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short circuit bearings ignition sparks welding shortcomings validity expiration date fire extinguishing system fire extinguisher light type fuel heavy fuel oil low thermal conductivity negligence aim inflammable to lessen tightness of cover короткое замыкание подшипники возгорание искры cварка недостатки пригодность истечение срока годности системы огнетушения огнетушитель легковоспламеняющееся топливо трудновоспламеняющееся топливо низкая теплопроводимость халатность цель легковоспламеняющийся уменьшать, снижать герметичность крышки



Fire prevention measures of ships are provided by its constructive, organizational and technical aspects and also by adequate actions of the crew in their fight against fire. It is noted that considerable per cent of fire accidents are con­nected with the explosion and ignition of light type fuel. Explosions of hydraulic systems, short circuits, defects in electrical equipment have also high frequency. Usually fire in the engine room is the result of lubricants ignition in the bearings of the main and auxiliary mechanisms.

The other type of «thermal» accidents takes place because of the open fire that is because of sparks during welding process. But we mustn't forget about negli­gence of the crew or ship builder's shortcomings. It is necessary to observe re­quirements on storage of dangerous materials. Hold should be dry and clean with appropriate ventilation. Paints must have low thermal conductivity with the aim to lessen the spreading speed of fire.

Inflammable materials must have inscription and marking, be checked periodically on validity and expiration date, leakage, tightness of cover and so on. It is compulsory far every ship to have highly efficient fire extinguishing system and also individual oxygen apparatus, means for hands protection, in a word everything that is necessary to safe life of every man at sea.


ASWER THE QUESTIONS:1. What is the main reason of fire on board a ship? 2. What measures can we take to lessen the spreading speed of fire? 3. Why is it necessary to have markings and inscriptions on inflammable goods? 4. What is compulsory to have on board every ship? 5. How do builder's shortcomings influence on origin of fire?



Exercise I. a) Find the English equivalents in the text: hydraulic systems, short circuit, frequency, engine-room, lubricants, ignitions, bearings, auxiliary mechanism, sparks, welding, negligence, shortcoming, conductivity, inscription, validity, expiration date, extinguishing system, oxygen apparatus.


b) Give Russian equivalents using words of the unit: короткое замыкание; оборудование; вспомогательный механизм; сварка; системы огнетушения; возгорание; частота; проводимость; истечение срока годности; подшипники; распространение огня; меры предотвращения огня; взрывы гидравлических систем.

Exercise II. Translate Into English.


1. В процессе сварки искры являются причиной пожара. 2. Каждое судно должно быть оборудовано системой огнетушения. 3. Все недостатки устраняются до выхода судна в море. 4. Каюты должны содержаться в чистоте и своевременно вентилироваться. 5. Низкая теплопроводность красок снижает возможность быстрого распространения огня.


Exercise III. Match the beginning of the sentence with its ending. Read statements about Fire Spread.

Heat and fire may spread in one or more of the following four different ways:

1. Direct heat transfer 2. The spread of heat via gases, liquids, or hot air circulating 3. Radiation. Materials may ignite 4. Direct Burning a. when they are kept near electric heaters or other heating appliances. b. when heat travels along or through unprotected steelwork. c. through stairwells, lift shaft, ventilation, etc. d. when combustible materials come into contact with a naked flame. For example, a mattress is ignited by a lighted cigarette.


Exercise IV. Read and translate the dialogue.

John Brown: How do you do! I am a port fire control officer John Brown.

Mr. Klimov: How do you do Mr. Brown. I am 3rd officer. My name is Klimov. What can I do for you?

John Brown: Well, I am to inspect your ship. First of all I want to see the hatches where cargo operations are going on. Under the rules of our port you should place fire extinguishers at each hatch and lay fire hoses connected with shore pumps.

Mr. Klimov: Certainly, sir. We don’t violate the rules. We’ve posted a deck-hand on fire watch. He makes regular rounds around the ship and reports to me every half an hour.

John Brown: Very good. And now I’ll see the certificate for the ship’s fire equipment… I see everything is ship-shape. All certificated are valid and I have no claims.


Exercise V.Make up your own dialogue concerning fire prevention measures on board a ship.


Exercise VI. Read the information provided about types of fire and fill in the table.
Be advised that Multiple classification systems exist, with different designations for the various classes of fire. The United States uses the NFPA system. Europe use the European Standard "Classification of fires".


Types of Fire (European Standard).

It is important to find out the type of fire because if you fight with a fire in incorrect way, it can only increase the danger.

Fire of solid materials usually of an organic nature such as wood, paper, furniture, plastics, rope, etc. Fire of liquids such as petrol, oils, paraffin, paint, cooking fats, etc.   Fire of gases such a propane, butane, acetylene, etc.   Fire of burning metals such as aluminum, magnesium, etc.  


ELECTRICAL FIRE: Electricity does not burn. An electrical fire is a Class A, B, C or D fire. After the electrical circuits are isolated, the fire is extinguished as normal according to its normal class.

What is burning?   Fire Type
A Television        
Paint Stripper        
Olive Oil        



Exercise VII. Read about Fire Extinguishers and be ready to answer the questions.


A fire extinguisher is designed to attack a fire onboard in the early stage.

Water, Foam and Dry Powder

Extinguishers with water, foam or dry powder operate in the same principal. In each case water, foam or dry powder are stored in a welded container. When the valve is opened, CO2 gas has a downward pressure on the water, foam, or dry powder and forces it us a sphon tube and out through the delivery hose. The discharge is controlled by squeezing and releasing the operating head valve or by a control lever at the end of the discharge hose.


WATER – Use on wood paper, plastics

DO NOT USE on fires involving liquid (oils, paints, fats, etc.)

DO NOT USE on fires where there is live electricity.


FOAM – Use on liquid spills and liquid fires of oils, paints (Class B fires)

DO NOT USE on fires where there is live electricity.



Powder can be used for liquids (Class B fires). Powder may also, with the correct technique, be used to extinguish a high pressure gas flame (Class C fires). Dry Powder gives as fast flame knock – down, and may be used on fires on live electrical equipment.


True or False?


1. Extinguishers with water, foam or dry powder operate in the completely different principal.

2. Extinguishers with water can be used on fires involving liquid.

3. Powder can be used for liquids.

4. Extinguishers with foam can be used on fires where there is live electricity.

5. Dry powder extinguisher is user on wood and plastics.

6. Class C fires are extinguished with Dry powder extinguishers.



Exercise I.Translate the sentences paying attention of the functions of infinitives.

1. They wanted to repair the equipment. 2. Everybody knows the bulkers to be applied for carrying of bulk cargo. 3. I'd like to see the list of spare parts to be ordered. 4. The problems with an engine are to be avoided. 5. The main goal of a hull is to protect a ship from the damage. 6. Cargo is known to be taken only under the contract terms. 7. We suppose the fuel pumps to be replaced completely. 8. The ro/ro passenger liners are designed to carry a great number of passengers that is why the safety level on board should be sufficiently high. 9. To carry the liquid cargo the vessels have special tanks. 10. In case of emergency one way out is to call at any ports for repairs.

Exercise II. Retell the text “Fire prevention measures”.


Exercise III. Speak on the following topics:

1. Adequate action of the crew in their fight with fire.

2. Smoking is one of the most common causes of fire outbreaks.

3. Hazardous materials on the vessel. Should we be neglected?




negligence list low visibility combustible / flammable transverse bulkhead adjacent to break out (broke, broken) foam extinguisher powder extinguisher fire axe fire hoses with nozzle fire bucket fire main shovel crowbar sprinkler халатность, заключение крен плохая видимость легковоспламеняющийся, опасный поперечная переборка примыкающий начинаться, возникать (огонь), разразится (шторм) пенный огнетушитель порошковый огнетушитель пожарный топор пожарные рукава с насадками пожарное ведро пожарный трубопровод лопата лом сплинкерная система



Accidents can be caused by negligence of a crewmember or by external factor. The crewmember can choose wrong personal protective equipment or incorrect usage of life-saving appliances or fire-fighting equipment.

A fire doesn’t break out if you perform all the precautions. When a fire breaks out, you’ll try to restrict to its area. The larger fire is, the more difficult it is extinguished. The cargo holds often contain large amount of combustible substances. It is not always possible to restrict fire there. Special transverse bulkheads of the cargo holds prevent spread of the fire to adjacent compartment.

There is the following fire-fighting equipment on board a ship: ship’s fire alarm system, fire extinguishers, fire hoses with the nozzles, boxes with sand, buckets, fire shovels, axes and crowbars. For accommodation area there is automatic sprinkler system. The CO2 system is used in the engine room.

All the fire-fighting systems and equipment should be in good operating condition ready for immediate use. The deck department is responsible for all portable fire-fighting equipment, while the engine department takes care of all fixed fire-fighting systems.


ASWER THE QUESTIONS:1. What are the reasons of the accidents? 2. What
can any crewmember do to prevent the fire breakout? 3. Why is it impossible to restrict the fire in the cargo hold? 4. What fire-fighting equipment do you know? 5. What system is used on galley?


Exercise I. a) Find the English equivalents in the text: пенный огнетушитель, потушить огонь, пожарный топор, легковоспламеняющиеся вещества, пожарный рукав, жилые помещения, пожарная тревога, порошок, пожарный шланг, поперечные переборки, распространение огня, отсек, лопаты.

b) Give Russian equivalents using words of the unit: fire hoses, to fight against, fire hoses, sand box, cargo hold, breathing apparatus, combustible substances, to neglect, crowbar, broken out fire, fire-extinguishing equipment, spot, precautions, fire bucket;


Exercise II. According to the Unites States classification of Fires there are only three types of Fire.


Class Fire Type Material Examples Suitable
A ordinary combustibles paper, wood, cloth, cardboard, plastic rubber
B flammable liquids and gases gasoline, grease, kerosene, oil, spirits, solvents, some paints
C electrical equipment appliances, computers, wiring, fuse, boxes, power tools


Exercise III. Translate into Russian.


1. There are three classes of fire. Each class has its own type of the fire extinguishers. 2. We use foam fire extinguisher to extinguish combustible liquids on fire. 3. Which types of fire extinguishing systems is used in machinery space? 4. On board of his last ship there were ship’s fire alarm system, several fire extinguishers and some other fire-fighting equipment. 5. Special teams fight against the fire on board of a ship.


Exercise V. Translate into English.


1. Я знаю три типа огнетушителей: пенный, порошковый и углекислотный. 2. Пожарные рукава с насадками, ящики с песком, ведра, лопаты и топоры – это противопожарное оборудование. 3. Какого цвета порошковый огнетушитель? 4. На камбузе, в кают-кампании и в каютах при тушении пожара используется сплинкерная система. 5. В трюмах и машинном отделении используется углекислотная система пожаротушения. 6. Огнетушители могут быть автоматическими или ручными, а также углекислотными, пенными, порошковыми и водными. 7. Пожары класса А вызываются горением таких веществ как дерево, бумага, ткани, пластмасса, резина. 8. Пожары класса А наиболее эффективно тушатся водой, но можно применить пенные и порошковые огнетушители. 9. Когда горит электрическое оборудование или бытовые приборы, экипаж должен применить углекислотные огнетушители. 10. На борту этого судна должно было использоваться следующее противопожарное оборудование: судовая пожарная сигнализация, огнетушители, ящик с песком, ведра, пожарные топоры и пожарные шланги (гидранты).


Exercise VI. Find right variant for each statement.

Fire prevention measures

1. Foam can be used on this type of fire. 2. You can’t use this extinguisher on an electrical fire. 3. This fire extinguisher has a blue flash. 4. These help stop fires from spreading. 5. You should use this on a Chip Pan Fire. 6. You must only use this on an electrical fire. a. powder b. foam c. fire blanket d. carbon dioxide e. fire doors f. petrol

Exercise VII .Read and translate the dialogue.

Seafarer 1: There's been an explosion in the engine room! Quick! There's a fire!

Seafarer 2: Call the Captain!

Seafarer 1: Engine room to bridge! Emergency! Emergency! Explosion in the engine room!

Captain: Captain speaking. What's the damage?

Seafarer 1: It's bad, Sir - there's fire and a lot of smoke!

Captain: Can you contain the fire?

Seafarer 1: I don't think so, Sir - it's out of control!

Captain: Get everyone out now! Do not attempt to extinguish the fire! Repeat. Do not attempt to extinguish the fire!! Sound the alarms immediately!

Seafarer 1: Yes, Sir!

Loudspeaker: Attention! Attention! This is your Captain speaking. Fire in the engine room! This is an emergency! Proceed to your muster stations immediately!

Loudspeaker: Attention! Attention! Fire is spreading! Prepare to abandon ship! Prepare to abandon ship!

Question: What is the emergency?

Answer: There is a fire in the engine room.


Exercise VIII.Tell about fire-fighting on board a ship.


juridical body implementation to supervise to issue survey Load Line Certificate Certificate for seaworthiness Certificate for Minimum Freeboard Acknowledgment Merchant vessel Insurance to establish dues and charges BRT (Brutto Registered tonnage) GRT (Gross Registered tonnage) NRT (Net Registered tonnage) reliability sea-going vessels solidity to lower fitnesssol-going vessels of original Sd a ship.опоры и пожарные шланги (гидранты). оборудование: судовая пожарная сигнализация, огнет юридический документ выполнение вести контроль выпускать осмотр, инспекция Свидетельство о грузовой марке Свидетельство о Мореходности Свидетельство по Минимальной Линии Загрузки зд. Документ, признающий торговое судно страховое общество учреждать пошлины и налоги брутто регистрированный тоннаж брутто регистрированный тоннаж нетто регистрированный тоннаж надежность морской транспорт плотность уменьшать, снижать годность, соответствие




Register of shipping is the juridical body. Its main objective is to increase safety of navigation. There is Register of Shipping not only in our country but in Great Britain - British Lloyd's, in France-French Veritas, in Sweden-Swedish Lloyd's, in Norway-Norwegian Lloyd's and American Bureau in the USA. Register of Shipping supervises for the implementation of international conventions, takes part in the work of international organization.

Register works out and issues classification rules, for sea-going vessels, construction rules and also rules for ship's measurement and definition of their load line. Register defines the degree of wear, conducts survey and produces the following documents: Load Line Certificate, Certificate for Seaworthiness, Passenger Certificate, Certificate for Minimum Freeboard and Certificate for the use of Shipboard radio station.

Vessels, which are built according to these rules, are given adequate certificate of class in the Register. This certificate is acknowledgment of vessel's reliability and fitness for the navigation.

Class of the merchant vessel defines solidity thus gives tile right on definite Load Line and region of navigation. Insurance societies establish the amount of the insurance sum on the technical class basis and take correspondent dues from Ship-owners and Shippers for the cargo carried on board. We know that dues and charges for the services rendered to the ship are always calculated from gross Register Tonnage. It is the work of shipping register to ascertain BRT, GRT and NRT of any vessel. Vessel's class is lowered in case of the loss of original solidity, after accidents, even partially.

Lowering of the class is unprofitable for the ship-owner because this may lead to increase of the insurance does and also to increase of the minimum Freeboard that is to reduction of freight-carrying capacity.


ASWER THE QUESTIONS:1. What is Register of Shipping? 2. What is its main objective? 3. Does Register of Snipping exist only in the USA? 4. What does Register of Shipping supervises for? 5. What does Register of Shipping work out?

1.What documents does it issue? 6. What does the ship built according to the rules receive? 7. What do insurance societies establish? 8. Why can the ship's class be lowered? 9.Is it profitable for the ship owner? Why?



Exercise I. a) Find the English equivalents in the text: Register of Shipping, juridical body, objective, France, French, Sweden, Swedish, Norway, Norwegian, American Bureau, to supervise, implementation, certificate, adequate, acknowledgment, merchant, insurance, profitable, freight, seaworthiness, reliability, to ascertain, tonnage, correspondent.

b) Give Russian equivalents using words of the unit: юридический документ; регистр судоходства; выполнение; норвежский; шведский; вести контроль; свидетельство; соответствующий; груз; торговое судно; страховое общество; учреждать пошлины и налоги; страховая сумма.

Exercise II.Agree or disagree with the following statements. Use the following phrases to express your opinion:

Agreement: I completely agree with you; yes, you are quite right; I have no objections;
Disagreement: sorry, but I can't agree with you; I am afraid you are wrong/mistaken; it seems to me the idea is different:

1. Register of Shipping is a juridical body. 2. Its main objective is to help passengers to book tickets. 3. Register works out and issues classification and construction rules as well as rules for ship's measurement and definition of their load line. 4. Built according to these rules vessels are given adequate certificates. 5. This certificate testifies to vessel's reliability. 6. Class of a merchant vessel defines its buoyancy.

7. Insurance societies establish the amount of insurance sum on the technical class basis. 8. Dues and charges rendered to the ship are calculated from Minimum Free board. 9. Vessel's class is lowered in case of the ship owner’s bankruptcy.

Exercise III. Translate into English.


1. Главная цель Регистра Судоходства это увеличение безопасности
судоходства. 2. Регистр Судоходства следит за выполнением международной конвенции. 3. Регистр определяет степень изношенности судна и его мореходность. 4. Хорошие суда получают соответствующие свидетельства, которые являются признанием их надежности и качества. 5. Известно, что пошлины и налоги исчисляются из общего тоннажа. 6. Понижение класса судна ведет к понижению его грузоподъемности. 7. Регистр судоходства имеет своё название в каждой стране.



Exercise I. Use the verb in proper tense form. Pay attention to Conditional sentences.

1. If we ______ (not / to follow) the pilot’s instructions, the liner would have had an accident. 2. If the Queen’s power were not limited by Parliament, Great Britain _____ (not/ to be) a constitutional monarchy. 3. If the country were not rich and had to import from our country, our ships _____ (to bring) to this country food products and raw materials. 4. If you had come to the port, you _____ (to see) a lot of ships approaching the harbor. 5. If the Chief Mate ordered, we _____ (to inspect) the life boats. 6. If our port were all –purpose dry cargo port, we _____ (to construct) specialized loading / unloading terminals and elevators in it. 7. If the river hadn’t frozen in winter, this port _____ (to open) to navigation round the year. 8. If you felt down from the ladder, you _____ (to hurt) yourself. 9. If you were allergic to any drugs, you ______ (not / to give) this medicine. 10. If the gale hadn’t become stronger, there _____ (not / to be) high waves and twigs _____ (not / to break) off the trees.

Exercise II. Paraphrase the sentences using Conditional Sentences.

Model: He promises to come early. I want to speak to him.
If he comes early, I will speak to him.

1. Our propeller is often damaged. Our engineer will repair it. 2. I am free of watch. I will go shore. 3. They promise to arrive at this port. We can meet them. 4. We must consult the contract. We want to know when the vessel leaves. 5. Let him go to our captain. The captain wants to give him some instructions. 6. He promises to be here before 10 o’clock. I want to see him. 7. He can’t operate a liner. He never studies navigation. 8. the storm is beginning. But the wind won’t reach the hurricane force. 9. We should take a pilot. We don’t know this harbor. 10. The cadets didn’t see timber- carriers. They didn’t visit the exhibition. 12. The cargo wasn’t fastened properly and the ship had a list to starboard. 13. The tanker spilled oil near the coast. Animals, birds and fish were in trouble. 14. There was an accident at the port yesterday because the process of loading wasn’t controlled properly.

Exercise III. Translate into English.

1. Если бы нашего капитана не было на борту, старшему помощнику пришлось бы заменить его и выполнять его обязанности. 2. Когда их сменят на вахте, они смогут сойти на берег и осмотреть город. 3. Если бы я был ответственным за службу технической эксплуатации, я бы нес вахту в машинном отделении, обслуживал и ремонтировал её оборудование. 4. Если радист получит штормовое предупреждение, он сразу де сообщит об этом капитану. 5. Если бы матросы подготовили вчера судно к отправке, мы бы уже давно вышли из этого порта. 6. Если бы я умел, я бы настроил аварийный передатчик сам. 7. Если вам покажут оборудование радиорубки, обратите внимание на приборы спутниковой связи. 8. Если бы нас проинструктировали на прошлом занятии, мы бы быстрее научились пользоваться секстантом и другим навигационным инструментами. 9. Если нам будет нужно пополнить запас продовольствия, мы возьмём курс на ближайший порт. 10. Если бы вы отрегулировали систему кондиционирования воздуха, этого бы не произошло.

Exercise IV. Make a report (not less than 500 words) about one of the topics given:

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