ТОП 10:

CLASSIFICATION AND PRODUCTION OF METALS



Гросс М. А., Шевченко Е. Б.

 

 

CLASSIFICATION AND PRODUCTION OF METALS

Методические указания по английскому языку

для студентов 2 курса факультета МСИ

специальностей «Литейное, сварочное производства

и обработка металлов давлением»

 

 
 

 


Омск

Издательство ОмГТУ

 

 


УДК 669:802.0

ББК 34.431+81.2 Англ

М 54

 

Рецензенты:

 

Т. М. Белова, канд. филол. наук, ст. преподаватель кафедры иностранных языков Кемеровского государственного университета;

 

Гросс М.А., Шевченко Е. Б.

М 54: Classification and production of metals: метод. указ. по английскому языку для студентов 2 курса факультета МСИ специальностей «Литейное, сварочное производства и обработка металлов давлением» /

М.А. Гросс, Е. Б. Шевченко– Омск: Изд-во ОмГТУ, 2013г.– 40с.

 

Данное методическое указание предназначено для студентов и преподавателей машиностроительных специальностей. Оно включает в себя тексты, посвященные физическим свойствам металлов, методам их определения и физическим основам металлургических процессов, лексический и грамматический материал, задания по переводу текстов с английского на русский язык, тексты для самостоятельного чтения, экзаменационную тему «Великобритания».

Тексты составлены так, что они объясняют основные процессы металлургии производства цветных металлов, чугуна и стали, в доступной для понимания студентов форме. Все тексты построены целиком на знакомой студентам лексике и грамматике, чтобы учащиеся имели возможность прорабатывать большие по объёму тексты без особых затруднений и за сравнительно короткое время.

 

Печатается по решению редакционного-издательского совета Омского государственного технического университета.

© Омский государственный технический университет, 2013


LESSON 1

METALS AND MEN

Match the word or word phrase (left column) and its translation (right column). Write them down in your notebooks.

 

а) существительные:

 

1) century 2) nature 3) machine 4) mechanism 5) metal 6) application 7) element 8) property 9) strength 10) plasticity 11) brittleness 12) ductility 13) rubber 14) characteristic 15) definition 16) substance 17) significance 18) heat 19) conductivity 20) engineering 21) compound 22) stone 23) alloy 24) luster a) хрупкость b) камень c) тепло d) пластичность e) свойство f) природа g) механизм h) элемент i) век; столетие j) применение k) металл l) машина m) прочность n) резина; каучук o) характерная особенность p) определение q) ковкость r) важность; значение s) блеск t) проводимость u) техника v) вещество w) соединение x) сплав

 

b) прилагательные:

 

1) useful 2) old (= ancient) 3) rich 4) interesting 5) wide 6) high 7) plastic 8) strong 9) brittle 10) great 11) bad 12) main 13) scientific 14) metallic (= metal) 15) pure a) интересный b) хрупкий c) великий d) плохой e) прочный f) богатый g) высокий h) главный i) старый, древний j) широкий k) полезный l) пластичный m) научный n) чистый o) металлический

 

c) глагольные словосочетания:

 

1) to serve man 2) to conquer nature 3) to create machines 4) to find wide application 5) to possess properties 6) to make metals so useful 7) to combine strength and plasticity 8) to exclude antimony and mercury from the list of metals 9) to discover the Periodic System 10) to give a scientific definition 11) to lose scientific significance 12) to comprise two main characte­ristics of metals 13) to consist of many elements 14) to be called alloys a) исключить сурьму и ртуть из списка металлов b) открывать Периодическую систему c) состоять из многих элементов d) называться сплавами e) потерять (утратить) научное значение f) служить человеку g) покорять природу h) делать металлы такими полезными i) обладать свойствами j) создавать машины k) находить широкое применение l) сочетать прочность с пластичностью m) давать научное определение n) включать две основные характеристики металлов

 

Текст A

METALS AND MEN

Fоr many centuries metals have served man helping him to conquer nature, to create useful machines and mechanisms.

The world of metals is rich and interesting. Among metals are the old friends of a man: Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Gold (Au), Silver (Ag), Tin (Sn). At present out of 104 elements of the Mendeleyev's Periodic Table about 60 are metals. Metals have found wide application because they possess properties which made them so useful: for example, they combine high strength and plasticity. Some other materials, stone for example, possess strength, but are brittle. Rubber is highly plastic, but it is not strong.

Ancient Romans knew only 8 metals: gold, silver, copper, tin, lead, mercury, antimony, iron.

In 1763 the great scientist Lomonosov knew only 6 metals: gold, silver, copper, tin, lead, iron. He excluded antimony and mercury from the list of metals because of their bad ductility (forgeability) as ductility was considered to be the main characteristic of metals.

In 1869 Mendeleyev discovered his Periodic System, 50 metals being known by that time.

The first scientific definition of metal was given by M.V. Lomonosov in his book «The first foundation of metallurgy and mining» («Первые основания металлургии и рудных дел») in 1763. Не wrote: «Metals are light color bodies which can be forged» («Металлы – светлые тела, которые можно ковать»). This definition does not lose its scientific significance even now. It comprises the two main characteristics of metal: plasticity and metallic luster.

Besides, metals possess high electrical conductivity and heat conductivity.

In engineering metals are defined as substances possessing the following properties: metallic luster, plasticity (ductility), high electrical and heat conductivity and high electron conductivity which rises with the decrease of temperature.

Not only pure metals (elements) possess these properties but also compounds consisting of many elements. Such substances are called alloys.

 

Independent tasks

Текст B

ANCIENT ALCHEMY

All the metals seemed mysterious (таинственный) to the ancients. They were terribly afraid (бояться) of them, and especially of iron. And so no are in Greek and Roman times studied the metals. It seems that the alchemists (алхимики) were the first to study the metals. The alchemists were curious (любознательный) people. We know that during twelfth and thirteenth centuries many alchemists lived and worked in England, France and Germany.

The alchemists surrounded themselves with all sorts of mysteries (тайн). They usually worked alone. And people said of them that they practiced magic and the black arts (черная магия). The alchemists themselves pretended (сами делали вид) to be in contact with the devil and other evil spirits. They made all kinds of queer (странный) experiments. They had two aims: they tried to change base metal into gold, and to find an elixir of life, a drink that would keep people young.

 

Текст C

MODERN ALCHEMY

Ancient alchemists tried for hundred of years to turn mercury into gold by chemical means. Some men devoted all their lives to this impossible task. Today this classic reaction has been performed in reverse (наоборот), not by chemical means but through atomic radiation. Scientists have made mercury from gold with the help of atomic reactor.

Gold decays to mercury when it is bombarded with neutrons. The scientists took 600 grams of pure gold powder and placed it in an atomic reactor for 10 months. Then the gold was taken out and left in a special container for another 2 months, so that all the radioactive material could decay. Then the gold was removed from its container and distilled. Of the 600 grams of gold powder 1 gram of mercury – 198 was received. Its value is 3,000 dollars (one gram of gold costs about 2 dollars).

This method is not practical and will not be widely used, but the alchemists of old times can be a little happier in their graves knowing that their task has been accomplished even if in reverse.

 

LESSON 2

METALS AND NON-METALS

Read Text В

 

Text В

METALS AND NON-METALS

There are 105 elements in the Mendeleyev's Periodic System. These elements are divided into two groups: the metals and the non-metals. Here is a table showing the difference (таблица, показывающая различия) between metals and non-metals.

Physical properties of metals:

1. Solid at room temperature (mercury is the only liquid metal).

2. Have a high density (except potassium and sodium).

3. Can be moulded by pressure, that is they are malleable.

4. Have high melting and boiling points.

5. Can be drawn into wire, i.e. (that is) they are ductile.

Physical properties of non-metals:

1. Many are liquids and gases at room temperature.

2. Density is usually low.

3. Solid non-metals are brittle.

4. Have low melting and boiling points.

5. Cannot be drawn into wire.

Chemical properties of metals:

1. Have basic oxides.

2. React with dilute acids forming salts.

3. Form positive ions.

4. Are liberated at the cathode during electrolysis.

Chemical properties of non- metals:

1. Have acidic oxides.

2. Salts of non-metals do not exist.

3. Form negative ions.

4. Are liberated at the anode during electrolysis.

 

Independent tasks

GOLD

It is supposed (полагают) that gold was the first of all metals used by man. Why did the ancient people want gold? They did not use it аs money. Other things had served for money long before gold was used. Most likely, they wanted gold only for ornaments (украшения). Gold is a wonderful metal in many ways. As you know, gold is a yellow metal, bright and shining when polished – the colour of the sun. Perhaps, gold seemed to the ancient people to be a piece of the sun found on the earth and all ancient gold – seeking people (золотоискатели) were worshippers (поклонниками) of the sun.

 

COPPER

Copper came after gold. Then came tin, lead, silver and iron. We know that copper and tin came into use some time before silver and lead and a long time before iron. Probably, it was in Egypt that man first found copper. In ancient times copper was used in the form of alloys-bronze and brass. As we know, an alloy is a mixture of two or more metals. Bronze is a mixcture of copper and tin. Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc (цинк). Sometimes silver is added to bronze when bells are cast (отливать колокола). It is believed that silver gives a clear tone. Throughout (за всю) history of the world copper and bronze have always been used for making works of art (произведение искусства).

 

LESSON 3

CLASSIFICATION OF METALS

Text С

CLASSIFICATION OF METALS

There are some classifications of metals based on their chemical purity, physical and chemical properties and composition, their industrial application (= use), etc.

According to (= in respect to; depending on) the chemical purity we may divide all metals into 2 large groups:

1. Simple metals which are more or less pure chemical elements.

2. Alloys which are materials consisting of a simple metal combined with some other elements.

In modern industry we usually divide metals into 2 main groups according to their chemical composition:

1. Ferrous metals; 2. Non-ferrous metals.

Metals consisting of iron combined with some other elements are known as ferrous metals; all the other metals are called non-ferrous metals. Ferrous metals and alloys include a great variety of (= very many) commercially important products which can be grouped into: a) iron (cast iron), b) саrbоn steels; c) alloy steels; d) stainless steels and other types of steels.

The most important ferrous metal is cast iron which is some form of alloy with carbon (C) and other elements. Cast iron finds greater use than аnу other metal. We may classify all cast irons into 3 groups: grey cast iron, white cast iron and malleable cast iron. In respect to their density metals may be divided into light and heavy ones. Metals having a density less than 4 are called light metals, all other having a density over 4 are known as heavy metals.

Light metals are aluminium, berillium, magnesium, titanium. The alkali metals and the alkali earth metals also belong to light metals. The alkali metals include such metals as lithium, sodium, potassium; the alkali earth metals include such metals as calcium, strontium and radium.

Heavy metals include such metals, for example, as lead, tin, silver, copper, nickel, zinc.

The lightest metal is lithium (D – 0.534) and the heaviest is osmium (D – 22.48).

Non-ferrous metals may in its turn bе subdivided into two groups:

a) the so-called group of rare metals (berillium, gallium, bismuth, germanium, selenium, tungsten, tantalum, molybdenum, cobalt, titanium, uranium, zirconium, etc.);

b) and the so-called group of precious (= noble) metals which include silver, gold, platinum, palladium and indium.

Metals may also be classified according to their melting point. Metals which exhibit (= have) high melting point above 3000°F (1650° C) are often called refractory metals. Refractory metals include such non-ferrous metals as tungsten, titanium, molybdenum, tantalum, and chromium. These metals also exhibit great corrosion and wear resistance and are very difficult to produce. The low melting point metals are rubidium, cesium which melts just above room temperature and mercury which melts at – 38, 8° C.

We may also classify hard and soft metals. For example, potassium is so soft that it can be molded like wax, and chromium is so hard that it can even cut glass.

Many elements are classed аs semimetals (arsenic, antimony and bismuth, for example) because they possess much poorer conductivity than true metals and may be classed with the semiconductors.

 

4. Read again the text "Classification of metals". Answer the following questions without looking into the text.

 

1) Into what groups may we divide metals according to their chemical purity?

2) What are a simple metals?

3) What is an alloy? What does it consist of?

4) Into what groups do we usually divide metals in modern industry?

5) How will you call metals consisting of iron combined with some other elements?

6) Into what groups may we divide ferrous metals?

7) What is the most important ferrous metal?

8) How are cast irons classified (into what groups)?

9) How are metals divided according to their density?

10) What are the densities of light metals (of heavy metals)?

11) What alkali and alkali earth metals do you know?

12) What is the lightest (heaviest) metal?

13) Into what two groups may non-ferrous metals be subdivided?

14) Can metals be classified according to their melting point?

15) What metals and alloys are called refractory? Are they easy to produce?

16) What are the low melting point metals?

17) What can you say about potassium and chromium?

18) What are a semimetals?

 

Independent tasks

SILVER

Silver, like gold, as you know is one of the precious metals. It was first used for ornament and later for coins (монеты). Silver is a white shining metal. It is harder than gold and will, in time, tarnish (тускнеть) and lose its lustre. The use of silver for making mirrors (зеркала) is very interesting. The first metal mirrors were made of polished bronze. Later on, a mixture (смесь) of lead, silver and copper was used. There were no glass mirrors in Roman times, though the Romans knew how to make glass (стекло), but they did not know how to apply silver or tin to glass. Polished metal mirrors of silver, bronze came into common use only in the sixteenth century.

 

LEAD

Lead, probably, followed (сменить кого-либо, что-либо) silver as a useful metal. Sometimes it was mixed with bronze. The more common use of lead was for roofs, pipes, paints. After the invention of gunpowder (порох) lead served for several centuries for the bullets (пуля). We also use lead nowadays. It is used in making glass and especially paints.

 

LESSON 4

PRODUCTION OF METALS

Text D

PRODUCTION OF METALS

Different metals are produced in different ways, but almost all the metals are found in the form of metal ores (iron ore, copper ore etc). The ore is a mineral consisting of a metal combined with some impurities. In order to produce a metal from some metal ore, we must separate these impurities from the metal. This is done by metallurgy the science – which treats of the methods used to obtain the metals in the free condition from the compounds that occur in nature, i.e. (that is) from the ores. Most commercial metals are produced from their ores by melting process in which any impurities are separated and removed as slag.

Iron is obtained by reducing its ores with carbon. Cast iron and steel are produced in different types of furnaces at metallurgical plants. Cast irons are usually produced in blast furnaces or cupolas. Steels are usually produced in Bessemer converters or open-hearth furnaces. Henry Bessеmer, English inventor and engineer, was born at Charlton on January 19, 1813. He discovered the first process of making inexpensive and plentiful (в больших количествах) steel. The so-called Bessemer process of steelmaking was a great event in the world's economic history. Previously (до этого, прежде) steel had been expensive, made chiefly by the crucible process (в тиглях).

Steel and other metals may also be produced in electrical furnaces. Electrical furnaces are only used in making high-grade tool steel.

The metals from lithium down to manganese are obtained by electrolysis of melted compounds that conduct an electric current.

If we take all the metal produced by the world's metallurgical industry during one year for 100 per cent, we shall see that the production of ferrous metals is about 94 %, the production of copper is about 2 %, zinc about 1.52 %, aluminium 0.6 %, etc. (в английских и американских текстах печатаются: 1.52, which is read «one point five two», 0.6 – is read «zero point six»).

 

Independent tasks

Текст А

Diodorus (Диодор) tells us of iron-making in Roman times. He says there was on a certain island (остров) an ore that contained iron. This ore was melted in batches (шихта) to make metal. The workers first cut up a great mass of the ore. Then they put it into the furnace. When the heat had melted it they broke up what was left into blocks (слитки). Then they sold these blocks to the merchants (торговец) who traveled from village to village. And the merchants sold the ore again to blacksmiths (кузнец). The blacksmiths made it into all sorts of figures, birds, beasts (зверь) and, also, into tools (инструмент).

 

Текст В

Tin is used to make on alloy called bronze. Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin. The discovery (открытие) of Bronze was a very important event in history and the whole period was called the Вrоnze Age. Copper and tin are soft metals, and sо could not be widely used in pure state. But an alloy of copper and tin is a hard metal. Bronze consists of one part tin and nine parts copper. Bronze replaced (заменять) copper so quickly, that we do not speak of a copper age at all, as we do of the ages of Stone, Bronze and Iron tools.

 

Текст С

Aristotle (Аристотель) called mercury «liquid silver». Though (хотя) mercury had been known all through ancient history, no one in fact knew what it really was until the days of alchemists of Middle Ages. It was one of these alchemists – Albert le Grand (french) – who discovered pure, free mercury. In the Middle Age people thought there was something magic about mercury, so they were a little afraid of it. It is not difficult to see why they were afraid of it. Mercury is a curious (необычный) metal, almost like a thing alive. Its common name is quicksilver. We use mercury today in medicine, mirrors, colours, thermometers.

 

LESSON 5

Read the text.

 

Текст Е

Independent tasks

Текст А

There are many superstitions (суеверий) about iron. The Romans (римляне) believed, if you drew (рисовать, проводить) three circles in the air around anyone and three on the ground with a bit (кусочек) of iron, that person would be bewitched (заколдован). It is interesting to note that wedding rings (обручальные кольца) in Ancient Rome were made of iron.

We find a lot of superstitions among the Creeks and the Egyptians. But we do not have to go back to Roman days for curious superstitions and beliefs (поверий). We can find them nowadays (today). There is still a superstition among some people to-day about horseshoes (подковы). They believe that horseshoes bring good luck or bad luck. Though people were superstitions about iron it turned out (оказалось) to be a much better metal for making tools than bronze. And so the Bronze Age gave ways to the Age of Iron.

 

HARDENING AND TEMPERING

Hardening means making harder. Steel which contains more than 0.75 per cent carbon becomes very hard and very brittle when hardened. High carbon steel is hardened by carrying out the following operations. The steel is first slowly heated to a proper temperature. Having been heated to red color, it is then rapidly cooled in oil, water, brine or some other liquid. The process of cooling is called quenching the steel, thus the hardening operation consists of heating and quenching. Alloy steels are usually hardened by special ways. The hardness produced by heat treatment depends upon the: 1) amount of carbon in steel; 2) temperature of heated steel; 3) speed of cooling.

The critical temperature, or critical point, is the temperature at which a piece of steel is properly hardened. When steel is heated to the critical temperature, the grain becomes very fine, that is the crystals get smaller, some other changes in the physical properties of steel take place, too, in this condition. The critical temperature is different for different kinds of steel. It depends upon the amount of carbon in steel. The more carbon the steel contains, the less it should be heated for hardening. In other words, the more carbon the steel contains, the lower is the critical point. The critical temperature may be tested with a magnet. Steel is magnetic until it reaches the critical temperature, then it is non-magnetic. Thus, a piece of steel to be hardened may be heated until it becomes non-magnetic; it should be then rapidly cooled (quenched).

Temper is the hardness, toughness and brittleness of a metal. Tempering, also called drawing the temper, means taking some of the hardness and brittleness out of hardened steel so that it could do good work. Having been tempered, the steel becomes stronger because its grain gets finer; as we already know, steel with a coarse grain is weaker than steel with a fine grain. Hardened steel is too hard and too brittle for many tools. A hardened cutting tool will break easily while cutting with it; it is therefore better to have a cutting tool tough and not too hard. Tempering brings about this condition.

Having hardened the steel, it is polished and heated. The different temperatures will show in the form of different colors on the polished surface. Each temperature or color is a different hardness or temper. The temperatures for tempering are from 400 to 600 degrees of Fahrenheit. When the right color appears, the steel is cooled (the speed of cooling is not important here). Thus the steel is a little softened and will be tougher and less brittle.

 

STRUCTURE OF METALS

 

Strength together with plasticity is the combination of properties that makes metals so valuable in industry. In addition to strength and plasticity, metals have many favourable characteristics, such as resistance to corrosion, electrical and heat conductivity, etc.

The characteristics of metals are due to two structural factors: first, the atoms of which the metallic state is composed; and second, the way in which these atoms are arranged.

When a metal becomes solid, it crystallizes. The crystallization or solidification is accompanied by a complete change in the atomic arrangement of the metal. The atoms of liquid metal become arranged into a definite pattern, forming small solid bodies of regular geometric shape such as cubes, etc., when crystallization occurs.

If liquid is cooled slowly in a crucible, nuclei form at the temperature of freezing, and these nuclei continue to grow until the liquid has changed to solid.

Knowing that metals are composed of many crystals or grains, and that each grain in turn is composed of a great many atoms all arranged in some pattern, how can we understand the plastic flow that must take place when metals are deformed during a bending operation or during the drawing out of a piece of a metal? This deformation may be understood as shearing; that is, when a metal is subjected to stresses exceeding its elastic limit, the crystals of the metal elongate by an action of slipping or shearing which takes place within the crystals and between the crystals. If deformation of the metal continuous, the crystals become remarkably elongated. This plastic flow of the metal, resulting in permanent deformation of the crystals is accompanied by marked changes in the physical properties of the metal. The tensile strength, yield point and particularly hardness are increased, but not the scratch hardness or ductility of cutting, as in machine operations in a lathe. The stiffness remains about the same, though in some cases it may be increased as much as 3 per cent. With the increase in hardness and strength, the plasticity or formability is reduced. Ultimately, if deformation of the crystals is continued, the metal becomes brittle. This process changing the physical properties of a metal is called work-hardening.

If the temperature of work-hardened metal is raised above normal, the deformation begins to disappear and the metal returns to the normal condition of structure and properties.

 

NONFERROUS FORGINGS

Nonferrous forgings are metal shapes produced by hot-working nonferrous metals, subjecting them to hammering and pressing operations. The result is the compression, bending, twisting or extrusion of the metal so that various parts of the forging are formed by pressure against dies.

Die-pressed or hammered forgings offer an efficient and economical method of producing irregularly-shaped metal parts from slugs cut from ingots and rods. The result is a strong, dense metal part, closely resembling the shape and size of the finished product, thus insuring a minimum of scrap metal in the final procession operation. Such forgings are freed of excess material and are ready for machining or further finishing operations.

Grain structure is uniform and dense, eliminating the disadvantages of porosity and rough surface finish. Nonferrous forgings also have high tensile strengths; the great strength and nonporosity often permit reduction in weight of parts previously produced by other processes. Fewer finishing operations are necessary, and the required machining may be performed with maximum speed. However, greater strength naturally reduces machinability.

Many nonferrous alloys are readily adaptable to the forging process and have been successfully used. Among them are forging brass, nickel, silver, leaded brasses, aluminum bronze, manganese bronze, silicon bronze and several aluminum alloys.

At present, nonferrous forgings are used for many purposes: for electrical and chemical equipment, in welding and in many other cases. Brass forgings have an important part in air compressors, compressed gas valves, gas and water meters, oil burner equipment, etc.

Nonferrous forgings can be provided in a great variety of finishes such as bright polished, plated with nickel, chromium, copper or other metals.

 

COLD WORKING OF STEEL

Part I

Steel is hot worked when it is in a homogeneous or heterogeneous austenitic condition. Hot working is the working of metals above the annealing temperature, so that the deformed metal becomes annealed before cooling to room temperature, and therefore has a normal grain structure with normal ductility and toughness. Cold working passes under quite different conditions; it is generally accompanied by many annealings of the metal being cold-worked.

Cold rolling, for example, like hot rolling may be carried out on a two-high or four-high rolling mill, or in a continuous rolling mill. Cold rolling is continued until the rolled section becomes too hard to continue the process, or until it reaches its final size. It may become necessary to anneal the metal after several passes through the cold rolling mill, in order to keep it in a workable condition. If annealing is carried out in an open furnace, pickling again is necessary before re-rolling to remove the scale and clean the metal. Today annealing of cold-rolled products is usually carried out in special furnaces that complete the annealing without the formation of scale.

Cold drawing is carried out by drawing the metal through a succession of conical tapering holes in a die plate. Die materials are: steel, cast iron, tungsten carbide and diamond. Shapes varying in size from the finest wire to those having a cross-sectional area of several square inches are commonly drawn. Due to the difficulty of making dies and small need for any other form, the fine sizes are drawn only to a round cross-section; larger sizes may be drawn to square, round, or irregular cross-sections, the larger sections being drawn on a drawbench. Metals can be formed to much closer dimensions by drawing than by rolling, and for this reason large quantities of steel and brass are cold drawn.

Multiple die machines are often used to produce wire. In these machines the wire passes through one die, around a capstan, through a second die and round another capstan, etc. As many as twelve dies may be used in a machine. Having gone through each die, the wire of course, is greatly elongated. The speed of drawing in multiple die machines may reach 10 000 feet per minute on fine wire. The die, or drag plate as it is often called, may be made of a number of materials, tungsten carbide having largely replaced other die materials because of its great ability to retain its shape during the drawing operation.

 

Part II

In drawing seamless tubing the metal is forced between the die and the mandrel, and in this way the wall thickness, the outside diameter, and the inside diameter may be controlled. As in any cold-working operation, the metal should be free from scale and other defects before it is cold-drawn.

Cold-working operations may be divided into two large classes:

1. Where the cold working is carried out for the purpose of shaping the articles only; and where the hardening effect is not desired and must be removed at various stages of plastic shaping as well as from the finished article by annealing.

2. Where the object of cold working is not only to obtain the required shape but to harden and strengthen the metal, and where the final annealing operation is not carried out.

In order to shape metals by cold working they must be annealed at proper intervals. Otherwise deformation must be carried out at temperatures where annealing is simultaneous with hardening, as in the hot working of metals. The selected method will depend on the individual metal as well as on the desired product. Metals vary greatly in the ease with which they deform. Copper, for example, may be worked readily at room temperatures, whereas some steels can only be worked at a red heat. Practically all metals and alloys become brittle very near their melting points and hence must not be worked at too high temperatures. There are metals that can be worked only in certain temperature ranges without cracking. Thus zinc must be worked at 200 to 300 degrees of Fahrenheit; nearly pure iron must not be worked in the blue heat range. Brass must not be heated too near its melting point in annealing, also, or it becomes «burnt».

 

Part I

 

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on 2 large islands and 5000 smaller ones. These are the British Isles. Great Britain, the largest island in Europe, includes England, Scotland and Wales. It is separated from Ireland by the Irish Sea, from the European Continent-by the North Sea, the English Channel and the Strait of Dover. On the west coasts Great Britain is bound by the Atlantic Ocean.

The southern part of Ireland is an independent republic.

The greater part of the surface of England and Ireland is flat. The northern part of Scotland and Wales is mountainous and rocky. The highest mountain of the country is Ben Navis in Scotland. The main rivers are short but can be used by ships. There is a number of lakes in the country. The coastline of the country has excellent harbours.

As a rule, the climate depends on the geographical position of the country. The British Isles are washed by the warm current of the Gulf Stream. So the weather is mild, wet, cloudy, windy and changeable.

The total area of the country is about 21600 square miles or 245000 square kilometers. The population of Great Britain is about 55 million, 44 being Englishmen. Nearly all people speak English, but some speak Celtic languages.

The main cities are London, Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester.

 

 

to separate – отделять(ся);

to include – включать в себя;

to wash – омывать;

to depend on – зависеть от;

to be situated – быть расположенным;

to be bound – быть ограниченным;

island – остров;

coast – берег, побережье;

surface – поверхность;

harbour – гавань;

current – течение;

independent – независимый;

flat – плоский, равнинный;

mountainous – гористый;

rocky – скалистый;

changeable – изменчивый;

moderate – умеренный;

mild – мягкий;

wet – влажный;

cloudy – облачный;

total – полный, весь;

as a rule – как правило;

the English Channel – пролив Ла Манш;

the Strait of Dover – пролив Па-де-Кале;

Ben Navis – гора Бен Невис;

The Gulf Stream – Гольфстрим;

Celtic – кельтский.

 

PART II

Great Britain is a parliamentary monarchy. The King or the Queen is at the head of the state but does not play an important part in the political life of the country. The Queen’s powers are limited by the Parliament. It consists of 2 chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The House of Lords has 850 inherited members and the House of Commons has 660 elected members. The Government is formed by the Prime Minister, usually the leader of the party that has the majority in the House of Commons. The highest executive power is the Cabinet. It consists of 18 ministers and the Prime Minister. The country is ruled by the Government in the name of the Queen.

At present there are 4 main political parties in the country. The Conservative Party and the Liberal Party were founded in the middle of the 19th century and were supported by the rich people. The Labour Party was founded by the Trade Union Congress at the beginning of the 20th century. The Communist Party is the only party that defends the interests of the working people. It was founded in 1920.

 

 

to be limited – быть ограниченным;

to rule – править, управлять;

to defend – защищать;

to support – поддерживать;

to be founded – быть основанным;

monarchy – монархия;

at the head – во главе;

power(s) – власть;

chamber – палата;

in the name of – от имени;

majority – большинство;

parliamentary – парламентский;

executive – исполнительный;

elective – выборный;

inherited – унаследованный, наследственный;

the House of Lords – Палата Лордов;

the House of Commons – Палата Общин;

the Conservative Party – Консервативная партия;

the Liberal Party – Либеральная партия;

the Labour Party – Лейбористская партия;

the Trade Union Congress – съезд Тред-юнионов;

the Cabinet – Кабинет;

the Prime Minister – премьер-министр.

 

PART III

Great Britain is highly developed industrial capitalist country. It is a member of the Common Market. Before the Second World War the country was an old naval powerful state. After the war Great Britain has lost almost all its colonies, some of them fell under the influence of the USA, others obtained independence.

During the last decades there has been a great change in the structure of British industry. The main British exports were coal and textiles. But now British export of machinery, vehicles and electrical goods has greatly increased.

There is no variety of mineral resources in the country, but coal deposits take the 6th place in the world. Coal-mining is one of the oldest industries together with ship-building and cotton industries.

Sheffield is the centre of steel industry. Manchester is a textile centre. Liverpool is an important port as well as London. Clydeside and Belfast are famous for their ship-building.

One-third of the budget has been devoted to arms expenditure. Military industry receives more state funds.

Four-fifth (4/5) of the land is devoted to agriculture. It provides employment for more than 1 million people. The main branch of British agriculture is dairy-farming. The main grain crops are wheat and barley.

 

to obtain – получать;

the Common Market – Общий рынок;

to fall under the influence – попадать под влияние;

to increase – увеличивать;

to develop – развивать;

to be famous for – быть известным чем-либо;

to receive – получать;

to provide – обеспечивать;

production – производство;

variety – разнообразие;

deposit – месторождение;

vehicle – транспортное средство;

dairy-farming – животноводство;

grain crops – зерновые культуры;

barley – ячмень;

wheat – пшеница;

arms expenditure – военные расходы;

resources – ископаемые;

to manufacture – производить;

employment – занятость;

to devote – посвящать, отводить;

naval – морской;

coal-mining – добыча угля

 

Bibliography

 

1. Агабекян И.П., Коваленко П.И. Английский для технических вузов.– Серия «Высшее образование».- Ростов н/Д: «Феникс», 2004.– 352 с.

2. Балабан М.А. Английский язык для учащихся вузов по специальности «Машиностроение».– М.: УРАО, 1991.– 225 с.

3. Бгашев В.Н. Английский язык для машиностроительных специальностей.– М.: Высш. шк., 1990.– 416 с.

4. Комиссаров В.Н., Кораллова А.Л. Практикум по переводу с английского языка на русский.- М.: Высш. шк., 1991.– 320 с.

 

 

Contents

 

Lesson I: « Metals and Men » Lesson II: «Metals and non- metals» Lesson III: « Classification of metals» Lesson IV: «Production of Metals» Lesson V: «Metals as engineering materials» Supplementary texts for reading Topic: «Geographical Position of Great Britain» (Part I) Topic: «Political System and Parties of Great Britain» (Part II) Topic: «Industry and Agriculture of Great Britain» (Part III) Bibliography    

 

Редактор

ИД № 06035 от 12.10.2001

Свод. темплан 2013г.

Подписано в печать 03.06.2013. Формат 60х841/16. Бумага офсетная.

Отпечатано на дупликаторе. Усл. печ. л. 2,5. Уч.-изд.л. 1,5.

Тираж 100. Заказ 26.

Издательство ОмГТУ. 644050, Омск, пр. Мира, 11

Типография ОмГТУ

         
   
 
   
 
 

 

Гросс М. А., Шевченко Е. Б.

 

 

CLASSIFICATION AND PRODUCTION OF METALS

Методические указания по английскому языку

для студентов 2 курса факультета МСИ

специальностей «Литейное, сварочное производства

и обработка металлов давлением»

 

 
 

 


Омск

Издательство ОмГТУ

 

 


УДК 669:802.0

ББК 34.431+81.2 Англ

М 54

 

Рецензенты:

 

Т. М. Белова, канд. филол. наук, ст. преподаватель кафедры иностранных языков Кемеровского государственного университета;

 

Гросс М.А., Шевченко Е. Б.

М 54: Classification and production of metals: метод. указ. по английскому языку для студентов 2 курса факультета МСИ специальностей «Литейное, сварочное производства и обработка металлов давлением» /

М.А. Гросс, Е. Б. Шевченко– Омск: Изд-во ОмГТУ, 2013г.– 40с.

 

Данное методическое указание предназначено для студентов и преподавателей машиностроительных специальностей. Оно включает в себя тексты, посвященные физическим свойствам металлов, методам их определения и физическим основам металлургических процессов, лексический и грамматический материал, задания по переводу текстов с английского на русский язык, тексты для самостоятельного чтения, экзаменационную тему «Великобритания».

Тексты составлены так, что они объясняют основные процессы металлургии производства цветных металлов, чугуна и стали, в доступной для понимания студентов форме. Все тексты построены целиком на знакомой студентам лексике и грамматике, чтобы учащиеся имели возможность прорабатывать большие по объёму тексты без особых затруднений и за сравнительно короткое время.

 

Печатается по решению редакционного-издательского совета Омского государственного технического университета.

© Омский государственный технический университет, 2013


LESSON 1

METALS AND MEN







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