H must meet the same quality



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

H must meet the same quality



Is Organic Food Better than Conventional Food?

Organic and conventional food (0) H and safety standards. Organic food differs from conventionally produced food simply in the way it is grown, handled and processed. There is no scientific evidence to suggest that it is more nutritious or safer than conventional food.

Organic food is less likely to contain (1)______. Yet, according to the National Research Council, the traces of pesticides left on conventionally grown products are unlikely to cause an increased cancer risk. Also, if fruits and vegetables are properly washed, (2)______.

As for taste, (3)______what you like best. In general, people tend to find that the fresher a food is, the better it tastes, regardless of how it was produced.

In addition to the higher price, there are two main criticisms of organic food. First, some people argue that eating such products increases (4)_____, putting you at greater risk for foodborn illness. In particular, concerns have been raised about:

Manure - While manure is a well known carrier of human pathogens, when properly treated it is both safe and efficient. Plus, (5)______are restricted from using untreated manure within 60 days before the harvest of a crop and are inspected to make sure these standards and restrictions are met.

The second criticism of organic agriculture is that organic farmers can't produce enough to feed everybody. Some experts contend that organic food production, and in particular the failure to (6)______, will condemn millions worldwide to hunger, malnutrition and starvation because:

  • Yield (total harvest per unit area) for organic farming is lower than (7)_____.
  • Organic farming is not economically or socially viable in poorer countries.

 

ЗАВДАННЯ 2 (PART TWO)

Questions 8 – 12

· All paragraphs (8-12) in this story about historical background of patents are mixed.

· Rearrange these paragraphs into the correct order.

· (2 points for every correct answer)

 

Historical background of patents

(8) A. Patents are also granted to new chemical compounds, foods, and medicinal products, likewise to the processes for producing them. Patents can even be granted to new plant or animal forms developed through genetic engineering.

(9) B. Being first in the innovative field is not always primary as the business world is sometimes rather unfair and cruel to pioneers. In order to protect one’s innovation and introduce any invention one should take some measures to patent it.

(10) C. The first recorded patent for an industrial invention is the one granted in 1421in Florence to the architect and engineer Filippo Brunelleschi. The patent gave him a three-year monopoly on the manufacture of a barge with hoisting gear used to transport marble.

(11) D. It appears that such privileged grants to inventors spread from Italy to other European nations over the next two centuries. In many cases such grants dealt with the importation and establishment of new industries, as in England at the time of Queen Elizabeth I. It soon became apparent that unlimited duration of exclusive rights created unfair monopolies, and in 1623 Parliament enacted the Statute of Monopolies. American Congress passed the first U.S. Patent Statute in 1790. France enacted its patent system the following year. By the end of the 19th century, many countries had patent laws, and today there exist approximately 100 separate jurisdictions regarding patents.

(12) E. Patent is a government grant of the exclusive right to make, use, or sell an invention, usually for a limited period. Patents are granted to new and useful machines, manufactured products, and industrial processes as well as to significant improvements of existing ones.

 

ЗАВДАННЯ 3 (PART THREE)

 

Questions 13 – 23

· Read the article below about chocolate.

· Choose the best word to fill each gap from A, B, Cor Dbelow.

· For each question 13 – 23, mark one letter. .

· There is an example at the beginning, (0)

· (1 point for every correct answer)

 

Chocolate

Chocolate is an excellent (0) C of energy. It also (13) ______ many vitamins and some caffeine. It first became known to Europeans when Spanish conquistadors brought it back from Mexico (14) ______ in the sixteenth century. The word chocolate (15) ______ from the Aztec word xocoatl. The Aztecs consumed it in the (16) ______ of a very bitter drink. In Europe, it was drunk with sugar to (17) ______ it more palatable. Chocolate was popular in Spain and France (18) ______ before it became popular in Britain. The first chocolate shop in London, (19) ______ by a Frenchman, (20) ______ in 1657 but prices were very high and it was not until the nineteenth century, when prices were much lower, that the (21) ______ for chocolate increased in Britain. Until that time chocolate was always made into a drink and not eaten in (22) ______ form but by the middle of the nineteenth century chocolate bars for eating, milk chocolate and chocolate-coated biscuits were all (23) ______ available in shops.

About 50 per cent of the world’s (24) ________ of cocoa beans, from which chocolate is made, comes from Africa and a further 25 per cent from South America. The best quality chocolate has a (25) ________ proportion of cocoa beans, at least 60 per cent, and tastes quite bitter.

 

A means В product С source D sort
A holds В contains С offers D delivers
14. A presently В just C soon D early
15. A comes B develops C changes D gets
16. A custom B shape C style D form
17. A taste B make C enjoy D have
18. A much B greatly C long D mainly
19. A owned B possessed C patronized D maintained
20. A ran B established C opened D set
21. A demand B appeal C order D call
22. A blocked B hard C shaped D solid
23. A largely B completely C totally D    
24. А stock В quantity C supply D amount
25. А great В high C major D big

 

ЧАСТИНА 2 ГРАМАТИКА (GRAMMAR)

Виберіть одну з відповідей A, B, C чи D, яку ви вважаєте вірною з граматичної точки зору.

1. What _____ you doing from 4 till 5 yesterday?

a) will c) having

b) have d) were

2. - Did the delegation leave _____ London yesterday? – Yes. It came to New York.

a) to c) at

b) in d) –

3. My friend _____ go to the cinema a lot.

a) doesn’t c) isn’t

b) don’t d) haven’t

4. - I’ve decided to re-paint this room. - Oh, have you? What color _____ it?

a) will you c) are you going to paint

b) would you paint d) you are going to paint

5. _____ to their new house yet?

a) Have they moved c) Has they moved

b) Did they move d) Has they move

6. John is _____ a ride now.

a) has c) had

b) having d) have

7. There ___ two houses in the English Parliament.

a) has c) were

b) was d) are

8. It _____ warm and fine yesterday.

a) was c) is

b) were d) will

9. There are only a few seats left for _____ tonight’s musical at the theatre.

a) a c) the

b) an d) –

10. She _____ live in Paris during her last years.

a) doesn’t c) don’t

b) didn’t d) wasn’t

11. The weather was so bad. We _______ return home immediately.

a) must c) should

b) had to d) would

12. Is Bob a friend of yours? -No, he isn't. He is a fellow-student of _________.

a) your c) mine

b) my d) me

13. Somebody knocked at the door while a new story __________.

a) had been read c) had being read

b) was read d) was being read

14. That painting _____ by Picasso. It must be a forgery.

a) might be painting c) cannot being painted

b) cannot have been painted d) might not paint

15. He ___________ repair his radio set himself last week.

a) could c) was able to

b) can d) were able to

16. Tom ____ just _____ a well-paid job.

a) was ___ offered c) has ___ been offered

b) had ___been offered d) was being ___ offered

17. Why _______ yet?

a) the letter is not sent c) is the letter not sent

b) hasn’t the letter been sent d) has the letter not sent

18. He _____ from the airport.

a) was collecting c) has been collected

b) was being collected d) will have collect

19. _____ we move into the living room? It's more comfortable in there.

a) Must c) Shall

b) Will d) Might

20. Yesterday I _______ a terrible headache.

a) has c) am

b) have d) had

21. _______ caused a lot of damage.

a) Last weeks storm c) Last week’s storm

b) Last’s week storm d) Last week storm

22. _______is it from here to Kyiv?

a) How far c) How much

b) How long d) How many

23. Kate received a parcel _______ a week ago.

a) send c) sends

b) sending d) sent

24. Coffee is _____ hot!

a) the best c) better

b) best d) good

25. It _____ cold yesterday, _____?

a) be, wasn’t it b) weren’t, was it

c) was, weren’t it d) was, wasn’t it

26. _______ spoken English, we used to go to Hyde Park.

a) To practice c) To practicing

b) For practice d) For to practice

 

 

ЧАСТИНА 3 ПИСЬМО (WRITING)

Дайте розгорнуту відповідь на запитання (не менше 5-6 речень), використовуючи знання лексики, граматики іноземної мови та знання предмету

What are the main components of the foodstuffs?

What is ecology? What ecological problems of the world do you know?

What purposes do people use the internet for?


Бланк відповідей (зразок)

Частина 1, 2

Reading Grammar
1. d 16. b 1. d 16. c
2. a 17. a 2. d 17. b
3. c 18. c 3. a 18. c
4. f 19. d 4. c 19. c
5. g 20. a 5. a 20. d
6. b 21. d 6. b 21. c
7. e 22. d 7. d 22. a
8. b 23. c 8. a 23. d
9. e 24. c 9. c 24. c
10. a 25. b 10. b 25. d
11. c   11. a 26. a
12. d   12. c  
13. b   13. d  
14. a   14. b  
15. d   15. c  

 

Частина 3

1. What are the main components of the foodstuffs? Balanced human diet should include various foodstuffs useful for our health. Proteins, carbohydrates, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals make our food nutritious and healthy. Proteins, for example, are not only necessary for the building of new tissues of living organisms but also for repairing losses. Carbohydrates in food eaten by a person supply people with energy to live, move, perform, work. The importance of fats and fatty acids in human diet is caused by their high energy capability and metabolic stimulus. Vitamins and minerals contained in foodstuffs make our food nutritious, tasty, healthy, prevent people from a lot of diseases, strengthen our immunity system.
2. What is ecology? What ecological problems of the world do you know? Ecology is the study of the relationship of plants and animals to their physical and biological environment. The physical environment includes light and heat or solar radiation, moisture, wind, oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients in soil, water, and atmosphere. The biological environment includes organisms of the same kind as well as other plants and animals. Among the most urgent ecological problems are the ozone layer, acid rains, global warming, toxic pollution of the atmosphere, disappearance of forests, water pollution, contamination of underground water by chemical elements, the greenhouse effect, and shortage of natural resources.
3. What purposes do people use the internet for? Individuals, companies and institutions use the Internet in many ways. Businesses use the Internet to provide access to complex databases, such as financial databases. Companies can carry out commerce online, including advertising, selling, buying, distributing products and providing offer-sales services. Businesses and institutions can use Internet for voice and video conferencing and other forms of communication that allow people to telecommute or work from a distance. The most widely used tool on the Internet is electronic mail (e-mail). E-mail is used to sent written messages between individuals or groups of individuals, often geographically separated by large distance.

 

Зразок білету (Німецька мова)

ЧАСТИНА 1 ЧИТАННЯ (Lesen)

Aufgabe 1

Fragen1-5

· Lesen Sie den Text und füllen Sie die Lücken!

· Wählen Sie Teile der Sätze aus den vorgegebenen Varianten (A-G), die in die Lücken 1-5 passen.

· Es gibt nur eine richtige Lösung.

· Ein Satz am Anfang ist ein Beispiel (0)

 

A elektrische Nachrichten

B und einer Tastatur



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