ТОП 10:

Foregrounding of Adverbial Verbs


The so-called adverbial verbs, that is, verbs containing two semes, one expressing action and the other describing the character of that action, are often used for stylistic purposes in the same way as causative verbs. Such use can be traced far back even to Shakespeare.

She splashed the four chipped cups down on a table by the door.


Вона так шпарко поставила всі чотири надтріснуті чашки на стіл у дверей, що чай розплескався.

In this case the verb “to splash down” contains three semes: the action itself, its character and its result.


Emphatic Constructions


Emotive colouring and expressiveness of speech may be achieved by various emphatic means both grammatical and lexical. Expressiveness and emotive colouring should not be confused. The former is a wider notion than the latter. Emphatic means are used even in those styles of language which lack emotive colouring, viz. the style of scientific prose and official style. Emphatic models give prominence either to one element of the utterance or make the whole utterance forceful and expressive.

Emphatic means of the English language present great variety and bear a distinct national character. Some emphatic models in English and in Ukrainiancoincide but there are considerable differences. Even coincidences are often partial or seeming. Therefore rendering of emphasis in translation is not a simple task.


Inversion as a Means of Emphasis.


The emphatic role of inversion is a well-known fact, and need not be considered here. It is only to be mentioned that the stylistic function of inversion is frequently rendered lexically.

Up goes unemployment, up go prices, and down tumbles the labour vote.

Безробіття різко зросло, ціни підскочили, а кількість голосів, поданих за лейбористів, катастрофічно впала.


Emphatic Use of the “As…as” Model. The model “as…as” expressing the same degree of quality may be used emphatically not in its direct function but to express the superlative degree. In this case it is as a rule combined with the pronouns “any”, “anything”, “anybody”. The translations of this model require lexical compensation.

As he has since admitted, he admires Rosamund Darnley as much as any woman he had ever met. (Agatha Christie)

Як він потім зізнався, жодна жінка на світі не викликала в ньому такого захоплення як Розамунд Дарнлі.


Emphatic Negative Constructions

Negative constructions are more expressive than affirmative ones and possess a stronger emotive colouring.This is due to the fact that the category of negation indicates that the link between the negation indicates that the link between the notions expressed by the subject and the predicate is non-existant.

The negative word “no” is a powerful means of stressing the some member of the sentence.

Our arrangement was no announcement for few days. (A.Halley)

Ми домовились: жодних повідомлень протягом найближчих днів.


The emphatic use of the colon in the translation attracts attention to what follows. Emphasis is also created by ellipsis.


Semantic Foregrounding


The lexical possibilities of foregrounding are also considerable. A writer sometimes skillfully uses a word in an unusual combination owing to which it becomes conspicuous and acquires greater expressive value.


I suggest, Mr. Speaker, that the government and its Department of Citizenship and Emigration have their collective sheet firmly rooted in the nineteenth century. (A.Halley)

Я висловлюю припущення, містер Спікер, що уряд і Міністерство зі справ громадянства й еміграції все ще вперто чіпляються за принципи XIX століття.


The unusual combination “collective feet” cannot be preserved in Ukrainian (коллективные ноги would be unacceptable) and only the semantic aspect of the combination is rendered in the translation.

Stylistic means and devices present considerable and varied problems for translation. They possess a distinct national character although at first sight they may appear to be identical. Foreground linguistic means give rise to particularly hard problems as specific national language means are brought into play by foregrounding, e.g. articles, suffixes, the passive voice, conversion, etc.

The translator must be fully aware of the function of a stylistic device and its effect, to be able to reproduce the same effect by other means, if necessary, thus minimizing the inevitable losses due to inherent divergences.

To conclude: stylistic equivalence may be achieved by different means and not necessary by the same device.




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