ТОП 10:

По направлению 150400 «Металлургия».



Контрольная работа №1

для студентов заочной формы обучения

По направлению 150400 «Металлургия».

(3 семестр)

Вариант 1.

Задание 1. Поставьте глагол в нужную видовременную форму страдательного залога в зависимости от обстоятельств:

1. Progress (make) every day in the world of science. 2. Three exams (take) by the first-year students already. 3. These new methods of development (study) by research workers at present. 4. The delegates of the conference (meet) by the organizers next Wednesday. 5. The received data (include) into the last report.

Задание 2. Выберите необходимую форму глагола в действительном или в страдательном залоге в зависимости от предложенной ситуации:

1. Many famous scientists (invited/were invited) to the conference in London. 2. The chemical plant (provides/ is provided) the laboratory with modern equipment. 3. The unknown property of the alloy (is paying/is being paid) much attention to at present. 4. The participants of the show (will discuss/ will be discussed) many interesting exhibits during their meeting. 5. Lectures and lessons (conduct/ are conducted) in English and in the native language of a student.

 

Задание 3. Замените действительный залог страдательным:

1. The developers were examining a new alloy at their research laboratory. 2. The Atlantic Ocean washes Great Britain in the west. 3. Green grass and beautiful flowers will cover the ground next spring. 4. They constructed the building for the hospital and a new department store two years ago. 5. They have provided the shop with the most modern equipment.

 

Задание 4. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык:

1. He was invited to come to the office. 2. Popov’s famous report in powder metallurgy is often referred to. 3. What is watched or waited for seems too long in coming. 4. The latest data were not included into the paper for the conference in London. 5. Researches concluded in the laboratory are usually followed with great interest.

 

Задание 5. Переведите рассказ на русский язык, обращая особое внимание на глаголы с предлогами:

 

Automation

Automation is often referred to as a new subject and its various aspects have not yet all been paid adequate attention to. Thus, for example, its commercial aspects have been only recently fully appreciated. Many problems arising from the impact of automation on national and world economy have not even been dealt with. It is, therefore, of paramount importance that general public should be informed both of its technological and social aspects.

There is hardly any aspect of human life that would not be affected by the changes that automation will bring about. Unfortunately, there is relatively little factual material available for analyzing the consequences of automation. Indeed, most economists are not yet fully aware of the problems that might arise in the process of automation. The effect of these developments on the trend of prices, capital investments, balance of payments has not yet been fully appreciated. These subjects should be adequately dealt with in foreseeable future

Вариант 2.

Задание 1. Поставьте глагол в нужную видовременную форму страдательного залога в зависимости от обстоятельств:

1. A large group of young specialists just(train). 2.English(speak)in manycountries of the world but the language spoken in Brazil isn’tEnglish. 3.He (offer)a very interesting job at a big metallurgical plant after the institute next month. 4. A modern pig casting machine (construct) at the blast furnace shop now. 5. The system of a simple design (examine) by the research workers without any difficulties yesterday.

 

Задание 2. Выберите необходимую форму глагола в действительном или в страдательном залоге в зависимости от предложенной ситуации:

1.The Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys graduates (will offer/will be offered) a very interesting job in Brazil soon. 2. I often (send/am sent) the results of the tests to other laboratories of the plant. 3. A new electric arc furnace (has constructed/has been constructed) at our shop recently. 4. When the old refractory lining of the blast furnace fails a new one (installs/ is installed). 5. We (thought/ were thought) about that event all the time.

 

Задание 3. Замените действительный залог страдательным:

1. They developed a new method of teaching. 2. The teacher corrects our exercises at home. 3. Everybody will see the new film soon. 4. We are translating an English text during the lesson. 5. The head of the laboratory has just shown us an unusual test.

 

Задание 4. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык:

1. The delegation of foreign students was shown all the laboratories of our institute. 2. These data are often referred to. 3. Many compulsory subjects are taken by first-year students. 4. The laboratory assistant was sent for. 5. The students were allowed to take part in this experiment.

Задание 5. Переведите рассказ на русский язык, обращая особое внимание на глаголы с предлогами:

 

Automation

Automation is often referred to as a new subject and its various aspects have not yet all been paid adequate attention to. Thus, for example, its commercial aspects have been only recently fully appreciated. Many problems arising from the impact of automation on national and world economy have not even been dealt with. It is, therefore, of paramount importance that general public should be informed both of its technological and social aspects.

There is hardly any aspect of human life that would not be affected by the changes that automation will bring about. Unfortunately, there is relatively little factual material available for analyzing the consequences of automation. Indeed, most economists are not yet fully aware of the problems that might arise in the process of automation. The effect of these developments on the trend of prices, capital investments, balance of payments has not yet been fully appreciated. These subjects should be adequately dealt with in foreseeable future.

 

Вариант 3

Задание 1. Поставьте глагол в нужную видовременную форму страдательного залога в зависимости от обстоятельств:

1. There is a number of statements for which the proof (not require). 2. Any advantage of every possibility for improvement of the procedure (take) already. 3. Sometimes it is necessary to stop the procedure while the measurements (make). 4. Soon the results of the model tests (present) to demonstrate potentials of the model. 5. An important contribution (make) to the study of this phenomenon some years ago.

Задание 2. Выберите необходимую форму глагола в действительном или в страдательном залоге в зависимости от предложенной ситуации:

1. We also(discuss/ are discussed)experiments connected with some related questions. 2. The obtained results (disagreed/ were disagreed)with earlier data. 3. Science (accumulates/is accumulated) examples foreseen and verified through practice. 4. Nearly all the assembly line problems as documented in the list (solved/were solved) using this effective method. 5. The best graduates (will send/ will be sent) to Oxford next academic year.

 

Задание 3. Замените действительный залог страдательным:

1. We are translating a difficult English text now. 2. The teacher corrects our tests in time. 3. Our friends will meet us at the station next evening. 4. First-year students take four exams. 5. Helen has invited me for her birthday party.

 

Задание 4. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык:

1. This problem is given much attention to at present. 2. The importance of this phenomenon was underestimated. 3. Very little research has been done in the field of environmental pollution. 4. Advantage is often taken of the effect of temperature on solubility. 5. Anton was expelled from the University and was little seen at that time.

Задание 5. Переведите рассказ на русский язык, обращая особое внимание на глаголы с предлогами:

 

Automation

Automation is often referred to as a new subject and its various aspects have not yet all been paid adequate attention to. Thus, for example, its commercial aspects have been only recently fully appreciated. Many problems arising from the impact of automation on national and world economy have not even been dealt with. It is, therefore, of paramount importance that general public should be informed both of its technological and social aspects.

There is hardly any aspect of human life that would not be affected by the changes that automation will bring about. Unfortunately, there is relatively little factual material available for analyzing the consequences of automation. Indeed, most economists are not yet fully aware of the problems that might arise in the process of automation. The effect of these developments on the trend of prices, capital investments, balance of payments has not yet been fully appreciated. These subjects should be adequately dealt with in foreseeable future

Вариант 4

 

Задание 1. Поставьте глагол в нужную видовременную форму

страдательного залога в зависимости от обстоятельств:

1. The project (realize) by the end of the next year. 2. Presently this process (see) as problematic from the point of view of the less developed countries. 3. The sample (try) under severe conditions last week. 4. This device (use)for a long time. 5. The important parameters (monitor) and (control) during the next experiment.

 

Задание 2. Выберите необходимую форму глагола в действительном или в страдательном залоге в зависимости от предложенной ситуации:

1. The delegates of the conference (have just met/have just been met) us at the Conference Hall. 2. The organizers (are taking/are being taken) the delegates straight to the hotel now. 3. The workers (have made/have been made)a numberof necessary experiments at their research laboratory. 4. The foreman (looked at/was looked at) with great interest. 5. The reaction (followed/was followed) by measuring temperature.

Задание 3. Замените действительный залог страдательным:

1. Olga’s fellow students gave her a crib for the test paper. 2. The scientific advisor will take notice of my diploma paper in two years. 3. You have recently promised me a very interesting problem for discussion. 4. They will offer me some interesting work at the blast furnace shop. 5. Someone wants you on the phone.

 

Задание 4. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык:

1. Peace cannot be kept by force. It can only be achieved by understanding. (A. Einstein) 2. The problem of metal shortage is being paid much attention to at present. 3. His report “On the Relation of Metal Powders to Electric Oscillations” was not sharply criticized by foreign scientists. 4. Professor Neon is always recognized and followed at the Institute because he is so interesting to talk to. 5. Mercury becomes contaminated and cannot be reused.

Задание 5. Переведите рассказ на русский язык, обращая особое внимание на глаголы с предлогами:

 

Automation

Automation is often referred to as a new subject and its various aspects have not yet all been paid adequate attention to. Thus, for example, its commercial aspects have been only recently fully appreciated. Many problems arising from the impact of automation on national and world economy have not even been dealt with. It is, therefore, of paramount importance that general public should be informed both of its technological and social aspects.

There is hardly any aspect of human life that would not be affected by the changes that automation will bring about. Unfortunately, there is relatively little factual material available for analyzing the consequences of automation. Indeed, most economists are not yet fully aware of the problems that might arise in the process of automation. The effect of these developments on the trend of prices, capital investments, balance of payments has not yet been fully appreciated. These subjects should be adequately dealt with in foreseeable future

Вариант 5

Задание 1. Поставьте глагол в нужную видовременную форму страдательного залога в зависимости от обстоятельств:

1. Numerous attempts (make) for a long time to prepare compounds of this type. 2. The results (affect) by the presence of impurities during the last experiment. 3. The heat of the reaction in the blast furnace carefully (control). 4. They (not give) the permission to carry out the last experiment. 5. The less progressive firms never (allow) to exist.

 

Задание 2. Выберите необходимую форму глагола в действительном или в страдательном залоге в зависимости от предложенной ситуации:

1. Different estimation procedures (required/are required) in applied science. 2. Pure research (tends/is tended) to be methodologically superior to applied research. 3. The congress (referred/was referred) to as the most representative forum in the field of metallurgy. 4. A large group of young people (will join/will be joined) us on the way to the chemical laboratory. 5. My fellow worker (has lost/has been lost) his credit card.

Задание 3. Замените действительный залог страдательным:

1 My mother taught us drawing and music in our childhood. 2. Their scientific advisor will give them a difficult task in Mechanical Drawing in two days. 3. Laboratory assistants are equipping the chemical laboratory for a new experiment now. 4. My tutor guides and consults me in my research work. 5. Yellow leaves cover the ground in autumn.

 

Задание 4. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык:

1. Solzhenitsyn’s writings were published both in his country and abroad. 2. The scientist was written to by many manufacturers. 3. The first-year student has been asked for three laboratory works to pass. 4. I was promised the homework in Physics to copy. 5. Conversion from one oxidation state to another can be accomplished readily by common oxidizing and reducing agents.

Задание 5. Переведите рассказ на русский язык, обращая особое внимание на глаголы с предлогами:

 

Automation

Automation is often referred to as a new subject and its various aspects have not yet all been paid adequate attention to. Thus, for example, its commercial aspects have been only recently fully appreciated. Many problems arising from the impact of automation on national and world economy have not even been dealt with. It is, therefore, of paramount importance that general public should be informed both of its technological and social aspects.

There is hardly any aspect of human life that would not be affected by the changes that automation will bring about. Unfortunately, there is relatively little factual material available for analyzing the consequences of automation. Indeed, most economists are not yet fully aware of the problems that might arise in the process of automation. The effect of these developments on the trend of prices, capital investments, balance of payments has not yet been fully appreciated. These subjects should be adequately dealt with in foreseeable future

Вариант 6

Задание 1. Поставьте глагол в нужную видовременную форму страдательного залога в зависимости от обстоятельств:

1. Further work on the problem of metal shortage badly (need). 2. Raw materials for the blast furnace process: coke, limestone, pellets (charge) through the top. 3. Preheated air (blow) through the nozzles at the bottom soon. 4. Balancing just (do) by adjusting the position of rods at the EAF. 5. The technique of powder metallurgy first (apply) to refractory metals (tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum, platinum)

Задание 2. Выберите необходимую форму глагола в действительном или в страдательном залоге в зависимости от предложенной ситуации:

1. Different forms of experience (studied/were studied) and became organized into a science. 2. Innovations and developments (will discuss/will be discussed)at the international scientific conference in London next year. 3. All the group of first-year students (have read/have been read) the article about powder metallurgy already. 4. Olga’s scientific advisor (is looking/is being looked) through her diploma paper now. 5. The great scientist’s name (mentioned/was mentioned) among his contemporaries very seldom.

 

Задание 3. Замените действительный залог страдательным:

1. Our friend will meet us at the railway station tonight. 2. They fined the worker for coming to work too late. 3. The Examination Board has put graduates good and excellent marks. 4. Somebody gave the police the useful information. 5. They asked me difficult questions at the interview.

Задание 4. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык:

1. I was offered the job, but I refused it. 2. You will be given plenty of time to decide. 3. After the facts had thoroughly been explained to the shareholders, they no longer felt worried. 4. The girl is often laughed at because she is foolish. 5. The modern achievements in powder metallurgy are much spoken about.

Задание 5. Переведите рассказ на русский язык, обращая особое внимание на глаголы с предлогами:

 

Automation

Automation is often referred to as a new subject and its various aspects have not yet all been paid adequate attention to. Thus, for example, its commercial aspects have been only recently fully appreciated. Many problems arising from the impact of automation on national and world economy have not even been dealt with. It is, therefore, of paramount importance that general public should be informed both of its technological and social aspects.

There is hardly any aspect of human life that would not be affected by the changes that automation will bring about. Unfortunately, there is relatively little factual material available for analyzing the consequences of automation. Indeed, most economists are not yet fully aware of the problems that might arise in the process of automation. The effect of these developments on the trend of prices, capital investments, balance of payments has not yet been fully appreciated. These subjects should be adequately dealt with in foreseeable future

Вариант 7

Задание 1. Поставьте глагол в нужную видовременную форму страдательного залога в зависимости от обстоятельств:

1. Refractory metals (not melt) and (shape) by traditional methods, such as casting and forging. 2. Powder metallurgy (use) in the production of permanent magnets, medals, gear wheels, self-lubricating bearings and many other goods. 3. Many years ago people learned to extract iron from iron ore and the process (call) smelting. 4. The present era, which (distinguish) by the utilization of metals in enormous quantities has begun in 1860. 5. Speed and power consumption specifications for the devices (discuss) by the designers now.

 

Задание 2. Выберите необходимую форму глагола в действительном или в страдательном залоге в зависимости от предложенной ситуации:

1. After a long and difficult working day they (promised/ were promised) us an interesting entertainment. 2. Everyone (uses/is used) chalk for writing on the blackboard. 3. His unsuccessful experiments (failed/were failed) because of lack of suitable raw material. 4. This equation (has subjected/ has been subjected) to a considerable amount of experimental tests. 5. In spite of some objections the engineer’s design (accepted/ was accepted).

Задание 3. Замените действительный залог страдательным:

1. A loud noise frightened us. 2. Linda’s colleagues gave her a present on her wedding party. 3. They will pay you much for your new work. 4. The Normans brought French to England. 5. Careless driving causes many accidents.

Задание 4. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык:

1. The room is being cleaned at the moment. 2. What is watched or waited for seems too long in coming. 3. The laboratory assistants were asked for a new experiment to equip. 4. The results of his ten-year work will be often referred to by foreign scientists. 5. His report about new achievements in Physical Metallurgy was listened to with great interest.

Задание 5. Переведите рассказ на русский язык, обращая особое внимание на глаголы с предлогами:

 

Automation

Automation is often referred to as a new subject and its various aspects have not yet all been paid adequate attention to. Thus, for example, its commercial aspects have been only recently fully appreciated. Many problems arising from the impact of automation on national and world economy have not even been dealt with. It is, therefore, of paramount importance that general public should be informed both of its technological and social aspects.

There is hardly any aspect of human life that would not be affected by the changes that automation will bring about. Unfortunately, there is relatively little factual material available for analyzing the consequences of automation. Indeed, most economists are not yet fully aware of the problems that might arise in the process of automation. The effect of these developments on the trend of prices, capital investments, balance of payments has not yet been fully appreciated. These subjects should be adequately dealt with in foreseeable future

Вариант 8

 

Задание 1. Поставьте глагол в нужную видовременную форму страдательного залога в зависимости от обстоятельств:

1. Silver (find) about 6000 years ago. 2. Special techniques just (advise) for solving the problem of metal shortage. 3. The process (use) widely because it was relatively easy to implement. 4. The walls of the blast furnace (subject) to high temperatures, that’s why they (line) with refractory brick. 5. Each employee must (see) as a source of ideas, not just a pair of hands.

Задание 2. Выберите необходимую форму глагола в действительном или в страдательном залоге в зависимости от предложенной ситуации:

1. In addition to differences in their physical properties the two materials (differ/are differed) in their technology. 2. When at rest the body (will subject/will be subjected) to normal pressure only. 3. No satisfactory explanation of this observation (has offered/has been offered). 4. Tests (scheduled/were scheduled) to start in late 2012. 5. The laboratory assistants (have reinforced/ have been reinforced)the construction.

Задание 3. Замените действительный залог страдательным:

1. The North Sea and the English Channel separate Great Britain from the European continent. 2. Students will translate a long text at the next lesson. 3. The research workers brought many devices to their laboratory last week. 4. I have forgiven him for his unbelievable lie. 5. Julius Caesar called England Albion because of the white cliffs.

 

Задание 4. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык:

1. We were woken up by a loud noise during the night. 2. Is this workshop cleaned every day? 3. A mystery is something that can’t be explained. 4. What is written without effort is in general read without pleasure. 5. The number of degrees of freedom is reduced by the number of imposed constraints.

Задание 5. Переведите рассказ на русский язык, обращая особое внимание на глаголы с предлогами:

 

Automation

Automation is often referred to as a new subject and its various aspects have not yet all been paid adequate attention to. Thus, for example, its commercial aspects have been only recently fully appreciated. Many problems arising from the impact of automation on national and world economy have not even been dealt with. It is, therefore, of paramount importance that general public should be informed both of its technological and social aspects.

There is hardly any aspect of human life that would not be affected by the changes that automation will bring about. Unfortunately, there is relatively little factual material available for analyzing the consequences of automation. Indeed, most economists are not yet fully aware of the problems that might arise in the process of automation. The effect of these developments on the trend of prices, capital investments, balance of payments has not yet been fully appreciated. These subjects should be adequately dealt with in foreseeable future

Вариант 9.

Задание 1. Поставьте глагол в нужную видовременную форму страдательного залога в зависимости от обстоятельств:

1. One more precious metal, platinum, (discover) by the Spaniards on the territory of Mexico in about 1500. 2. Only molecules involving the four elements H, N, O and C usually (consider). 3. No satisfactory explanation of this observation ever (offer). 4. A very important task to improve the properties of the produced alloy (set) before the scientists at the next meeting. 5. The fundamental discoveries in this new science (make) nearly twenty years ago.

Задание 2. Выберите необходимую форму глагола в действительном или в страдательном залоге в зависимости от предложенной ситуации:

1.The product alone with no admixtures (will weigh/will be weighed) 20 g. 2. An intensive course of English (provides/is provided) three times a year. 3. In accordance with statistic data nearly one-third of the Earth’s population (experiences/is experienced) freshwater shortage even today. 4. Some metals (give/are given) quite remarkable mechanical properties by the process of heat treatment. 5. The data (spoke/were spoken) in favour of Faraday’s theory.

Задание 3. Замените действительный залог страдательным:

1. They are building a new ring road round the city. 2. My scientific advisor will give me much information to think it over. 3. The company employs two hundred people annually. 4. The plant’s research laboratory is developing a new grade of steel at present. 5. Our fellow students invited them to the house warming party.

Задание 4. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык:

1. His writings are not known all over the world. 2. The author of the famous book was forgotten for some time but later he was remembered. 3. I was taught music and singing at school. 4. Ask no questions and you will be told no lie. 5. We were being followed, there was somebody behind us.

Задание 5. Переведите рассказ на русский язык, обращая особое внимание на глаголы с предлогами:

 

Automation

Automation is often referred to as a new subject and its various aspects have not yet all been paid adequate attention to. Thus, for example, its commercial aspects have been only recently fully appreciated. Many problems arising from the impact of automation on national and world economy have not even been dealt with. It is, therefore, of paramount importance that general public should be informed both of its technological and social aspects.

There is hardly any aspect of human life that would not be affected by the changes that automation will bring about. Unfortunately, there is relatively little factual material available for analyzing the consequences of automation. Indeed, most economists are not yet fully aware of the problems that might arise in the process of automation. The effect of these developments on the trend of prices, capital investments, balance of payments has not yet been fully appreciated. These subjects should be adequately dealt with in foreseeable future

Вариант 10

Задание 1. Поставьте глагол в нужную видовременную форму страдательного залога в зависимости от обстоятельств:

1. The most important metal on the Earth, iron, (utilize) by primitive men since the ancient times. 2. Twenty tons of scrap just (transport) to the shop for re - melting. 3. Copper, iron, molybdenum, tantalum, platinum (prepare) in powder from the oxides. 4. Dense homogeneous mass (form) when the particles of powdered materials adhered together. 5. Mixing powders of a metal and a non-metal (use) to make the finished article refractory, heat-resistant, hard-wearing, etc.

Задание 2. Выберите необходимую форму глагола в действительном или в страдательном залоге в зависимости от предложенной ситуации:

1. The investigation, however, (illustrates/is illustrated) two basic approaches to the problem. 2. The serious error (affected/was affected) the measurements. 3. They (have used/have been used) the temperature controlled system. 4. Iron content in steel (accounts/is accounted) for 99.9 per cent. 5. The achievements (earned/were earned) the scientist great popularity among his contemporaries.

 

Задание 3. Замените действительный залог страдательным:

1. The teacher taught us difficult rules of grammar at the last lesson. 2. Workers are building a new office at present. 3. Doctor Brown will give her some advice. 4. The organizing committee has just sent him an invitation to the conference. 5. Fleming discovered penicillin.

 

Задание 4. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык:

1. All the customers’ requirements must be met. 2. No nation was ever ruined by trade. (B. Franklin) 3. Friendship is not bought at a fair. 4. Corrosion resistant properties of steel were much talked about at the last session of metallurgists in Chicago. 5. Bad news should be broken gently and good news all at once.

Задание 5. Переведите рассказ на русский язык, обращая особое внимание на глаголы с предлогами:

 

Automation

Automation is often referred to as a new subject and its various aspects have not yet all been paid adequate attention to. Thus, for example, its commercial aspects have been only recently fully appreciated. Many problems arising from the impact of automation on national and world economy have not even been dealt with. It is, therefore, of paramount importance that general public should be informed both of its technological and social aspects.

There is hardly any aspect of human life that would not be affected by the changes that automation will bring about. Unfortunately, there is relatively little factual material available for analyzing the consequences of automation. Indeed, most economists are not yet fully aware of the problems that might arise in the process of automation. The effect of these developments on the trend of prices, capital investments, balance of payments has not yet been fully appreciated. These subjects should be adequately dealt with in foreseeable future

 

 

Составитель: Кушина И.Н.

 

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 2

для студентов заочной формы обучения

по дисциплине ОНТП

Вариант № 1

 

Задание I. Определите в следующих предложениях форму и функцию герундия; переведите предложения на русский язык:

1. Besides being very involved this procedure is very costly. 2. Instead of using chlorine, they took bromine. 3. A committee has been established for the purpose of coordinating the schedule of the conference. 4. They were against postponing the discussion of the problem of metal tarnishing. 5. He is against carrying out a set of experiments. 6. We know of Yablochkov's having found a brilliant solution to the difficult problem of using the electric arc for lighting. 7. While heavy atoms can be made to release energy by splitting, light atoms, such as hydrogen, can yield energy by being fused together.

 

Задание II. Определите функцию и форму причастия в предложении; предложения переведите:

1. In the lecture hall we heard the professor explaining a new theory to the students. 2. At the blast-furnace shop, the students watched molten metal being drawn off through the tapping hole. 3. Have you ever seen a conveyor moving steel bars? 4. The film demonstrated at the lecture showed the process of boiling in a closed vessel. 5. The line showing the direction of a moving body is its trajectory. 6. The lines shown in this table in red are the time-temperature curves.

 

Задание III. Определите форму и функцию инфинитива в предложении; предложения переведите:

1. He is believed to have carried out a number of successful tests. 2. I want you to translate this article for my report tomorrow. 3. Many ores to be found in the Orenburg region are of great value to the industry. 4. Certain properties of matter appear to be always the same under definite conditions. For example, the freezing point of pure water at a pressure of one standard atmosphere is assumed to be invariable. 5. They are glad to have obtained such effective results. 6. Most alloys are known to be made by smelting the metals together.

 

Задание IV. Переведите письменно текст, пользуясь металлургическим словарем:

Sintering Plants

Sintering is used for converting fine-grained ore concentrate into larger pieces which are better suited for the blast furnace process. This can be carried out in batches in tiltable pellets or continuously on a conveyor type of sintering machine. The furnace and conveyor machine both have a cast grid base with intervening gaps for the extraction of combustion gases. The charge, which consists of a mixture of ore concentrate, limestone and coal dust, is ignited in both cases from above by means of a burner placed over the surface of the charge. A suction box is connected to the underside of the grid, and the vacuum it creates causes the combustion front to move down through the charge.

In the sintering process, high-temperature materials are used principally in the form of castings for the grids, and sheet for the suction boxes and burners in the firing hoods. The grids are subjected to relatively abrupt temperature variations between the charging of cold ore concentrate mixture, up to the ignition and discharge of the sintered material. The most common material problems in this application are the deformations caused by high and fluctuating temperatures.

Since both the ore and the coal dust also contain sulphur, type 153 MA and 253 MA steels are more suitable than alloys with higher nickel contents. By employing castings with a

higher carbon content and a special cast structure, a creep strength which is higher than that of rolled material is assured. Cast grids of 253 MA steel have been proved dimensionally stable over a long period of time in service, without the gas permeability being affected or the grids becoming jammed.

 

Вариант № 2

 

Задание I. Определите в следующих предложениях форму и функцию герундия; переведите предложения на русский язык:

1. All the laboratory assistants will be for starting the experiments at once. 2. On finding that the apparatus was working badly, they stopped their experiments. 3. It is worth while discussing this phenomenon. 4. Solid bodies have the property of keeping their shape without supporting of a vessel. 5. In spite of having met with failure the young scientists continued experimenting. 6. It is no use speaking of increasing the temperature. 7. It is no good arguing about conductivity of rubber.

 

Задание II. Определите функцию и форму причастия в предложении; предложения переведите:

1. In the research laboratory, students observed test-tubes being washed in a special solution. 2. The elements involved varied in their properties greatly. 3. If carried out carefully, the experiment gives reliable data. 4. The laboratory equipped with modern devices belongs to the physical department. 5. We keep the materials used for laboratory works only on these stands. 6. The information received from ten sputniks helped the scientists to solve the problem of the long-distance communication.

 

Задание III. Определите форму и функцию инфинитива в предложении; предложения переведите:

1. These substances are said to form an alloy. 2. The engineer saw the voltage increase rapidly. 3. The sky was seen to be darkening. 4. The problem to be solved is difficult. 5. The device to be tested will arrive to the plant tomorrow. 6. Plastics are supposed to be used instead of metals in many cases.

 

Задание IV. Переведите письменно текст, пользуясь словарем:

Blast Furnace Plants

In blast furnaces, high-temperature materials are used typically for the recuperators employed for preheating the blast air by means of the furnace gas, the charging mechanism for pulverized stock charged into the furnace, the circulation fans, gas piping, etc. The coking ovens used for producing the blast furnace coke are also equipped with recuperators for recovering heat from the hot gases. High-temperature steels may also be necessary for the discharge doors and collecting grids of the coking ovens, which are subjected to high temperatures and abrupt temperature changes in conjunction with water cooling.

The temperature in the recuperators may vary from 1150°C at the hot-gas inlet end, down to the ambient outdoor temperature at the combustion air intake. Since both the coking oven gas and the blast furnace gas contain sulphur, ferritic chromium steels have commonly been used, which has led to problems of creep deformation in the hottest zones. Since both 153 MA and 253 MA steels have much higher creep strength than ferritic steels, they are better suited to this application. They also have better resistance to sulphur-rich gases than comparable high-temperature steels and nickel-base alloys.

Avesta 253 MA steel has also been successfully used in expansion bellows for hot gases. Expansion bellows for recuperator installations used to be made of type AISI 321 and 304 steels, but after change-over to 253 MA steel, their working life increased from 3-6 months to several years.

 

 

Вариант № 3

Задание I. Определите в следующих предложениях форму и функцию герундия; переведите предложения на русский язык:

1. At last our research workers succeeded in getting good results. 2. Heating the wire from 0 degree to 100 degrees increases its resistance approximately by 40%. 3. The teacher insists on carrying out this experiment in our laboratory. 4. The new installation will rarely need renewing. 5. The process of overcoming the attractive forces between the molecules of a substance is called melting. 6. In the process of boiling heat is constantly added to the liquid. 7. After melting, the average speed of the molecules remains the same as before.

 

Задание II. Определите функцию и форму причастия в предложении; предложения переведите:

1. The rate of the reaction depends on the nature of the substance involved. 2. A piece of iron placed in the container with an acid can diminish in mass. 3. The substance begins to melt if heated to a sufficient temperature. 4. With the help of a computer, the group solved the problem using only a hundred part of the time necessary for solving it without any electronic devices. 5. Having investigated all the properties, developers stated that these gases were harmful. 6. The analysis made last week added a lot of new information to what we knew about the compound.

 

Задание III. Определите форму и функцию инфинитива в предложении; предложения переведите:

1. As a result of many experiments, chemists have been able to determine the relative weights of different elements. 2. Observations were made partially in order to determine if there was any relation between these two elements. 3. The In order to liquefy a gas at a temperature below its critical, it is practically necessary only to compress the gas. 4. The research workers carried on hard work to find out all the missing properties of the substance. 5. To understand this phenomenon is to understand the structure of atoms. 6. The amount of water was not enough to carry out the desired experiment.

 

Задание IV. Переведите письменно текст, пользуясь металлургическим словарем:

Rolling Mills

Furnaces for heating ingots or billets before rolling or forging are usually box-type or continuous furnaces. Gas or oil burners or electric resistance elements are used for heating. In such furnaces, the components that are subjected to high temperature stresses are principally the rollers, slide-rails or walking beams used for moving the material through the furnace. The framework and edge reinforcements for the charging and discharging doors are also subjected to high temperatures.

Due to its high creep strength, Avesta type 253 MA steel has proved to be an excellent material for such components. Numerous installations at rolling mills in several countries have yielded very favourable results.

Heat Treatment Furnaces

Steelworks, metal works and special hardening shops carry out heat treatment to give various products the required properties. Many different types of furnaces with different atmospheres and temperature cycles are used for this purpose. If heat treatment requires a controlled furnace atmosphere - an inert gas, an active gas or vacuum-gas - tight inner casing is used for the furnace. This is known as a muffle or retort which is made of high-temperature steel or nickel alloy. The retort is actually a pressure vessel and is thus intended for higher gas pressures than a muffle.

 

Вариант № 4

Задание I. Определите в следующих предложениях форму и функцию герундия; переведите предложения на русский язык:

1. Adding heat to a substance does not always cause a rise in its temperature. 2. We can produce heat by burning oil, gas or any other fuel. 3. Have you any objections to introducing a new catalyst? 4. This well-known company began manufacturing synthetic catalysts in 1942. 5. They could not afford carrying out another unsuccessful experiment. 6. Experienced laboratory assistants preferred heating the mixture for two days. 7. We faced the problem of finding a structure for those hydroxides.

 

Задание II. Определите функцию и форму причастия в предложении; предложения переведите:

1. Having been arranged by Mendeleyev in the table, the elements showed their periodic dependence upon the atomic weights. 2. Having separated nitrogen from other gases, researchers obtained it in nearly pure condition. 3. Salt is one of the most common minerals used in everyday life. 4. The element produced by this method behaved like an alkali-metal. 5. The number of scientific papers dealing with electro-oxidation of the element is very limited. 6. Having learned the weight of hydrogen and oxygen, the laboratory assistants determined the ratio of two elements.

Задание III. Определите форму и функцию инфинитива в предложении; предложения переведите:

1. We have come to the blast-furnace shop to observe the work of a continuous casting machine. 2. The scientist’s assistant was the last to come to the laboratory to carry a variety of additional tests. 3. The researchers’ purpose was to obtain a new alloy with the properties of copper and silver. 4. The alloy to be used for this purpose will contain little iron. 5. The machinery to be installed in the blast-furnace shop is provided with automatic devices. 6. Limestone is used in the blast-furnace process to combine with the impurities in the ore.

 

Задание IV. Переведите письменно текст, пользуясь металлургическим словарем.

Bell-type Furnaces

The bell-type furnace consists of a vertical cylindrical or rectangular shell, with a domed end welded to the top. The shell or “bell” has refractory insulation and is placed over the muffle. It thus encloses the material to be heat treated in a controlled furnace atmosphere. Heating is carried out by gas or oil burners, by electric resistance elements or by radiant tubes between the bell and the muffle. A fan on the underside of the muffle circulates the hot gas to ensure a uniform temperature throughout the furnace. The material to be heat treated may be coils of strip, wire rod, bar or small parts. The material is placed on a base above a grid known as the diffuser which helps circulate the gas in the muffle.

The problems usually arising are that the muffle is distorted adjacent to the burner zones due to non-uniform temperature or that the entire bottom part of the muffle deforms due to creep. The base, diffuser and fan impeller may also distort as a result of the high temperatures and mechanical stresses.

The material used for the muffle depends on the maximum service temperature and the atmosphere in the furnace. Avesta 153 MA and 253 MA steels are suitable alternatives to conventional high-temperature steels, such as Avesta 23-13 (309S), 25-20 (310S) or 20-12Si. Avesta 153 MA and 253 MA steels have better creep strength and structure stability (reduced risk of brittleness). Furnace components made of these materials are therefore easier to repair and require less maintenance. Type 253 MA steel should be employed for temperatures above 850°C. If there is risk of carbon or nitrogen pick-up, more highly alloyed nickel alloys such as 353 MA will be more suitable.

Вариант № 5

Задание I. Определите в следующих предложениях форму и функцию герундия; переведите предложения на русский язык:

1. There are several ways of handling this difficulty. 2. This is a new device for measuring blood pressure. 3. A discussion on solving the problem of metal shortage was under way. 4. When a liquid starts boiling at a certain temperature and under a given pressure, the heat causes the liquid to vaporize. 5. The rate of evaporation also depends on evaporating surface. 6. After purifying the water laboratory assistants could use it for drinking.7. Because of the reaction with water sodium must be protected from the moisture of the air by being kept under kerosene.

 

Задание II. Определите функцию и форму причастия в предложении; предложения переведите:

1. Hydrogen reacts with oxides of a number of metals forming water and free metal. 2. Water used in steam boilers, should be free from substances which cause corrosion. 3. Using isotopes it is possible to make the control of pig-iron and steel production process cheaper. 4. The device designed by the group of engineers meets all the customers’ requirements. 5. The metric system used in CIS differed from a non-metric system used in the USA. 6. The achieved speed was 130 km. p. h.

 

Задание III. Определите форму и функцию инфинитива в предложении; предложения переведите:

1. To involve computational problems is difficult without some practice in solving ordinary differential equations. 2. The data to be analysed involve knowledge of numerical methods. 3. To understand many complicated phenomena in terms of few simple principles physicists develop theories. 4. The solid to be used is highly soluble in water. 5. The object of the experiment is to test the results obtained. 6. The research group didn’t know the exact temperature of the alloy produced, so it must be going on with the measurements.

 

Задание IV. Переведите письменно текст, пользуясь металлургическим словарем:

Вариант № 6

 

Задание I. Определите в следующих предложениях форму и функцию герундия; переведите предложения на русский язык:

1. The host cell stops dividing. 2. They have put off discussing the problem of environmental protection. 3. I like studying physics and chemistry. 4. Without finding out the nature of the new compound the scientist cannot continue his experiments. 5. In melting the ice keeps the same temperature. 6. The rule against visitors entering the laboratory at the time of the experiment is strict. 7. This apparatus is used for recording the temperature.

 

Задание II. Определите функцию и форму причастия в предложении; предложения переведите:

1. Using isotopes in measuring the diffusion of metals we got much more accurate data. 2. Being used in measuring the diffusion of metals, isotopes gave much more accurate data. 3. Scientists have found a simple way to produce a laser beam of any colour and frequency desired. 4. Heating metals, we increase their conductivity. 5. Having studied the properties of this alloy, the scientist arrived at the conclusion that it might be used in industry. 6. Being heated, metals become more conductive.

 

Задание III. Определите форму и функцию инфинитива в предложении; предложения переведите:

1. The object of the experiment is to test the results obtained and research workers are to provide the necessary equipment. 2. One of the most common methods of dissolving precipitates is their chemical conversion into soluble products. 3. In writing formulas, the symbol for the positive element is written first, as in NaCl. 4. We know all bodies to consist of atoms. 5. After being recrystallized from ethyl alcohol the solid began melting. 6. Physics is the science to be concerned with in all other natural sciences.

 

Задание IV. Переведите письменно текст, пользуясь металлургическим словарем:

Вариант № 7

 

Задание I. Определите в следующих предложениях форму и функцию герундия; переведите предложения на русский язык:

1. You can separate salts from the liquid by cooling the solution. 2. By rubbing a glass rod with a piece of silk you develop difference of potentials on the surface of the rod. 3. When a boiling liquid is open to the atmosphere the vapour escapes into the air very quickly. 4. Great changes are produced by increasing temperature. 5. Loading a long rod causes changes in its form. 6. The group of research workers preferred heating the mixture for two days to get more accurate results. 7. The resistivity of a pure metal is increased by heating and reduced by cooking.

 

Задание II. Определите функцию и форму причастия в предложении; предложения переведите:

1. The flask containing acid was placed in the cooling mixture for cooling it down. 2. After drying, the product has changed its properties. 3. If concentrated hydrochloric acid is added to a solution of cupric chloride, the green solution turns brown owing to the formation of the complex union. 4. The lighted screen forms an acute angle-with the surface of the demonstration desk. 5. Having determined the composition of the substance, the scientists compared it with some other substances. 6. In all chemical reactions the weight of the reacting substances is equal to the weight of the products obtained.

 

Задание III. Определите форму и функцию инфинитива в предложении; предложения переведите:

1. Cosmic rays are intense enough to penetrate to the bottom of lakes 1,700 feet deep. 2. Newton was the first to realize elliptical paths of comets. 2. On account of the resistance of tin to the action of air and water, it is used to coat other metals 4. The solid to be used is highly soluble in water. 5. The laboratory assistant knew the substance too well not to believe the results of the experiment. 6. The report to be made by a famous researcher deals with very important problems in the field of atoms.

Задание IV. Переведите письменно текст, пользуясь металлургическим словарем:

Furnaces

The principle purpose of the steelmaking furnace is to remove most of the carbon from pig iron. Then a measured amount of carbon is added to the molten steel to give it the desired properties. Steel scrap is also utilized and other elements are added to improve the properties of the steel. A new obsolete furnace, the Bessemer converter, made possible the high tonnage production of steel in the mid-nineteenth century. Great ships, railroads, bridges, and large buildings were built as a result of this new source of steel being available. However, many of the impurities remained in the steel and, since a blast of air was used to burn out the carbon, the nitrogen in the atmosphere also become an impurity that weakened the steel.

The three modern processes and furnaces used to produce steel are basic oxygen, open hearth, and electric. These furnaces are not used interchangeably. Each system requires different energy sources and different sources of raw materials. The kind of facility is therefore chosen for economic reasons and the availability of raw materials and energy sources.

The basic oxygen furnace is designed to produce a high quality steel in a relatively short time, about one 200 to 300 ton heat (a single batch) over an hour as compared to the 100 to 375 tons per heat in 5 to 8 hours of the open hearth process. The principle raw material used in the basic oxygen furnace is molten pig iron from the blast furnace.

Вариант № 8

Задание I. Определите в следующих предложениях форму и функцию герундия; переведите предложения на русский язык:

1. The researcher insisted on our carrying out the important experiment in a well-equipped laboratory. 2. Metals cannot he dissolved without being changed into new substances. 3. After melting, the average speed of the molecules remains the same as before but the molecules are now free of each other. 4. The head of the laboratory was sure of his assistants being at work. 5. The process of overcoming the attractive forces between the molecules of a substance is called melting. 6. The only difference between waves transmitting heat radiation and radio waves is the difference in the wave length. 7. Every liquid can have a definite vapour pressure, this pressure increasing with rising temperature.

 







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