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Франко-прусская война (причины и последствия)
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Смысловое и механическое запоминание, их место и роль в усвоении знаний
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Образцы текста публицистического стиля
Четыре типа изменения баланса
Задачи с ответами для Всероссийской олимпиады по праву
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Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
English En-ment. 3 periods of the En-ment lit-re. Early En-ment.
It was an age of intensive industrial development. The industrial revolution began: new machinery was invented that turned Britain into the 1st capitalist power of the world. Development of science & culture. Isaac Newton's discovery in physics, Adam Smith's economic theories, Engl. painting began to develop: works of W. Hogarth, J. Reynolds, T. Gainsborough. The 17& 18c. are known in the history European culture as the period of En-ment. The En-ners defended the interests of the common people. The central problem of the En-ment ideology- man &his nature. They believed in reason as well as in man's inborn goodness, rejected the religious idea of the sinful nature of man. The En-ers believed in the powerful educational value of art. In E. the period of En-ment followed the bourgeois revol., in other countries it came before the revol. (the French Bourgeois Revolution took place at the end of the 18c)→ the aims of the E. En-ers were not as revolutionary as those of F. En-nt. Some En-ers spoke in defence of existing order- moderates ( D. Defoe, J. Addison, R. Steele, S. Richardson). Others- radicals, wanted more democracy in the ruling of the country. They defended the interests of the masses( J. Swift, H. Fielding, O. Goldsmith, R. Sheridan). Poetic forms of the Renaissance were replaced by prose. Moralizing novel- leading genre of the period. Main characters- ordinary people.These characters were rewarded or punished at the end of the novel. By these means En-ers hoped to improve the morals of the people. The En-ment in English lit-re is divided into 3 periods: 1) Early En-ment (1688- 1740).Devel. of publicism. Leading genre-essay. Leading publicists-J.Addison, R.Steele- worked together. Produced 2 periodicals:”Spectator”, “Tatler”.Dominant style-neoclassical. Neoclas. Poetry was characterised by precision, plain or elevated in style,serious. Appearance of the novel. 1st novelists – realists(D.Defoe-adventure & satirical novel, J.Swift- allegorical satirical novel). D.D.-“Robinson Crusoe” – based on real events: one sailor quarreled with the captain of the ship & he put him on island where he lived alone.Main idea-philosophical. Human being is capable of creating great things with the help of common sense & labour. “Mall Flanders”,”Roxana”-devoted to woman. He wrote over 500 books, pamphlets,& journals on various topics( politics, crime, religion, marriage, psychology & the supernatural). He was pioneer of economic journalism. J.S.”Guliver’s travel”- consists of 4 parts, author describes the vouages of G.to dif. Imaginary countries. Book contains sharp criticism of GB, its domestic & foreign policy, parliament, courts. At the end of the novel G. avoids humans & spends all time with horses. A lot of topics raised-criticism of pseudoscience. Allegory-“Tale of a tub”. A. Pope- poet, author of philosophical & political essays. Translated Sh’s sonnets. “An essay of man”, “An essay of criticism”. Criticized women-writers. 2)Mature En-ment(1740-1750) 3)Late En-ment(1750-1780)
8. Mature & Late En-ment.
Mature Enl.(1740-1750)- the social moralizing novel was born in this period. It was represented by the works of such writers as Samuel Richardson (Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded, Clarissa, or the History of a Young Lady), Henry Fielding (The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling & other novels), and Tobias Smollett (The Expedition of Humphrey Clinker & other novels). S. Richardsonintroduced a new genre-epistolary novel(letters of correspondence). Is best known for his 3 epistolary novels: Pamela: Or, Virtue Rewarded (1740), Clarissa: Or the History of a Young Lady (1748) and Sir Charles Grandison (1753). Richardson had been an established printer and publisher. At the age of 51 he wrote his 1st novel & became very popular. “Pamela or virtue is rewarded” – main hero-Pamela Andrews-a servant of a rich lady & her son began to flirt with her. She was very moral & made him respect her feelings, he falls in love with her,they married,she became a lady. The novel of this time was very didactic. Pamela was moral & she was rewarded. Style i9s emotional. “Clarissa: Or the History of a Young Lady”- very long(5 times longer as typical novel). A tragic novel.Clarissa was kind & beautiful. Her family wanted her to marry with man whom she didn’t love. At that time appeared a young handsome man- Lovelace. He suggested her to flee with him. Then she died. Her father killed him. The moral- Cl. disobeyed her parents & was punished. H. Fielding(1707-1750) – started as playwright.Wrote comedies, even farces. Criticized the policy of ruling classes, corruption. Wrote 25 comedies.He made many enemies by criticizing & was persecuted. Started to write novels.The parody for “Pamela”- “Shamela”-she is antihero, she is open in her behavior, writes letters to men. “The history of Tom Jones,a Foundling”-hero- a charming, kind-hearted man had a number of adventures & meets many people of all classes. Late Enl.(sentimentalism)-1750-1780 The writers of this period the democratic bourgeois tendencies of their time. They considered feelings (or sentiments) most imp. The repr. of sentimentalism in the genre of the novel- Oliver Goldsmith(The Vicar of Wakefield) and Lawrence Sterne (Tristram Shandy, The Sentimental Journey)& in drama Richard Sheridan (School for Scandal & other plays). L.Sterne- the father of modernism. His famous novel- “The life & opinion of Tristram Shandy”. Tr.Sh.- 5year old boy, we met the main hero only in 2nd part of the novel. L-ge –mixture of dif.l-ges(many Latin words). More sentimental novel- “The Sentimental Journey through France & Italy”- autobiographic, based on author experience. O. Goldsmith – his novel “The vicar of Wakefield”- tragic story with happy end. Novel contains some poems which humorous & satiric.(“The allegory of the death of a mad dog” – respectable man was bitten by mad dog & dog died. O.G. wanted to replace sent-m by humour. He wanted to use everyday l-ge, but in the period of sent. it was considered low.
9.Romanticism.The older generation of romantics. W. Blake. “Lake poets”-S. Coleridge,W. Wordsworth
Covers ~30 years(end of 18c-1830). Rom. in lit-re – a reaction of dif. classes of society to French Bourgeois Revolution. Economic & social changes took place in E. – industrial revol. New class appeared- proletariat. People destroyed waving machines- Luddite movement (because they left jobless). Ruling class of E. was against any progressive thought influenced by Fr. Rev.→”white terror” progressive-minded people were persecuted. In the centre of the period-romantic poet. He is young, poor, unrecognized,talented,who dies in early age. The romanticists paid great attention to the spiritual life of man. This was reflected in an abundance of lyrical verse. Great attention was dedicated to Nature & its elements. The description became very rich in form & many-sided in contents. The writers used such means as symbolics, fantasy, grotesque; legends, tales, songs & ballads became part of their creative method.The romanticists were talented poets & their contribution to E. lit-re was very imp. Rom. Were against industrialisation→they run away from city. 2 generations of Romant.: old( S.Coleridge, W.Blake, W.Wordsworth) & young( G.Byron, P. Shalley, J.Keats). Old gen. was inspired by the ideas of F.Rev.Then they saw the terror of rev., were disappointed, turned their attention to nature, they looked back to patriarchal E.& refused to accept the progress of industry. Among them- S.Coleridge, W.Blake, W.Wordsworth who formed the “Lake School” as they lived for a time in Lake District in n-w of E. The "Lake" poets resorted to popular forms of verse, that were known &could be understood by all. W. Blake(1757-1820)- his poetry is full of images. He saw visions& drew inspiration of his visions. He published sev. collect. of poems: “Songs of innocence”1787 he published & illustrated them himself. The atmosphere of poem- idyllic.It’s about imaginary world where no troubles. Next collect.- darker in moods.S. Coleridge,W. Wordsworth understood romant. in 2 dif. ways: while Coleridge thought to make the supernatural "real", Wordsworth thought to stir the imagination of readers through his down-to-earth characters taken from real life ( "The Idiot Boy"), or the beauty of the Lake District that largely inspired his production ( "Lines Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey"). S. Coleridge –“Lyrical Ballads”1798- collect. of poems. W.W.wrote about life of ord. people, used everyday l-ge. “ The Prelude”- autobiographic poem. The poetry of S.G.-more philosophic. He developed the theory of writings, gave the definition of the concept ‘poetic imagination’. Translated works of german philosophers.
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