ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
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The Use of Polysemy and Repetition
The interaction of direct & indirect transferred meanings of a word may be paradigmatic or syntagmatic. For syntagmatic realization the variants should be within one speech chain and close enough. Polysemy becomes stylistically potent in the combination with repetition. Lexical repetition is the repetition of a word or word combination in the structure of one sentence, paragraph or even the whole text. The distance between the repeated lexical units may be different, but the reader should be able to notice the repetition. The usage of polysemy in the combination with repetition may be similar to word play in its stylistic function. Very often the usage of different lexico-semantic variants in the same context underlines the difference in connotations. In the poem “Don'ts” by D. Lawrence the word 'little' is used in its 2 meanings (1. It’s synonymous to the endearment suffix; 2. It’s opposed to null/zero – противопоставлен нулю). The poem has a distinct social orientation & the usage of polysemy in the combination with repetition contributes greatly to it.
67.Lexical Analysis & a Literary Text Analysis. Thematic Net.
It is based on the assumption that the repeated in the given text meanings are semantically, thematically and stylistically more important; but the rare words and the words in the unusual combinations are more important for the meaning. If its usage is stressed by any SD, it has a stylistic function.
For revealing the contents and stylistic value of the text (decoding) the most significant things ar e: semantic structure (lexico-semantic variants, thematic belonging of the connotations & associations), repeated and rare words; lexical connections (the relations between synonyms, antonyms, derived words); the unity of emotional & stylistic colouring.
Lexical connections presuppose the common component either in denotation or connotation. If a considered word has semantic connections with one or more words in the following sentences it can be treated as thematic. In the language system the number of elementary meanings, which constitute lexical meanings, is limited & they submit to the certain hierarchy.
When repeated in the text they constitute its thematic net. The violation of being marked also has a stylistic function. By transforming the phrase into a normal one we can see what meaning the poet has introduced by deviation from the norm (all the sun (moon) long - the seme of time is introduced).
Analysis of literary text generally stems from a specific assignment, defining the elements the reader is evaluating as he studies the text. Some of the general literary terms used in analysis are the overall theme or main point of the literary work, characters, plot, structure, point of view, setting, language and style. It is important to have a firm understanding of these literary terms in order to gain important insight into the text being analyzed.
As a reader focuses on certain elements of literary analysis, he will need to develop a thesis. The point of analysis is not to summarize a literary text, but rather to make larger connections within the text. A thesis is the specific point of the analysis, which needs to use detailed evidence from the text to defend the thesis. For example, an analysis of a literary text may make the point that a particular object is symbolic of the main character's broken dreams. An analysis would need to give specific evidence to support that point.
The theory of Images. The structure. Functions of images.
In our cognition or perception of the world there are three stages: 1) sensory perception, 2) intellectual perception, 3) imaginative, or artistic perception. Image is the main means of generalizing reality. An artistic image is specific as it not only gives a man new perception of the world but evokes certain attitude to what is depicted. The main functions of an artistic image are cognitive, communicative, aesthetic and educational. Image may be defined as an artistic presentation of the general through the individual, of the abstract through the concrete. There also exists verbal art where imagery is embodied in words — thus words are the material writers /speakers use when they want to create verbal images. The verbal image is a pen-picture of a thing, person or idea expressed in a figurative way by words used in their contextual meaning. As I.V.Arnold points out the verbal image is a complex phenomenon, it is a double picture generated by linguistic means, it is based on the co-presence of two thoughts of different things active together: the direct thought termed the tenor (T), the figurative thought — the vehicle (V).The tenor is the subject of thought, while the vehicle is the concept of a thing, person or an abstract notion with which the tenor is compared or identified. The structure of a verbal image also includes: the ground of comparison (G) — the similar feature of T and V; the relation (R) between T and V; the type of identification/comparison or, simply, the type of a trope (metaphor or simile). Trope is the figurative use of a word or a phrase that creates imagery. Tropes are used in verbal art to create general or individual images and to attain a higher artistic expressiveness. A trope is based on establishing connections between two notions, two things, being different on the whole, but understood to have some connection, some similarity in the given context. From the viewpoint of a linguist, all tropes are based on the interplay of lexical meaning. It should be remembered that imagery can be created by lexical SD's only. All other stylistic devices (such as phonetic, graphic, morphological and syntactical SD's) do introduce imagery, but can serve as intensifiers; any of them can add logical, emotive, expressive info to the utterance.
S. C. is a group of several elements with the identical function united by the same syntactic relations to the subordinating word or sentence. Very often it is the homogeneous members (to make peace with poverty, filth, immorality or ignorance is treason to the rest of the human race) - the sentence contains a group of prepositional objects united by the word peace.
Convergence denotes a combination of stylistic devices promoting the same idea, emotion or motive. Any type of expressive means will make sense stylistically when treated as a part of a bigger unit, the context, or the whole text. It means that there is no immediate dependence between a certain stylistic device and a definite stylistic function.
A stylistic device is not attached to this or that stylistic effect. Therefore a hyperbole, for ex., may provide any number of effects: tragic, comical, pathetic or grotesque. Inversion may give the narration a highly elevated tone or an ironic ring of parody.
This «chameleon» quality of a stylistic device enables the author to apply different devices for the same purpose. The use of more than one type of expressive means in close succession is a powerful technique to support the idea that carries paramount importance in the author's view. Such redundancy ensures the delivery of the message to the reader.
The developed s.convergences allow to receive rather sweeping generalizations. Convergence may by produced by the units of other levels (by the subordinate clauses, related to the same word in the principal clause), by the enumerative sentences in the structure of the complex sentence.
The term 'stylistic convergence' is different from the syntactic. Stylistic c. is the accumulation of several different stylistic devices performing the same stylistic function in some part of the text. Syntactic convergence is often complicated by certain SDs: reiteration, parallel constructions, polysyndeton, anaphora, synonyms, inversion, thus, creating stylistic convergence. The effect of syntactic convergence (humorous) can be based on the semantic heterogeneity of syntactically homogeneous members (chaotic enumeration). (The facts begin to crowd me and soon I get a pressure in the chest. A disorderly rush begins - my parents, my wives, my girls, my children, my farm, my animals, my habits, my money, my music lessons,..., my teeth, my face, my soul! - show the increase of hero's despair and frustration).
Syllepsis is the connecton of 2 or more homogeneous members with different grammatic parameters. In the given example there's a syllepsis of number (singuiar&plural). One more form of syllepsis is zeugma. Functions: makes the whole more concrete, describes the whole in detail, underlines the variety & multitude of objects; forms semantic gradation.
Anacoluthon is the infringement of the correct syntactic connection. (Where a great poet named Tennyson, anticipating Hollywood, had built up in the studio of his mind, his come - into - the -garden, Maud, the black bat night has flown; and has sent his cardboard kings and warriors and uncompromising virgins out into the highways and byways.)
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