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Fill in the blanks with the proper words or phrases from the text.
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1. Companies issue … to borrow money.
2. The government was looking for some new ways of … to cover the current budget deficit.
3. Treasury bills … by the Bank of England.
4. This loan is secured … .
5. A treasury bill is .. .
6. Bills of exchange extend a … for a limited time period.
7. Securities are sold and bought … .
8. Shares are issued by … .
9. The government’s concern is a constant control of … .
10. Debentures are … of financing companies.
1. a means 6. against the company assets
2. financial securities 7. business credit
3. a redeemable financial securities 8. raising new capital
4. are issued 9. on the money market
5. joint-stock companies 10. the money supply and the level of interest rates
1. An amount entered on the left-hand side of an account, recording money paid out is …. .
a. debit b. credit c. debtors
2. A book of accounts is …
a. ledger b. stock c. credit
3. … are customers who owe money for goods or services not yet paid for.
a. debtors b. creditors c. debit
4. … is an amount entered on the right-hand side of an account, recording a payment received
a. credit b. debit c. stock
5. … are goods stored ready for sale.
a. stock b. ledger c. credit
6. … are suppliers who are owed money for purchases not yet paid for
a. creditors b. debtors c. ledger
7. If you buy new assets, you ….. the cash or capital account.
a. credit b. debit c. tax
8. If you pay some bills, you ….. the liabilities account.
a. credit b. debit c. capital
9. If you buy materials from a supplier on 60 days’ credit, you ….. the purchases account and credit the supplier’s account.
a. debit b. credit c. cash
10. If you sell something to a customer who will pay 30 days later, you ….. the sales account and debit the customer’s account.
a. credit b. debit c. lend
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11. If you buy materials from a supplier on 60 days’ credit, you debit the purchases account and … the supplier’s account.
a. debit b. credit c. cash
12. If you sell something to a customer who will pay 30 days later, you credit the sales account and … the customer’s account.
a. credit b. debit c. lend
13. An accounting helps … the activity of a business.
a. to measure b. to record c. to profit
14. Do you know the effect of your last … on financial condition of the firm?
a. ownership b. transaction c. efficiency
15. Accounting records provide … for stock-holders, independent analysts.
a. data b. date c. efficiency
16. The second type of ratio helps the company … its current financial position.
a. to evaluate b. to inform c. to establish
17. … is one of two main records which most of the businesses prepare regularly.
a. income statement b. ledger c. record
18. The … of the company includes the real estate in California.
a. assets b. ownership c. capital
19. I am sure of the … of this transaction.
a. profit b. balance c. activity
20. Our company’s current … is very high.
a. efficiency b. efficient c. efficiently
21. They … from the association with that corporation.
a. profit b. win c. get
22. What is the modern money economy based on?
a.Barter deals b. Coins and paper bills c. Exchange of goods
23. What system was used in primitive society?
а. Exchange of cattle for cold b.Barter system c.Exchange of salt, gold and silver
24. Why was barter a very unsatisfactory system of exchange?
a. Because the society recognized shells as having some value
b. It was not easy to exchange a sheep for a cow.
c. Because people’s needs seldom coincided
25. Why did precious metals gradually take over?
a. When made into coins they were portable, durable, divisible
b. Because goods became cheaper
c. Because the numbers on coins showed their value
26. How was monetary worth given to coins?
a. By their shape
b. By the amount of metal contained in them
c. By the picture on the coin
27. In what form do most governments issue paper money now?
a. In the form of dollars b. In the form of bills c. In the form of pounds
28. What kinds of money are being used increasingly?
a. Bills b. Dollars c. Disc-shaped coins
29. What is the system of direct exchange of goods called?
a. Market b. Selling c. Barter
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30. What can we measure value with?
a. Money b. Precious metals c. Checks
31. What is face value of the coin?
a. The value based on the amount of metal in the coin
b. The coin is made of gold which is worth one dollar
c. The value that government chooses to give a coin.
32. European sales account for 30 % of the company’s … .
a. revenue b. salary c. emergency
33. … is the part of a company’s money owned by shareholders.
a. revenue b. balance c. equity capital
34. … is the part of a company’s money that is borrowed and has to be repaid.
a. equity capital b. revenue c. debt capital
35. She used the … from the sale of her old house to buy a new one.
a. proceeds b. capital c. salary
36. Debentures are … of financing companies.
a. a means b. a mean c. meaning
37.That company pays its … every two weeks.
a. employees b. employers c. employs
38. My … has increased 5% this year.
a. payment b. salary c. bonus
39.The company has already paid for a new … campaign.
a. promotional b. promote c. promotes
40.… financing is money that will be used for one year or less.
a. short-term b. long-term c. capital
41.We provide a number of financial …
a. services b. goods c. row materials
42. Federal government charters and … all national banks.
a. supervises b. regulates c. finances
43. Federal government … and supervises all national banks.
a. charters b. regulates c. finances
44.International cooperation between banks makes it possible … imports and exports.
a. to finance b. to supervise c. to charter
45. It is possible to convert American dollars to Swiss francs in … department.
a. finance b. foreign exchange c. operating
46. The … of Germany was the mark.
a. bill b. currency c. coin
47. All … banks make loans to borrowers.
a. commercial b. state c. financial
48. The Federal Reserve Banks are … in the USA which are owned by the state and directed by the Federal Reserve Board.
a. central banks b. private banks c. issuing bank
49. There are two levels in the… of Ukraine.
a. private bank b. investment policy c. issuing bank
50. The National bank of Ukraine is its … .
a. state bank b. national bank c. central bank
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51. A uniform state policy is carried out in the sphere of … .
a. money turnover and credits b. monetary unit c. investment policy
52. The NBU keeps reserve funds of … .
a. monitary units b. raw materials c. banknotes, precious metals and gold
53. The hryvnia is the Ukraine’s … .
a. monetary policy b. monetary unit c. mobile unit
54. One of the functions of the NBU is … .
a. to supervise commercial banks b. to provide commercial banks c. to invest commercial banks
55. Commercial banks … the national economy with cash and settlement services.
a. provide b. supervise c. issue
56. The bank exercises a clever … .
a. investment policy b. foreign policy c. domestic policy
57.At the very beginning of the year the government … a new tax on services.
a. levied b. paid c. sold
58. VAT is one of the … that raises a lot of objections.
a. indirect taxes b. direct taxes c. financial securities
59. … can be achieved by redistributing income and wealth.
a. social equity b. social security c. social standard
60. Taxes are also levied … from imports.
a. to protect foreign producers b. to protect domestic producers c. to protect domestic consumers
61. A special department in charge of taxation in Ukraine is called … .
a. the Inland Revenue b. the Internal Revenue Service c. the State Taxation Administration
62. … is an illegal way of minimization of taxes.
a. Tax evasion b. Tax avoidance c. Tax distribution
63. … is not a crime in contrast with “tax evasion”.
a. Tax cancelation b. Tax avoidance c. Tax distribution
64. … is responsible for assessing individual and corporate taxation liabilities in the UK.
a. the Inland Revenue b. the Internal Revenue Service c. the State Taxation Administration
65. … are assessed by the Internal Revenue Service in the USA.
a. Taxation liability b. corporation liability c. company assets
66. Government spending is financed with … on personal and business income.
a. the receipts b. the expenditure from taxes c. the receipts from sale
67. Companies issue … to borrow money.
a. financial securities b. interest rate c. new capital
68. The government was looking for some new ways of … to cover the current budget deficit.
a. reducing new capital b. raising new capital c. limiting new capital
69. Treasury bills … by the Bank of England.
a. are issued b. are printed c. are organized
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70. This loan is secured … .
a. for the company assets b. against the company activity c. against the company assets
71. A treasury bill is .. .
a. redeemable financial security b. financial loan c. bill of exchange
72. Bills of exchange extend a … for a limited time period.
a. long term-capital b. business credit c. budget deficits
73. Securities are sold and bought … .
a. green market b. money market c. supermarket
74. Shares are issued by … .
a. join-stock companies b. family-owned companies c. private companies
75. The government’s concern is a constant control of … .
a. money supply b. demand c. supply and demand
76.If you want your wife to withdraw money from your account, you can give her …
a. a permission b. an allowance c. power of attorney
77.If you want a cheque-book, you can open … in a bank.
a. An account a current account certificate of deposite
78.All values in the economic system are measured in terms of … .
a. value b. money c. price
79. Money is used for buying or selling ….
a. foodstuffs b. manufactured goods c. goods
80. Money is used as a means of measuring of the… of goods.
a. cost b. value c. quality
81. Money is a means of … goods.
a. storing up b. exchanging c. saving
82. . … are produced of different metals.
a. money b. banknotes c. coins
83. A current account pays no … but it has other advantages.
a. discount b. interest c. percent
84.A lot of people … their money in banks.
a. keep b. withdraw c. take out
85.To open a current account it is necessary to see the … .
a. manager b. clerk c. accountant
86. A current account … people to keep their money in a safe place.
a. enables b.disables c. makes
87. I’d like to… some money in my account, please.
a. take out b. invest c. exchange
88.A deposit account … interest for the customer.
a. pays out b. blocks c. earns
89.Commercial banks … commercial services to a wide range of … .
a. offer b. acquire c. earn
90.What kind of … have you opened?
a. service b. account c. investment
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91.In banks you can open current or deposit … .
a. services b. accounts c. investments
92.I’ve recently … a small amount of capital.
a. inquired b. acquired c. purchased
93. … is a particular type of money used in a state.
a. rate b. pounds c. money
94.… is a place where people can buy and sell goods.
a. Bank b. Store c. Market
95. Fare is money for ………
a. Study b. lawyer c. travel
96. The government collects money through…..
a. shares b. wages c. taxes
97. Please, … this form in the places I’ve marked.
a. signature b. sign c. read
98. I can block some of my capital, but I’d like the rest … at short notice.
a. available b. fixed c. left
99. Is there any … to the amount I can withdraw at any one time?
a. permission b. limitation c. obligation
100.… on a current account is only 0,5 %.
a. a discount b. a reduction c. an interest
101.Buying … of money is changed very fast today.
a. possibility b. power c. opportunity
102. What kind … account are you interested in?
a. for b. with c. of
103. What is the difference … the accounts?
a. among b. between c. of
104. You would be charged … banking services.
a. of b. for c. by
105. I’ll get any money … machine service.
a. through b. by c. with
106. You shouldn’t fall … this limit otherwise you’ll be charged 5 dollars a month for banking services.
a. down b. up c. below
107. You’d have to pay a service charge … six dollars.
a. for b. of c. with
108. Can I avoid a service charge … somehow?
a. of b. by c. –
109. It may be done … keeping 1000 dollars in your checking account.
a. by b. with c. of
110. And now fill … this application.
a. - b. in c. on
111. What kind of account are you interested … ?
a. on b. in c. for
112. The money used in a certain country is called … .
a. currency b. note c. a banknote
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113. Money paid monthly by an employer is a …
a. bonus b. salary c. fee
114. Repayments of money borrowed to buy a house or a flat are called … .
a. mortgages b. commissions c. wages
115. … is money paid to finance government spending.
a. loan b. tax c. a salary
116. … is money paid by a company or the government to a retired person.
a. salary b. social payments c. a pension
117. … is money spent on everyday needs such as food, clothes and public transport.
a. living expenses b. fees c. overtime
118. After I lost my job, I was living on … for three months.
a. fare b. social security c. tax
119. If the company makes 10 % more than last year, we’ll all get a … at the end of the year.
a. bonus b. wages c. overtime
120. It’ll take me at least 25 years to repay the … on my house.
a. rent b. mortgage c. commission
121. Many European countries now have the same currency …
a. the euro b. the dollar c. the Hryvnya
122. My wages aren’t very good, so I do a lot of … .
a. currency b. overtime c. mortgage
123. All the money coming into a company during a given period is …
a. revenue b. profits c. income
124. We don’t have sufficient … to build a completely new factory.
a. commissions b. fees c. borrow
125. We’re going to pay back some of the people who lent us money, and reduce our … .
a. dividends b. debt c. credit
126. Details of a company’s liabilities are shown on the …
a. balance b. profit c. expenses
127. … is the day-to-day recording transactions.
a. bookkeeping b. accounting c. accountancy
128. An amount entered on the left-hand side of an account, recording money paid out is …
a. credit b. debit c. ledger
129. A book of accounts is … .
a. stock b. ledger c. debit
130. Customer who owe money for goods or services not yet paid for …
a. debtors b. creditors c. ledgers
131. Goods stored ready for sale …
a. stock b. debit c. credit
132. Suppliers who are owed money for purchases not yet paid for …
a. creditors b. debtors c. owner
133. … means making money by selling goods and services.
a. financing b. investing c. operations
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134. It’s better for the company if it can pay for future growth out of money from …
a. investing b. financing c. operations
135. … involves raising money by issuing stocks and bonds (and also paying dividends and interest and repaying bonds).
a. investing b. financing c. operations
136. Which is the cheapest way for a company to raise money?
a. a bank loan b. an ordinary bond c. a convertible
137. Life insurance is also a way to … money and pay less tax.
a. save b. tow c. borrow
138. If you buy new assets, you … the cash or capital account.
a. debit b. credit c. ledge
139. If you pay some bills, you … the liabilities account.
a. salary b. debit c. credit
140. Revenue minus of cost of sales and operating expenses, such as rent and salaries is known as …
a. profit, earnings b. dividend c. tax
141. We … our suppliers $ 100 000 for goods bought on credit.
a. loans b. tax c. bonus
142. The money paid for a journey is a …
a. fare b. fee c. discount
143. … is a better investment as it gives a higher interest.
a. saving account b. deposit account c. current account
144. … gives you the possibility of having all your money at your immediate disposal.
a. current account b. saving account c. deposit account
145. In primitive societies a system of … was used.
a. plastic money b. money c. barter
146. Barter was a very … system because people’s precise needs seldom coincided .
a. satisfactory b. excellent c. unsatisfactory
147. Banks are … in different countries.
a. the same b. similar c. different
148. In the importer buys … from another country he will pay for it in the currency of this country.
a. charter b. currency c. merchandise
149. The commercial banks in USA are classified into … main groups.
a. two b. three c. five
150. State banks are charted and supervised by the … .
a. state in which they are operated b. government c. state in which they are not operated
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1. The Senate and the House of Representatives … approve a bill for it to become a law.
a. had to b. has to c. is to
2. Excuse me, … you tell me the way to the National Bank, please?
a. could b. may c. should
3. These contracts … by the manager today.
a. should be signed b. is signed c. was signed
4. You … many questions at the conference tomorrow.
a. weren’t asked; b. won’t be asked; c. didn’t asked.
5. In more than 200 years the USA Constitution … 26 times.
a. is amended; b. is being amended; c. has been amended
6. A secretary…. three letters up to now.
a. wrote; b. have written; c. has written
7. It was the first time Mr. Klimenko … to your country.
a. was; b. has been; c. had been
8. Mr. Reeds was here a few minutes ago, but he … now.
a. went; b. has gone; c. had gone
9. There are no buses or taxis, so we … walk.
a. have to; b. must; c. had to
10. Tom’s chief told him that he … ask silly questions.
a. couldn’t; b. mightn’t; c. hadn’t
11. I … go to the bank yesterday to get some money.
a. must; b. have to; c. had to
12. I’m afraid offer … be accepted as the price is extremely high.
a. may not; b. can; c. can’t.
13. Passengers … come to the airport an hour before the take-off time.
a. must; b. has to; c. can;
14. The contract … with great interest.
a. are looked through b. were looked through c. was looked through
15. What … on this side of the river?
a. is being built; b. had been built; c. were being built.
16. At that moment a very interesting question … and everybody was listening to it attentively.
a. are being discussed; b. were being discussed; c. was being discussed.
17. What … to the stuff when you joined them?
a. is being explained; b. are being explained; c. was being explained.
18. He … this news before he left.
a. are being told; b. were being told; c. had been told.
19.Mr. Clark … in a bank for 15 years already.
a. worked; b. had worked; c. has been worked.
21. She … do this work next week.
a. ought; b. was able to; c. will be able to.
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22. According to the contract the goods … be delivered at the end of August.
a. ought; b. may; c. are to.
23. I … stay in the office tomorrow to look through the contract.
a. may; b. will have to; c. ought
24. The clerk said that the plane … arrive in 2 hours.
a. has to; b. had to; c. is to
25. The secretary said that the manager … receive Mr. Brown only in the afternoon.
a. will be able to; b. would be able to; c. had to
26.I don’t know Carol’s employer. I ……… him.
a. didn’t meet; b. have never met; c. had never met
27. I’ll give you several price lists so that you … look them through at home.
a. might; b. may; c. have to.
28.You … have taken your luggage to the station beforehand.
a. should; b. ought; c. can;
29.The Ukrainian delegation … at the railway station by thousands of people.
a. were met; b. have been met; c. was met.
30. This method of payment … by our company.
a. were used; b. is used; c. were being used.
31. This question … by the Committee.
a. must be discussed; b. should to be discussed; c. have to be discussed.
32.I think that you … to this conference.
a. are sent; b. will be sent; c. has been sent.
33. I thought that he … to take part in this work.
a. will be asked; b. were asked; c. would be asked
34. Different assets … using money.
a. can be exchanged b. can be exchanging c. can exchange
35. The old and torn banknote … … anywhere but in the bank.
a. didn’t accept b. were not accepted c. was not accepted
36. For a long time the money reserve …… untouched and finally was used to finance the development project.
a. had been held b. was held c. were held
37. The level of spending in the economy … … by its money supply.
a. has determined b. are determined c. is determined
38. A new road … to join two cities as the old one is always too busy.
a. is being built b. was being built c. are being built
39. He hoped to … and did his best for that.
a. be promoted b. was promoted c. will be promoted
40. Nick’s office … at present, so John has to share his with Nick.
a. was being redecorated b. is being redecorated c. has been redecorated
41. The police … about the cases.
a. was reported b. were reported c. is reported
42. The hryvnia … currently.
a. is being strenghthened b. was being strengthened c. were being strengthened
43. Banknotes, precious metals, gold and currencies … by the NBU as its reserve fund.
a. was kept b. are kept c. has been kept
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44. Money … as a means of payment.
a. is accepted b. were accepted c. have been accepted
45. Money … to measure and record the value of products.
a. were used b. are being used c. is used
46. The car … above the market.
a. has been priced b. have been priced c. priced
47. I … a very nice present on my birthday.
a. is given b. was given c. gave
48. It was 2000 and I knew that you … in Poltava.
a. lived b. was living c. had lived
49. Why did you think that I … for you then?
a. am waiting b. were waiting c. was waiting
50. They were informed that the cargo … .
a. has arrived b. had arrived c. arrived
51. She said that she … her purse.
a. has lost b. lost c. had lost
52. The director said that he … just … on the phone.
a. have been speaking b. had been speaking c. was speaking
53. Mother said that it … for some time and asked me to put on my raincoat.
a. was raining b. rained c. had been raining
54. Nobody suspected that it … for 2 hours.
a. had been raining b. was raining c. has raining
55. He said that he … her when he was in London.
a. had seen b. saw c. were seeing
56. We hoped that they … when we rang them up.
a. was working b. were working c. had been working
57. I was sure that she … Lviv after she graduated from the academy.
a. has left b. left c. was left
58. Я подзвоню тобі, якщо знайду його адресу.
a. I would phone you, if I found his address. B. I will phone you, if I find his address. C. I would have phoned you, if I have found his address.
59. Якби я зараз мав час, я б допоміг тобі.
a. If I have time, I will help you. b. If I had time, I would have helped you. c. If I had time now, I would help you.
60. Якби ти зателефонував мені вчора, я б позичив тобі гроші.
a. If you phoned me yesterday, I would lend you money. b. If you had phoned me yesterday, I would have lent you money. c. If you phone me, I will lend you money.
61. Він би почував себе краще, якби приймав ліки від кашлю.
a. He will feel better if he takes cough medicine. b. He would feel better if he took cough medicine. c. He would have felt better if he took cough medicine.
62. Ми б не запізнилися на поїзд, якби взяли таксі.
a. We will not be late for the train, if we take a taxi. b. We wouldn’t be late for the train, if we took a taxi. C. We wouldn’t have been late for the train, if we had taken a taxi.
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63. Якби я мав вільний час зараз, я б пішов у театр.
a. If I have free time now, I will go to the theatre. B. If I had free time now, I would go to the theatre. C. If I had had free time now, I would have gone to the theatre.
64. Ти б не зробив так багато, якби вивчив граматичні правила вчора.
a. You won’t make so many mistakes, if you learn grammar rules. B. You wouldn’t make so many mistakes, if you learnt grammar rules yesterday. C. You wouldn’t have made so many mistakes, if you had learnt grammar rules yesterday.
65. Якби ти прийшов до мене в офіс сьогодні увечері, ми б відповіли на цей лист разом.
a. If you came to may office tonight, we would answer this letter together.
b. If you had come to my office tonight, we would have answered this letter together. c. If you come to my office tonight, we will answer this letter together.
66. Якби я не загубив ключі, я б прийшов раніше.
a. If I don’t lose the keys, I will come earlier. b. If I didn’t lose the keys, I would come earlier. c. If I hadn’t lost the keys, I would have come earlier.
67. Якби я отримав твою телеграму, я б зустрів тебе в аеропорту.
a. If I receive your telegram, I will meet you at the airport. b. If I received your telegram, I would meet you at the airport. c. If I had received your telegram, I would have met you at the airport.
68. These flowers are great. – They … to me yesterday by one of my fans.
a. were sent b. was sent c. will be sent
69. Have you ever appeared on TV? – Actually, I … to take part in a show.
a. have been asked b. was asked c. has been asked
70. When will I have my car? – It … to your house the day after tomorrow.
a. was delivered b. will be delivered c. has been delivered
71. So, when did they tell you about the robbery?- I … by the police as soon as they found out.
a. was informed b. have been informed c. will be informed
72. Why can’t we go over the bridge? – Because it … at the moment.
a. is being repaired b. was being repaired c. was repared
73. I’m tired. – So am I. But these reports must … before we leave.
a. is typed b. was typed c. be typed
74. Who looks after your baby when you’re at work? – Well, he … by my mother.
a. are looked after b. is looked after c. was looked after
75. Those pictures are beautiful. – They … by my father while he was on holiday last summer.
a. were painted b. will be painted c. have been painted
76. Who does the washing-up in your house? – The dishes … by my brother and then they are dried by my sister.
a. is washed b. was washed c. are washed
77. Why can’t I use your car? – Because it … at the moment. You can take Mum’s car if you want.
a. is serviced b. is being served c. was being served
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78. Did you post the letters? – No, they … by the time I came in.
a. had been posted b. are being posted c. have posted
79. What will happen to the criminals? – They … for their crimes.
a. are punished b. were punished c. will be punished
80. That’s a very pretty tablecloth. – It … to me last year for my birthday.
a. was given b. gave c. were given
81. Have you moved house yet? – Yes. The last boxes … .
a. have been moved b. has been moved c. were moved
82. Have you heard about Jack? – Yes, he … to senior manager.
a. has promoted b. has been promoted c. promoted
83. The professor said that the government receipts from taxes … considerably.
a. increased b. have increased c. had increased
84. The professor explained that the taxes from expenditure … VAT.
a. include b. included c. were including
85. The professor informed us that their efforts to raise revenue to finance government spending … eventually … good results.
a. will bring b. would bring c. brings
86. The professor said that in his youth he … very little about the difference between tax avoidance and fax evasion.
a. knew b. had known c. has known
87. The professor believed that the tax administration … currently … the firm’s taxation liability.
a. is assessing b. was assessing c. assessed
88. The professor informed us that the government … a new policy to protect domestic producers from imports.
a. has worked out b. had worked out c. works out
89. The professor believed that the income tax … next year.
a. will change b. would change c. changed
90. We were informed that the conference on the problems of taxation … its work in a few days.
a. will begin b. would begin c. began
91. He thought I … joking.
a. was b. am c. will be
92. I noticed that he … the office.
a. has already left b. had already left c. already left
93. I was sure that we … this game.
a. will win b. would win c. win
94. He wasn’t sure that the business partners … to sign the agreement.
a. will agree b. would agree c. agree
95. They informed us that they … raise the prices!
a. have to b. had to c. must
96. The competitors couldn’t believe that we … the prices.
a. have reduced b. had reduced c. reduce
97. We were informed that all the bills … by the end of the previous month.
a. had been settled b. have been settled c. settled
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98. He asked whether the bank … him a loan.
a. could give b. can give c. will give
99. My boss asked me whether I … through the e-mail correspondence.
a. have looked b. had looked c. looked
100. The boss asked me if I … my job.
a. enjoy b. enjoyed c. have enjoyed.
101. Jack told me that he … the next day.
a. is leaving b. was leaving c. leaves
102. Why didn’t you ask me? If you … me, I’d have reserved a room for you.
a. asked b. ask c. had asked
103. If I … him, I’ll give him my new address.
a. saw b. see c. had seen
104. If you … a loan, you would be able to buy this house.
a. take out b. took out c. had taken out
105. If you … money, you’ll be able to go to Italy on holidays.
a. save b. saved c. have saved
106. If I … rich, I’d buy this car.
a. am b. was c. were
107. If he … a good manager, he would have been promoted.
a. is b. was c. were
108. If he … to my advice, he wouldn’t have made this mistake.
a. listen b. listened c. had listened
109. If I … this newspaper, you’ll read the article about his invention.
a. find b. found c. have found
110. What … if you told her the truth?
a. would she say b. will she say c. does she say
111. If I … you, I’d try to find another job.
a. was b. were c. had been
112. If you … the direction correctly, you wouldn’t have last your way.
a. followed b. follow c. had followed
113. If you … me, I’ll give you her telephone number.
a. phone b. phoned c. had phoned
114. We’ll sign the contract tomorrow, if our business partner … on time.
a. arrive b. will arrive c. arrived
115. If you … the latest news, you would have known about this accident.
a. watch b. watched c. had watched
116. If your manager … here, I’d speak to him.
a. was b. were c. had been
117. If the driver … the sign, he would have stopped the car.
a. see b. saw c. had seen
118. If he … late again, he’ll lose his job.
a. comes b. came c. will come
119. You would have had better results, if you … harder.
a. work b. worked c. had worked
120. If I … the lottery, I would help my parents.
a. win b. won c. will win
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121. What would you do if you … your job?
a. lose b. will lose c. last
122. If they … the contract carefully they wouldn’t have signed it.
a. study b. studied c. had studied
123. I’m thirsty. I … for two hours.
a. have run b. have been running c. am running
124. … Kate and Alice enjoy going to the theatre.
a. Both b. Neither c. All
125. This is the park … I take my dog every afternoon.
a. where b. what c. which
126. The children are tired. I think they … to bed early tonight.
a. are going b. will go c. go
127. Alice … to Japan four times so far.
a. has gone b. has been going c. has been
128. … his boss let him leave early?
a. Shall b. Must c. Will
129. Jack is in a hurry. He … his boss in twenty minutes and he has to be on time.
a. will meet b. is meeting c. meets
130. My husband painted our house all by … .
a. himself b. him c. his
131. The bus drivers were on strike yesterday, but Alex … get to work.
a. was able to b. has been able to c. could
132. Robert … lunch when his uncle phoned.
a. was having b. has had c. had
133.You … buy any biscuits because we’ve got lots already.
a. could b. needn’t c. can’t
134.You … telephone your uncle tomorrow. He wants to speak to you.
a. must b. are able to c. can’t
135.You … play ball games near the windows.
a. don’t have to b. needn’t c. can’t
136.… I speak to you in my office, please?
a. Can’t b. Must c. Could
137.He … speak two languages when he was ten years old.
a. needn’t b. could c. may
138.Martha … leave hospital yesterday.
a. can’t b. can c. was able to
139.I … remember to go to the bank. I haven’t got any money.
a. don’t have to b. needn’t c. must
140.… I take your order, please?
a. Mustn’t b. Must c. May
141.… you ride a bicycle?
a. Can b. Should c. May
142. Steven … read and write until he was seven years old.
a. must b. could c. couldn’t
143.… you make dinner tonight?
a. Shall b. Will c. May
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144. Susan, … you come outside and play with me?
a. will b. shall c. may
145. You … go to bed late during the week.
a. couldn’t b. shall c. shouldn’t
146. You … visit your grandparents more often.
a. ought to b. were able to c. shall
147. … we go to the cinema at the weekend?
a. Mustn’t b. May c. Shall
148. “Where … we meet?” “At my place”.
a. must b. shall c. ought to
149.James … when Wendy came into the room.
a. was sleeping b. slept c. has been sleeping
150. I think I … go to university when I leave school, but I’m not sure yet.
a. should b. will c. am going
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The US dollar is made up of 100 cents. The “Department of the Treasury prints bills (= paper money) in various denominations (= values): $1, $2, $5, $ 10, $20, $50 and $100. US bills are all the same size, whatever their value, and measure about 2•6 inches (6.5 on 15.5 centimeters). All are green and so are sometimes called greenbacks. On the front, each has the picture of a famous American. The dollar bill, for instance, shows George Washington, the first US president. An informal name for dollars is bucks, because in the early period of US history people traded the skins of bucks (=deer) and prices would sometimes be given as a number of buckskins
The Treasury also makes US coins: pennies which are worth. 01 of a dollar, nickels (.0,5), dimes (.10) and quarters (.25). There is also half-dollar (.50) and silver dollars but these are not often seen. Pennies have a dark brown colour; all the other coins have a silver appearance.
When you write an amount in figures the dollar sign ($) goes to the left of the amount and a decimal point (.) is placed between the dollars and the cents (=hundredths of a dollar). If the amount is less than one dollar, the cent sign (0) is put after the numbers. So you write $5, $5.62, and $62ỷ.
Britain’s currency is the pound sterling, written as £ before a figure. A pound consists of 100 pence, written as d with figures. Pound coins are round and gold-coloured. They have the Queen’s head on one side and one of four designs, English, Scottish, Welsh or Northern Irish, on the other. The £2 coins is silver-coloured with a gold edge. Coins of lower value are the silver-coloured 50 d, 20 d, 10 d and 5 d pieces, and the copper-coloured 2 p and 1 p pieces. All are round, except for the 50 d and 20 d pieces which have seven curved sides. Coins are made at the “Royal Mint. Paper notes (not bills), which have the Queen’s head on one side and a famous person, e.g. Charles “Dickens, on the other, are worth £ 5, £10, £20 or £50.
A pound is informally called a quid, a £ 5 note is a fiver, and £ 10 note is a tenner. Scottish banknotes have their own designs. They can be used anywhere in Britain, though shops can legally refuse to accept them. To prevent people forging (=making their own) paper money, designs are complicated and difficult to copy. To check that a note is genuine, a shop assistant may hold it up to the light to see if it has a narrow silver thread running through it.
The decimal system now in use in Britain replaced the old pounds, shillings and pence, or *LSD, system in 1971. Formerly there were 12 pence or pennies in a shilling and 20 shillings in a pound. Many people regretted the loss of the old system and for many years translated decimal prices into old money.
Gold guinea coins were used in the 18th century and were worth 21 shillings. Until 1971 prices were often set in guineas instead of pounds for luxury items, such
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as fur coats, for the fees of doctors, lawyers, etc., and at auction, though the guinea coin had long since gone out of circulation. Some racehorses are still auctioned in guineas.
On 1 January 1999 the euro was introduced in the 11 countries of the European Union which supported monetary union. Britain chose not to be part of this group. Euro banknotes and coins will not be in circulation until 2002.
Answer the questions:
1. Why dollars sometimes called “greenbacks”?
2. What is shown on the front of a dollar?
3. What is the origin of the informal name for dollars?
4. What coins are there on the USA? What is their value? What is the value of the US bills?
5. Where is the dollars sign placed when you write an amount in figures?
6. What does a pound consist of in Great Britain?
7. What is shown on the sides of British pounds?
8. What coins are there on Britain? Are they of the same colour?
9. What is the value of the British notes?
10. What are the informal words for British money?
11. How can a note be checked if it is genuine or false?
12. When was the decimal money system introduced in Great Britain?
13. When were gold guineas used in Britain? What goods and service could be bought by guineas?
People now pay less often in cash or even by cheque for goods. Most use credit cards or debit cards, informally called “plastic”, for anything that costs more than a few dollars or pounds. Credit cards are swiped (=passed through an electronic device that reads them) if the owner is present. But people can also give their card details over the telephone or the Internet. Some people worry about this in case somebody finds out the number and uses it dishonestly. Cash or change is still needed to buy small items, put in parking meters, etc. A few older people prefer to keep money in their house, traditionally under the bed, rather than put it in a bank.
British people rarely haggle (=negotiate the price of something) and almost always pay the full price. They find it embarrassing to haggle even when in country where this custom is widely accepted. But some find it fun and, like all British people, love to believe they have bought a bargain (=something costing less than it is worth).
Americans like to choose how much to spend on things. They look for discount stores and outlet malls (=shops that have low prices all the time), wait to buy something until it is on sale (=the price is reduced for a period), or use coupons (=special advertisements that give money off products if they are handed over when
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the items are bought).
People have mixed feelings about money and its importance. Many older people, who had less money and fewer possessions when hey were younger, believe that society has become too materialistic (=attaching more value to money and possessions than to moral values). Younger people worry less about the negative influence of money and point out that, in the words of a popular song, “Money makes the world go round”. Americans especially see money as powerful but dangerous and they believe the phrase “money talks” (=if you have enough money, people pay attention to you), but also that “love of money is the root of all evil”.
Answer the questions:
1. What was paying in cash and by cheque replaced by?
2. Can credit cards be accepted only by an electronic device?
3. Do British people like to a bargain (to haggle)? What about Americans?
4. What do people think about the importance of money?
BANKS AND BANKING
In Britain, the central bank, which acts as banker for the state and for commercial banks, is the Bank of England. The Governor of the bank of England advises the government on financial matters. Since 1997, the Bank has set national interest rates (=the cost of borrowing money). It is also responsible for issuing banknotes.
The main commercial banks, called clearing banks or high-street banks, are the National Westminster (Nat West), Barclays, Lloyds TSB and HSBC (Midland). These are known as the “big four” and have branches in most towns. Former building societies that became banks in the mid 1990s, such as the Abbey National and the Halifax, now complete with them for customers.
In the US there are over 14000 different commercial banks. This is because banks are prevented by law from operating in more than one state. Some banks get round this rule by forming holding companies which own banks with the same names in different states. Unlike British banks, American banks are banks of deposit and credit and do not build up capital. Banking is dominated by large money center banks, such as Chase Manhattan, which raise money by dealing in the international money markets and lend it to businesses and other banks.
The Us central bank is the Federal Reserve Bank, often called the Fed. In addition to the national Fed, there are 12 regional ones. The Fed tells commercial banks how much money they must keep in reserve and decides what rate of interest to charge when lending them money. This affects the rate of interest the commercial banks charge their customers. The Fed does not issue money: dollar bills (=banknotes) and coins are issued by the Department of the Treasury.
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Answer the questions:
1. What is the central bank in England?
2. What are the main functions of the Bank of England?
3. How are the commercial banks called?
4. Why is there a great number of commercial banks in the USA?
5. How do the American banks differ from the British ones?
6. How is the central bank of the USA called?
7. What are the central bank obligations?
8. Does the Fed issue money?
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