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I. Read the following text. For each gap, choose the best words A, B, C, or D. Make up a plan of the text.
The economy of Wales is closely linked with the rest of the United Kingdom and the wider European Economic Area. According to ONS provisional data, headline gross domestic product(GDP) in Wales was £47.3 billion, making the Welsh economy the tenth largest of the UK's twelve regions (counting Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland alongside the nine English Government Office Regions) ahead of only Northern Ireland and the North East of England. The modern Welsh economy is __________ (1) by the service sector. ____________ (2) contributed 66% to GDP, the manufacturing sector contributed 32%, while ____________ (3), forestry and fishing together _____________ (4) 1.5%.
As in the rest of the United Kingdom, the __________ (5) used in Wales is the pound sterling, represented by the symbol £. The Bank of England is the central bank, responsible for issuing currency, and retains responsibility for __________ (6) policy and is the central bank of the UK.
As the capital city of Wales, Cardiff is the main engine of growth in the Welsh economy and the significant service centre and economic driver for the wider south Wales economy. The city and the adjoining Vale of Glamorgan contribute a disproportionately high _________ (7) of economic __________ (8) in Wales. Cardiff is a centre for white-collar professions. The city relies principally on the retail, finance, media and tourism sectors and has been undergoing major regeneration since the late 20th century, particularly in Cardiff city centre and Cardiff Bay.
Agriculture contributed £418 million to Welsh GDP, or 1.1% (including subsidies). 1.6m hectares (around 77% of Wales' total land area) is used for agricultural __________ (9) and an estimated 57,500 people are directly employed in the sector. Farming is dominated by beef, sheep and the dairy sector, with the arable sector accounting for 10% of agricultural output. Family-run enterprises are dominated.
Forest and woodland _______ (10) up 14% of the land area of Wales and there are 4,000 jobs and in forest-based industries.
The Welsh fishing industry is the smallest in the UK, with about 1,000 full-time and 400 part-time fishermen.
Wales has a diverse manufacturing sector. Heavy industry, once a mainstay of the Welsh economy, has largely been in decline over the past century but is still very apparent. Metal ore refining is a long established industry in Wales. Nearly all the tinplate and much of the aluminium produced in the UK are made in Welsh plants.
Wales is an important _________ (11) of automotive components: Ford has a major engine plant at Bridgend, and BorgWarner has a major components plant in Kenfig, South Wales.
During last years a major growth sector in manufacturing was the electronics industry with over 130 North American and 35 Japanese companies establishing operations in Wales.
II.You are going to read the text about the economy of England, one of four constituent entities of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
a) Brainstorm words connected with the economy of Great Britain. When you have finished, check for more words by looking at the text “The Economy of England”.
b) Consider the questions and be ready to answer them as soon as you read the text.
1. Why is the economy of England the largest economy of the four countries of the United Kingdom?
2. Why has the financial services sector played an increasingly key part in the English economy?
3. What sector of the economy has the largest proportion of GDP?
4. What industries are in decline in England?
5. Why is agriculture subsidised by the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy?
6. Why does government support and promote tourism?
The Economy of England
The economy of England is the largest economy of the four countries of the United Kingdom. England is a highly industrialized country. It is an important producer of textiles and chemical products. Although automobiles, locomotives, and aircraft are among England's other important industrial products, a significant proportion of the country's income comes from the City of London. Manufacturing accounts for some 26% of the UK's GDP. England remains a key player in the aerospace, defence, pharmaceutical and chemical industries, and British companies continue to have a role in the sector through foreign investments.
The financial services sector has played an increasingly key part in the English economy and the City of London is one of the world's largest financial centre. The London Stock Exchange is based here. The British pound sterling is the official currency of England. Banks, insurance companies and the central bank of the United Kingdom, the Bank of England is located in London. The service sector of the economy has now the largest proportion of GDP and employs around 80% of the working population. Leeds is England's second largest financial centre, with over 30 national and international banks based in the city.
Manufacturing and primary industries are in decline in England. The only major industry that is growing - is the construction industry.
Agriculture is highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs with only 2% of the labour force. It is subsidised by the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy. The main crops are wheat, potatoes, sugar beets. England is one of the world's leading fishing nations.
Tourism accounts for £96 billion of GDP (8.6% of the economy). It employs over 2 million people – around 4% of the working population of England. The largest centre for tourism is London, which attracts millions of international tourists every year.
III. Understanding main points of the text
Read the text once again and be ready to do the following assignments.
Which of these statements gives the best summary of the ideas in the text?
a)The overview of the economy of the Great Britain.
b) The main trends in the British economy.
c) The main sectors of the economy of England.
d) The outlook of the economy of England.
e) The important role of British financial services sector.
f) The agriculture is efficient by European standards.
g) Tourism is the largest sector in the economy of England.
Mark these statements T (true) or F (false) according to the information in the text. Find the part of the text that gives the correct information.
1. The economy of England is an important producer of textiles and chemical products.
2. Automobiles, locomotives, and aircraft are among England's other important industrial products.
3. Manufacturing accounts for some 26% of the UK's GDP.
4. The financial services sector has played an increasingly key part in the English economy.
5. The service sector of the economy has now the largest proportion of GDP.
6. Manufacturing and primary industries are in decline in England.
7. Agriculture is highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards.
8. England is one of the world's leading fishing nations.
9. Tourism employs 4% of the working population of England.
10. Tourism accounts for 8.6% of the economy of GDP.
IV. Understanding details of the text
1. How many per cent does manufacturing account for of the UK's GDP?
2. Why does England remain a key player in the aerospace, defence, pharmaceutical and chemical industries?
3. Where is the Bank of England located?
4. What is the official currency of England?
5. How many per cent of the working population does the service sector of the economy employ?
6. How many national and international banks are based in Leeds?
7. What industries are in decline in England?
8. Why is London the largest centre for tourism?
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