a lot from TV, too.

II. A: Do you think Jimmy should be watching that program at his age? So much violence can't be good for adults, let alone youngsters.

B: Oh, I don't know. Even kids can tell the difference between TV and real life.

ІІІ. A: I don't buy a newspaper every day, but I like to read one whenever something important has happened: it's better than TV or the radio.

B: I never buy them. You can't believe half of what you read.

IV. I don't read newspapers at all. They are all biased. They've been taken over by companies who have political interests. And in Britain most of the papers are right-wing. There are one or two that I think are a bit more objective, but I'd rather listen to the radio.

V. Actually, I don't want to know about the details of all the troubles in the world — it's all so depress­ing. I like human interest stories — stories about people, not wars and disasters. So my daily news­ paper is a tabloid. The other good thing about a tabloid is that you can read it in ten minutes on the way to work. That's all I want.

VI. 1 get a so-called quality newspaper on Sundays because it gives me a good summary of world events, but I also buy tabloids two or three times a week. People are critical of the pictures and stories of the royals and their problems that have been published in the tabloids, but I don't agree. Why shouldn't we know how we are spending our money? They are public figures, and only the tabloids give you
the details — the other papers are too respectful.

Ex. 3. Прочитайте та перекладіть текст:

Television in Modern Life

How do people usually answer the question like, "What are your plans for tonight?" or "What are you doing at the weekend?" In other words, how do people spend their free time?

Some tventy or thirty years ago the usual answers used to be: "We are going to the theatre (or the cinema)" or "We are going to a party" or "We are having some friends round". Now you quite often hear, "We are going to stay at home and watch the telly."

Television (colloquially known as TV or telly) is now so popular in the whole world that it is hard to believe that it appeared only about fifty years ago.

A first-rate colour TV set has become an ordinary thing in the household today, and a video cassette recorder (VCR) is quickly becoming one.

Modern television offers the viewers several programs on different channels. In addition to regular news programmes, you can see plays and films, operas and ballets, and watch all kinds of contests, quizzes, soap operas, serials and sporting events. You can also get a lot of useful information on the educational channel. A good serial (perhaps, a detective story or a screen version of a classical novel) can keep the whole family in front of the telly for days, and don't we spend hours and hours watching out favourite football or hockey team in an important international event?

Television most definitely plays an important part in people's lives. But is it a good thing or a bad one? Haven't we become lazier because of the television? Don't we go out less often? Don't we read less? And yet a lot of people believe that the telly has made our life more interesting and can't imagine their everyday life without it.

Ex. 4. Складіть 3 запитання до тексту: «Television in Modern Life»

 

Ex. 5. Заповніть пропуски:

  1. We are going to stay at home and … the telly.
  2. Television is now so … in the whole world that it is hard to … that it appeared only about fifty years ago.
  3. Modern television offers the viewers several programs on … channels.
  4. Television most definitely plays an … part in people's lives.

Ex. 6. Поєднайте типи телевізійних програм:


1. People trying to answer questions

2. Actors doing and saying funny things

3. People discussing politics

4. The animal life of Antarctica

5. Guns, murder and police

6. A long interview with a famous person

7. Everyday lives of the same group of people

8. Characters played by moving drawings

9. Someone talking about a new soap powder

10. A person telling you what happened today

 

a) a detective series

b) a commercial

c) soap opera

d) a comedy series

e) a talk show

f) a current affairs program

g) a nature documentary
h) the news

i) a quiz show

i) a cartoon


Ex. 7. Які з цих прикметників позитивно описують фільм, а які ні:

old-fashioned dull exciting thrilling
difficult to understand boring superficial sentimental
depressing truthful romantic complicated
informative biased objective entertaining
interesting naive violent funny

Домашнє завдання:

Part I

1) Discovery а) застосування

2) Achievement b)генетика

3) Disease c) дослідження

4) Diagnosis d)відкриття

5) Transplant e)спостереження

6) Research f) конкуренція

7) Genetics g) трансплантант

8) Application h) досягнення

9) Competitiveness i) діагноз

10) observation j) захворювання

Part II

11) satellite k) внесок

12) innovation l) рух

13) Universe m) зварювання

14) gravitation n) сумісне підприємство

15) evolution o) потужність, здібність

16) superconductivity p) супутник

17) contribution q) нововведення, відкриття

18) motion r) всесвіт

19) capacity s) гравітація

20) welding t) еволюція

21) joint venture u) надпровідність

 

Ex.2 Перекладіть наступні дієслова та складіть з кожним дієсловом речення:

To discover, to invent, to research, to improve, to promote, to identify

Ex.3 Прочитайте та перекладіть текст:

accomplishment – досягнення

agreement – угода

facilities – послуги

treaty – договір

In Old Rus monasteries were the first venues of science. A major such venue of the 18th century was Kyiv Mohyla Academy. In the 19th c the universities of Kyiv, Kharkov, Odessa, and Lviv became noted research centers where the first national schools of science took shape.

Much credit in the development of Ukrainian science is due to M. Ostrohradsky (mathematics), O. Bodiansky (linguistics), V. Antonovych (history), M. Maksymovych (ethnography and plant physiology), V. Obraztsov, F. Yanovsky, V. Karavaiev, O. Bets, M. Strazbesko, M. Volkovych, and V. Filatov (medicine).

The creation of Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in 1918 was an event of historic import. Among its founding members were V. Vernadsky, a famous 20th c scientists and naturalists; noted historians M. Hrushevsky and D. Bahalii; orientalist A. Krymsky; mechanics expert S. Tymoshenko; lawyer M. Vasylenko and many others. Associated with the Academy are the names of outstanding scientists, among them physician and mathematician M. Boholyubov, biologist M. Kashchenko, microbiologist and epidemiologist D. Zabolotny, botanists Ye. Votohal, O. Fomin, M. Kholodny, archaeologist and etnographer M. Biliashivsky, zoologist I. Sclumalhauwn, economist K. Vobly, and demographer M. Ptuhka. World-reputed schools schools appeared, headed by D. Hrave (algebra), M. Krylov (mathematical physics), Ye. Paton (electric welding and bridge construction), L. Pysarzhevsky (chemistry), O. Dynnyk (mechanics and elasticity theory), O. Bohomolets (experimental pathology).

At present, the National Academy of Sciences comprises 170 researches centers with powerful research-and-productive facilities. All told, there are some 3,500 Doctors and 10,000 Candidates of Science. There are 208 Academicians and 280 Corresponding members, plus 81 foreign members from 18 countries, including the USA, France, Germany, the UK, Italy, and Japan.

The National Academy of Ukraine ranks with Europe’s leading scientific venues. Among its attainments are outstanding accomplishments in natural history and technology, along with tangible contributions to sociology and the humanities.

Since 1962 its President has been Boris Paton, a noted scientist, organizer, honorary member of academies in many countries.

A great deal has been done in the leading sciences over the past several years. Thus, the world’s first laser data shortage came as the result of complex developments by experts of informatics, physics, physical metallurgy and chemistry. World priorities have a number of achievements in machine building, rocket and computer technology, molecular biology, genetic engineering, microbiology and medicine.

The National Academy of Ukraine maintains and expands international contacts with academies and research associations and centers in many countries. Over the post several years research and technological cooperation treaties and agreements have been signed with many countries.

 

Ex.4 Дайте відповіді на питання:

 

1. Are there a lot of outstanding people famous for their contribution to our science?

2. When was Ukrainian Academy of Science created?

3. Which Ukrainian scientists do you know?

4. When did Yevhen Paton organize the Research Institute of Electro welding at the Academy of Science?

5. What are the achievements of Ukrainian scientists?

 

Домашнє завдання:

Unit.10.

Комп’ютер в нашому житті. Present Perfect.

Ex. 1. Дайте відповідь на запитання:

1. What is computer?

2. What is the main purpose of all computers?

3. Where are computers used?

 

Ex. 2. Прочитайте та запам’ятайте наступні слова та вирази:


> electronic device – електронний пристрій

> to receive – одержувати, приймати

> set of instructions – набір/звід інструкцій

> to carry out - виконувати

> society - суспільство

> storage - збереження

> handling -обробка

> transaction - операція

> to enhance – підвищувати, збільшувати

> essential - істотний

> tool – інструмент, знаряддя

> network - мережа

> source -джерело

> analog - аналоговий

> digital - цифровий

> ability – здатність, можливість

> to determine - визначати

> voltage - напруга

> discrete operation –дискретне дія

> to perform – виконувати, здійснювати
> defense – оборона, захист

> to attain - досягати

> amount of data – обсяг даних

> except – за винятком, крім

> processing unit – обчислювальний пристрій


 

Ex. 3. Прочитайте та перекладіть текст:

COMPUTERS

Computer is an electronic device that can receive a set of instructions called program and then carry out them. The modern world of high technology could not be possible without computers. Different types and sizes of computers find uses throughout our society. They are used for the storage and handling of data, secret governmental files, information about banking transactions and so on. Computers have opened up a new era in manufacturing and they have enhanced modern communication systems. They are essential tools in almost every field of research, from constructing models of the universe to producing tomorrow's weather reports. Using of different databases and computer networks make available a great variety of information sources.

There are two main types of computers, analog and digital, although the term computer is often used to mean only the digital type, because this type of computer is widely used today.

That is why I am going to tell you about digital computers. Everything that a digital computer does is based on one operation: the ability to determine: on or off, high voltage or low voltage or - - in the case of numbers - - 0 or 1 or do-called binary code. The speed at which the computer performs this simple act is called computer speed. Computer speeds are measured in Hertz or cycles per second. A computer with a «clock speed» of 2000 MHz is a fairly representative microcomputer today. It is capable of executing 2000 million discrete operations per second. Nowadays microcomputers can perform from 800 to over 3000 million operations per second and supercomputers used in research and defense applications attain speeds of many billions of cycles per second.

Digital computer speed and calculating power are further enhanced by the amount of data handled during each cycle.

Except two main types of computers, analog and digital there are eight generations of digital computers or processing units. The first generation was represented by processing unit Intel 8086. The second generation central processing unit was represented by processing unit Intel 80286, used in IBM PC AT 286. The third generation is Intel 80386, used in IBM PC AT 386. The microprocessors of the fourth generation were used in computers IBM PC AT 486. There are also central processing units of the fifth generation, used in Intel Pentium 60 and Intel Pentium 66, central processing units of the sixth generation, used in computers Intel Pentium 75, 90, 100 and 133. Few years ago appeared central processing units of seventh and eighth generations. They are much more powerful and can perform from 2000 to over 3000 million operations per second.

Ex. 4. Доповніть речення::

  1. Computers have opened up a new era in manufacturing and … .
  2. Using of different databases and computer networks make available a great variety of … .
  3. The speed at which the computer performs this simple act is … .
  4. The first generation was represented by … .
  5. They are much more powerful and can perform from 2000 to over 3000 million … .

Ex. 5. Прочитайте та перекладіть діалог:

- Why do most people want to have a PC at home?

- For the last 5 year personal computers (PC) are becoming more and more popular in our country. There are computers in offices, schools, institutions and universities. More and more people want to have a PC at home. No wonder PC gives us new opportunities, open a new wonderful world of interactivity that will change the way we learn, play and communicate with others.

- What does the computer industry include?

- The computer industry is one of the largest in modern world. It includes companies

that manufacture, sell and lease computers, as well as companies that supply

products and services for people working with computers.

- How is computer used in business?

- A computer is now more involved in business operations as an essential tool in making decisions at the highest administrative level.

Ex. 6. Пригадайте правила вживання Present Perfect:

Пeрфектні часи
(Perfect Tenses)
1 Перфектні часи виражають дію, що закінчилась (відбулась) до певного моменту чи періоду
В теперішньому часі (Present Perfect)
В минулому часі (Past Perfect)
В майбутньому (Future Perfect)
В майбутньому по відношенню до минулого ( Future Perfect – in –the- past)
2 Перфектні часи відображають на явність результату дії.
3 формула утворення групи: Have + III(форма)

Вживання Present Perfect
Запам’ятайте: Present Perfect часто використовується замість Past Indefinite і навпаки.
Обставина часу (yesterday, last week, already, just) допоможуть використати потрібний час
1. Вживається для вираження дії, що закінчилась і видно результатна момент мовлення
e. g. I have bought a book. - Я (вже) купив книгу
Це основне значення часу
Для Present Perfect важливий результат, а не процес дії
e. g. What have you done? - Що ти зробив?
2. Present Perfect вживається з такими обставинами часу
а). що означають період часу, що почався в минулому і триває до моменту мовлення:

 


Up to now до цього часу
Up to the present до цього часу
Lately нещодавно, за останній час
Recently останнім часом
So far до цього часу
Since від тоді
Not yet ще не


 


e. g. I have know him since 1980
Я його знав з 1980 року
I have read this book up to now
Я прочитав цю книгу до цього часу.
I have not seen him recently
Я його не бачив останнім часом.

 


б). що означає період часу, який ще не закінчився

 


Today сьогодні
This week цього тижня
This month цього місяця
This year цього року
Та інші

 


e. g. He has not done it today
Він не зробив це сьогодні
Have you seen her this week?
Ти бачив її на цьому тижні?

 


в). з прислівниками неозначеного часу і

 


Ever коли – небудь
Never ніколи
Often часто
Seldom рідко
Already вже
Just щойно


 


e. g. I have just finished this job
Я щойно закінчив цю роботу
Have you ever been in London?
Ти коли – небудь був у Лондоні?
I have never been in London.
Я ніколи не був у Лондоні

 


3. Present Perfect вживається для вираження дії, що триває з якогось моменту в минулому аж до моменту мовлення.(В цьому значенні Present Perfect вживаються переважно з дієсловами, що не мають форми Continuous)

 


e. g. I have known her for 2 years.
Я знав(знаю) її два роки.
I have not worked there since last year.
Я не працював там з минулого року.

 


Період тривалості позначається прикметником for ( for an hour for one month, for 20 year та інші)
Початок дії позначається словом since ( since Monday, since last year, since two o’ clock та інші)
Present Perfect не вживається:
а). З обставинами часу які вживаються в Past Indefinite

 


Yesterday вчора
The day before yesterday позавчора
Last week (month, year) минулого тижня
Two day ago два дні назад
On Monday в понеділок
In August в серпні



б). В питальному реченні із словами When. Для цього вживається Past Indefinite.
When did you see him?
Коли ти його бачив?

Ex. 7. Розкрийте дужки, вживаючи дієслова у Present Perfect:


1. Alan (not to have) his breakfast.

2. Cathy (not to get) up yet.

3. He (to pay) for pizza.

4. Martin (not to wash) up yet.

5. Dan (to do) his homework by 6 o’clock.

6. We (not to tell) him the truth.

7. You (to mention) my name?

8. We (to begin) the work.

9. Your mother already (to come)?

10.Where Martin (to go)?

11.I (to watch) this film.

12.Why John (to take) this book?

13.The boy (not to return) from school yet.

14.Jane (to be) at the theatre this week?

15.Carol and Sam (to play) two games of chess today.


 

Ex. 8. Змініть час дієслів на Present Perfect. Перекладіть речення українською мовою:


1. She is watering the flowers.

2. He is taking his examination.

3. Beth is opening the window.

4. I am dusting the furniture.

5. John is washing his car.

6. The teacher is explaining the rule.

7. Mary is reading a letter.

8. We are having dinner.

9. I am cleaning my teeth.

 

10. Jane is translating the article.

11. Little Frank is breaking his toy.

12. He is having breakfast.

13. Nick is drawing a picture.

14. My daughter is having lunch.

15. He is putting on his coat.


Ex. 9.Визначте, в яких випадках скорочення 's вжито на заміну Present Perfect, а в яких – на заміну Present Simple. Перекладіть речення українською мовою:

 


1. She's tired.

2. He's stopped reading.

3. He's worried.

4. She's died.

5. He's ill.

6. She's come.

7. He's angry.

8. He's had dinner.

9. It's escaped.

10. She's surprised.

11. She's stopped working.

12. He's scared.

13. He's gone.

14. He's embarrassed.

15. She's frightened.


Домашнє завдання:





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